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SULIT 4541 Chemistry Marking Scheme Mei 2008 BA A!IA" S#$%LA $#M#"T#&IA" '#LA(A&A" MALA)SIA ********************************************** '#'#&I$SAA" '#&T#"!

A A" TA U" 2008

4541/1/2/3

+%&M 5 C #MIST&) MA&$I"! SC #M# +%& 'A'#& 1, 2 A"- 'A'#& 3

Peraturan pemarkahan ini mengandungi halaman bercetak.

'A'#& 1 1 2 3 4 5 . / 8 0 10 11 12 13 14 15 1. 1/ 18 10 20 B C B C D A B A D D D C A A C B C C C C 21 22 23 24 25 2. 2/ 28 20 30 31 32 33 34 35 3. 3/ 38 30 40 D D B A C A D A C A A B D A C A D B B D 41 42 43 44 45 4. 4/ 48 40 50 D B D C B A B D C B

'A'#& 21S#CTI%" A "23 1 a G Has stable / ctet electr n arrangement//! "alence electr n b (i) (ii) c d e (i) (ii) 2A # 2H2$ 2A$H # H2 %se a small pieces//use a & rcep// use a g G'('D' A')'* Has same "alence electr n// "alence electr n is 1 D(2 r+ (2D ,can dra- the diagram & electr n arrangement c rrectl./ 0 C rrect structure & at ms 0 C rrect rati (iii) 2 a b(i) (ii) c T%TAL 21 P3+ s lid # li4uid 56+ li4uid Heat energ. abs rbed is used t r+ i n/at m (1#1) d e (i) (ii) (iii) 2he particles / m lecules m "e &aster 7 dine/72//napthalene/C18H! C pper/ Cu 7 n Di&&usi n 3 a (i) T%TAL 9H2 # :2 2:H9 9 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 "erc me the & rces & attracti n bet-een particles "erc me the interm lecular & rces // Heat is abs rbed t & at ms11+2 2 1 10 1 1 1 1 1 Has (neutral ) m lecule gle &45ric Mark 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(ii) b (i) (ii) (iii) c (i) (ii)

( (;tract &r m ) air :eutrali<ati n H26$=# 2:H9 (:H=)26$= //H26$=# 2:H=$H (:H=)26$= # H2$ >ertili<er 2in

1 1 1 1 1

Copper atom

Tin atom

Copper atom

61718 d 7n pure c pper the la.er & at m are easil. slide "er each ther -hen e;ternal & rce is applied n them. 2he di&&erent si<e & & reign at ms in alll . are pre"ent the la.ers & at m &r m slide each ther -hen e;ternal & rce is applied. 4 a T%TAL 1 Diagram & set up & apparatus c mplete and &uncti nal 2 *abel (An de) ? impure c pper and (cath de )? pure c pper 9 ( (lectr l.te) ? c pper (77) sulphate / c pper (77) chl ride // c pper (77) nitrate s luti n a+ chemical & rmula b(i) 1 bec me thinner // decrease in mass 2 bec me thicker // increase in mass (ii) 1 ( 5emain )unchanged 2 :umber & Cu2# i ns pr duced at an de same as number & c pper at ms pr duced at cath de // the rate & & rmati n & Cu2# i ns at the an de is the same as the rate & discharge & Cu2# at cath de. = 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 1

(An de )+Cu Cu2# # 2e c (i) (ii) d 5 a b (Cath de )+ Cu2# # 2e Cu (lectr plating & metals/ (;tracti n & reacti"e metals T%TAL 2H2$2 $2 # 2H2$

1 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

:umber & m le & H2$2 1 28 ; 2/18881 8.8= 2 m l & H2$2 pr duce 1 m l & $2 // :umber & m le & $2 1 8.8=/2 1 8.82 @ lume' $2 1 8.2 ; 2=dm9 1 =.! dm9

c 6i8 6ii8

5ate & reacti n in e;periment 77 is higher than e;periment 7 2he c ncentrati n/number & m lecule per unit " lume & h.dr gen per ;ide in 77 is higher 2he &re4uenc. & c llisi n bet-een H2$2 m lecule is higher 2he &re4uenc. & e&&ecti"e c llisi n is higher @ lume & gas/cm9
77

77

2ime(s) *abel A a;es and B a;es C rrect cur"e and label 7 and 77 T%TAL . a A c mp und that c ntain element & carb n and deri"e &r m li"ing rganisms.

1 1 10

5 6i8 6ii8 6iii8 c 6i8 6ii8 6iii8 9 6i8 6ii8 6iii8

C2H= ethene d uble b nd bet-een carb n at ms (a+ C1C ) Acidi&ied p tassium manganat (@77) // Acidi&ied p tassium dicr mate (@7) $;idati n Purple t c l urless // range t green C2H= # H2$ C2HC$H Alc h l 2emperature 988 C // Pressure D8 atm sphere // c ncentrated ph sph ric acid T%TAL

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10

S#CTI%" B

"23 / a 6i8

&45ric C mp und that & rm -hen n n metal at m gain/recei"e/accept electr n that release/l se/d nate b. metal at m t achie"e stable / ctet/duplet electr n arrangemen 6ii8 C mp und that & rm bet-een n n metal at m b. sharing their "alence electr n t achie"e arrangement 5 Bet-een P and 3 At m B has 1 "alence electr n At m B l ses/d nates/trans&ers 1 electr ns t & rm B i n //
#

Mark

stable/ ctet /duplet electr n

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

B B# # e0 and attain stable ctet electr n arrangement At m A has E "alence electr ns At m gains/recei"es/accept 1 electr n t & rmA i n// A # e0A0 attain the stable / ctet electr n arrangement 2he tpp sitel.0charged i ns// the B# and A0 i n are
0

b nded t gether b. a str ng electr static & rce 2 & rm a i nic c mp und -ith the & rmula BA// diagramn

Fa; E 6ii8 Bet-een A and G At m G has = "alence electr ns and at m A has 1 "alence electr ns $ne at m G c ntributes = electr ns and (each) at m A c ntributes ne electr n & r sharing . At m G shared = pairs & electr n -ith = at ms A E t attain a ctet /stable electr n arrangement respecti"el. 1 1 1 1 1

(mpirical & rmula0 +2rm4:a sh -s simplest rati element in the c mp und F lecular & rmula0 +2rm4:a sh -s actual number each element in the c mp und A

& at ms & each 1 & at ms & 1

F lecular > rmula 1 ( (mpirical & rmula )n 1 ( CH2 )n G 5elati"e F lecular Fass ( CH2 )n A 1 E8 A 12n # 2n1 E8 1=n1E8 n1C A F lecular > rmula C CH18 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

c6i8

1. Fetal G is cleaned using sand paper 2. A crucible and its lid are -eighed and the mass is rec ded 9. Fetal G is palced in the crucible. 2he crucible'lid and its c ntent is -eighed and the mass is rec rded. =. 2he crucible -ith its c ntent is heated str2ng:y -ith ut lid. C. Hhen metal G start burn' the crucible is c "ered b. its lid D. the c "ered is raise a little at inter"als E. Hhen there is n m re reacti n' the lid is rem "ed and the crucible is heated str ngl. & r a &e- minutes. !. C l the crucible and -eigh the crucible'its lid and its C ntent and rec rd the mass. I. 2he pr cess & heating' c ling and -eighing is repeated until c nstant is btained. 18. (Precauti n step )J Cl se the crucible immediatel. t pre"ent l ss & 1

(lement Fass(g) m l 6implest rati

G 1.98 1.98/DC18.82 1

$ 1 8.92 8.92/1D18.82 1 1 1 1 1 20

(mpirical > rmula G$ 2$2A*

'A'#&2 ;S#CTI%" C "2 0 a 5ubric 6ample ans-er + Gn # H:$9 Gn(:$9)2 # H2$ Mark

GnC$9 # H:$9 Gn(:$9)2 # H2$ # C$2 Gn$ # H:$9 Gn(:$9)2 # H2$ An. t5 6i8 6ii8 c6i8 Fethan ic acid partial i ni<es in -ater pr duce l - c ncentrati n & h.dr gen i n Glacial ethan ic acid has (neutral) m lecule Fethan ic acid a4ue us i ni<es in -ater t pr duce &ree m "ing i n 2 1 1 1 1 1

Pr cedure + 1 188 cm9 & 8.1 m ldm09 sulphuric acid is p ured int a beaker and heated sl -l.. 2 <inc carb nate is added int the sulphuric acid until in e;cess/n l nger diss l"es. 9 6tir the s luti n and &iltered. = 2he &iltrate is p ured int an e"ap rating dish and heat until saturated C 2he h t saturated salt s luti n is all -ed t c l D 2he cr.stals & rmed are &iltered ut' rinsed -ith distilled -ater E dried bet-een sheets & &ilter paper. 1 1 1 1 1

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6ii8 GnC$9 # H26$= Gn6$= # H2$ # C$2 :umber & m le ' H26$= 1 8.1( 188 )/1888 1 8.81 1 m l & H26$= pr duce 1 m l & Gn6$= F le & Gn6$= 1 8.81 Fass & Gn6$= 1 8.81 B 1D1 9 6ample ans-er + 1 amm nium chl ride as a &ertili<er 2 c pper (77) sulphate as a pesticide 9 h.drated calcium sulphate t make plaster casts = s dium chl ride & d additi"e An. 2 suitable an-ers(1#1) T%TAL 10a 6i8 6ii8 6iii8 catal.st esteri&icati n
CH3COOH + C3H7OH CH3COOC3H7 + H2O Correct reactant Correct product

1 1 1 1

1 1D.1 g 1 1

20 1 1 1 1

6i<8

(th.l pr pan ate 6-eet smell/&ruit. smell/&ragrant smell //ins luble in -ater/s luble in rganic s l"ent //c l urless //less dense than -ater 6<8 an. t- pr perties (1#1)

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6i8 6ii8 2he presence & cr ss0linkage & sulphur at ms bet-een the rubber m lecule Hhen "ulcani<ed rubber is stretched and release' the cr ss0 linkage -ill pull the chain back t their riginal arrangement Diagram 7mpr "es the elasticit. and strength & the rubber / make "ulcani<ed rubbers m re resistant t heat / rganic s l"ent 1 1 1 1 1 Bacteria -ill pr duce lactic acid/H i ns -hich neutrali<e negati"es charge & the pr tein membrane/ rubber m lecules 2he rubber m lecules -ill be c llide -ith each ther and cause pr tein membrane br ken 5ubber p l.mer are released and lump t gether H.dr ;ide i ns/$H0 &r m amm nia s luti n -ill neutralise H# pr duced b. acid 2he pr tein membrane remains negati"el. charged 2he rubber particles repel each thers/ the rubber p l.mers cann t c mbine and c agulate 1 1
#

1 1 1

r 5esistant t ;idati n + 1 1 1 1 ;idati n 20

2he presence & cr ss0linkage & sulphur at ms bet-een the rubber m lecule Diagram C1C in "ulcani<ed rubber is less than C1C in the un"ulcani<ed rubber' s "ulcani<e rubber is m re resistant t

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2$2A* PAP(5 9 1 (a) KK8C89 ? Feasuring and using numbers (BP*A:A27$: [Able to write all the times with units accurately] 6uggested ans-er+ t1 CC.8 s' t2 48.0 s , t3 42.0 s , t4 37.0 s , t5 33.0 s [Able to record all the times accurately but without units no decimal !lace] t1 CC.8 ' t2 =!.8 ' t9 =2.8 ' t= 9E.8 ' tC 99.8 // // t1 CC s ' t2 =!.8 s ' t9 =2 s' t= 9Es' tC 99s [Able to write at least 3 readin"s o# the times accurately] $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse 2 6C$5( 9

1 8 6C$5( 9

1 (b) KK8C810 $bser"ati n (BP*A:A27$: [Able to state the colour o# sul!hur and the rate o# it is #ormed] 6uggested ans-er+ Pale / light .ell - precipitate is sl -l. & rmed [Able to state the colour o# sul!hur] Pale / light .ell - precipitate is & rmed. [Able to state the #ormation o# !reci!itate] A precipitate is & rmed. $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse 1 (c) KK8C8D ? C mmunicating (BP*A:A27$: [Able to construct a table correctly containin" three labeled columns with correct units and record all the time and 1 time accurately ] 6uggested ans-er+
2emperature ' C 2ime ' s 1 / time ' s01
98 CC.8 8.81! 9C =!.8 8.821 =8 =2.8 8.82= =C 9E.8 8.82E C8 99.8 8.898

2 1 8 6C$5(

[Able to construct a table correctly containin" three labeled columns with correct units and record all the time and 1 time but not accurately] [Able to write at least 3 readin"s o# the times accurately] $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse

2 1 8

19

1 (d) (i) KK8C8D C mmunicating (BP*A:A27$: [Able to draw a "ra!h accurately that consists o# the #ollowin" as!ects] 6uggested ans-er+ 1. B th a;es labeled and units ( A a;is 0 temperature ' B a;is ? 1/ time ) 2. All p ints trans&erred c rrectl. 9. %ni& rm scale' graph si<e c "ers at least hal& & the graph paper. =. 6traight line/ best &its dra-n [Able to draw a "ra!h that consists o# the #ollowin" as!ects] 1. B th a;es labeled / units ( A a;is 0 temperature ' B a;is ? 1/ time ) 2. At least three p ints trans&erred c rrectl. 9. %ni& rm scale' graph si<e c "ers at least hal& & the graph paper. =. 6traight line/ best &its dra-n [Able to draw a "ra!h that consists o# the #ollowin" as!ects] 1. B th a;es labeled and units ( A a;is 0 temperature ' B a;is ? 1/ time ) 2. Dra- a line $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse 1(d)(ii) KK8C8I ? 2 de&ine $perati nall. (BP*A:A27$: [Able to inter!ret the relationshi! between the rate o# reaction and the tem!erature o# sodium thiosul!hate solution #rom "ra!h accurately] 6uggested ans-er+ 2he rate & reacti n is directl. pr p rti nal t the temperature & s dium thi sulphate s luti n // As the temperature & s dium thi sulphate increases the rate & reacti n increases. [Able to inter!ret the relationshi! between the rate o# reaction and the tem!erature o# sodium thiosul!hate solution #rom "ra!h ] 2he rate & reacti n is pr p rti nal t the temperature // the temperature is pr p rti nal t the rate & reacti n // the rate & reacti n increases -hen the temperature increases. [Able to state an idea o# hy!othesis 2he temperature a&&ects the rate & reacti n. $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse

6C$5( 9

8 6C$5( 9

1 8

1=

2emperature / C

50

45

40

35

30 X 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030

1/time ' s01

1C

1(e) KK8C18 0 6tate "ariables (BP*A:A27$: [Able to state three %ariables and three action to be ta&en] 6uggested ans-er+ @ariable Fanipulated+ 2emperature Acti n t be taken Heat the s dium thi sulphate s luti n at di&&erent temperature // %se di&&erent temperature. 5ec rd the time taken & r LBM mark t disappear &r m "ie-. 6C$5(

5esp nding+ 5ate & reacti n / time taken & r LBM marks t disappear &r m "ie-. C ntr lled + %se the same c ncentrati n and C ncentrati n and " lume & H26$=' " lume & H26$= /s dium c ncentrati n and " lume & s dium thi sulphate s luti n // %se same thi sulphate s luti n' si<e & c nical si<e c nical &lask. &lask. [Able to state any two %ariables and any two action to be ta&en] [Able to state any one %ariables and any one action to be ta&en] $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse 2 (a) KK8C8D C mmunicating (BP*A7:A27$: [Able to write the correct o%erall ionic e'uation] 6uggested ans-er+ Fg # Cu2# Fg2# # Cu Fg # Cu6$= Fg6$= # Cu Fg Fg2# # 2e // Cu2# # 2e Cu $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse 2(a)(i) KK 8C8= ? Faking in&erence (BP*A:A27$: [Able to state the correct in#erence] 6uggested ans-er+

2 1 8 6C$5( 9

2 1 8

6C$5( 9

Fagnesium at m releases/d nate/l ses electr ns t pr duce magnesium i n // Fagnesium is c rr de. Fagnesium bec mes thinner // mass & magnesium decreases Fagnesium diss l"es $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse

2 1 8

1D

2(b) KK 8C8C 0 Predicting (BP*A:A27$: [Able to state the %olta"e %alue] 8.DC @ 8.D9 ? 8.D= @ // 8.DD ? 8.DE @ N 8.D= @ // O 8.DE @ $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse 2(c)KK 8C8! ? 7nterpreting Data (BP*A:A27$: [Able to arran"e the !osition o# all metals in an ascending order based on tendency to release electrons correctly] C pper O *ead O 7r n O Ginc O Fagnesium [Able to arran"e the !osition o# all metals in descending order based on tendency to release electrons] Fagnesium O Ginc O 7r n O *ead O c pper [Able to arran"e the !osition o# at least #our metals in ascendin" order based on tendency to release electrons correctly] $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse 2(d) KK8C8I ? $perati nal de&initi n (BP*A:A27$: [Able to state the correct and com!lete o!erational de#inition] 6uggested ans-er+ 2he &urther the metal is =r2m c2>>er in the electr chemical series' the greater is their " ltage reading. // [Able to "i%e incom!lete relationshi!] 6uggested ans-er+ 2he &urther apart the metal is in the electr chemical series' the greater the p tential di&&erence / " ltage reading. [Able to state an idea] 6uggested ans-er+ 2he p siti n & metal in&luence the " ltage reading // 2.pe & metal in&luence the " ltage reading. $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse 8 1 2 6C$5( 9 2 1 8 6C$5( 9

1 8

6C$5( 9

1E

9.(a) KK8C1821 ? 6tatement & pr blem (BP*A:A27$: [Able to ma&e a suitable statement o# !roblem] 6uggested ans-er+ H - t di&&erentiate bet-een magnesium nitrate s luti n and calcium nitrate s luti n // H - t di&&erentiate bet-een magnesium i n and calcium i n [Able to ma&e a suitable aim] 6uggested ans-er+ 2 di&&erentiate the presence & magnesium i n and calcium i n b. using a4ue us amm nia s luti n. [Able to state an idea o# statement o# !roblem or aim] $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse 9(b) KK8C1282 ? 6tating h.p thesis (BP*A:A27$: [Able to state the relationshi! between mani!ulated %ariable and res!ondin" %ariable correctly] 6uggested ans-er+ 7& the additi n & a4ue us amm nia s luti n & rms -hite precipitate -hich is ins luble in e;cess amm nia a4ue us s luti n' then the s luti n tested is magnesium nitrate. // 7& a4ue us amm nia s luti n is added and n change ccur then the s luti n tested is calcium nitrate. [Able to state the relationshi! between mani!ulated %ariable and res!ondin" %ariable] [Able to state an idea o# the hy!othesis] $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse 9 (c) KK8C1282 ? 6tating "ariables (BP*A:A27$: [Able to state all the three %ariables correctly] 6uggested ans-er+ Fanipulated "ariable + magnesium nitrate and calcium nitrate // Fg2# and Ca2# 5esp nding "ariable+ & rmati n & -hite precipitate C ntr lled "ariable + a4ue us amm nia s luti n [Able to state any two o# the %ariables correctly] [Able to state one o# the %ariables correctly or state idea re"ardin" %ariable] $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse 1!

6C$5( 9

1 8 6C$5( 9

2 1 8

6C$5(

9(d) KK8C128C ? *ist & substances and apparatus (BP*A:A27$: [Able to state the list o# substances and a!!aratus correctly and com!letely] 6uggested ans-er+ 2est tube' dr pper' test tube rack 8.C m l dm09 magnesium nitrate s luti n' 8.C m l dm09 calcium nitrate s luti n' a4ue us amm nia s luti n. [Able to state the list o# substances and a!!aratus correctly but not com!letely] 6uggested ans-er+ 2est tube 8.C m l dm09 magnesium nitrate s luti n' 8.C m l dm09 calcium nitrate s luti n' a4ue us amm nia s luti n. [Able to state an idea about the list o# substances and a!!aratus] 6uggested ans-er+ 2est tube magnesium nitrate' calcium nitrate $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse 9(e) KK8C128= ? 2echni4ue /Precedure (BP*A:A27$: [Able to state a com!lete e(!erimental !rocedure] 6uggested ans-er+ 1. 2 cm9 & s luti n A is p ured int a test tube. 2. A &e- dr ps & a4ue us amm nia s luti n are added int the test tube using a dr pper and the test tube is shaken -ell. 9. 7& the precipitate is & rmed' a4ue us amm nia s luti n is added c ntinu usl. until n &urther change ccurred / until e;cess =. 2he mi;ture is shaken -ell. C. 2he changes ccur is rec rded in a table. D. 6teps 1 t = are repeated using s luti n B. [Able to state a com!lete e(!erimental !rocedure] 1'2'9'='C [Able to state a com!lete e(!erimental !rocedure] 1'2'9'C $o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse

6C$5( 9

6C$5( 9

2 1 8

1I

9(&) 2abulati n & data (BP*A:A27$: [Able to e(hibit the tabulation o# data correctly ] 5eagent A4ue us amm nia s luti n [Able to e(hibit the tabulation o# data less accurately ] 5eagent A4ue us amm nia s luti n 2est tube /6 luti n A 2est tube/6 luti n B $bser"ati n 2est tube/6 luti n A 2est tube/6 luti n B 9 2 6C$5(

[Able state an idea about the tabulation o# data]

$o res!onse "i%en wron" res!onse

#"- %+ MA&$I"! SC #M#

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