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Journal of Transnational Management, 15:229–245, 2010 Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1547-5778 print=1547

-5786 online DOI: 10.1080/15475778.2010.504497

The Reactions of Employees Toward the Implementation of Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS) as a Planned Change Program: A Case Study in Malaysia
King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

University of Nicosia, Nicosia, Cyprus

The main purpose of this research is to examine the main factors that contributed to the acceptance of employees toward the new HRIS implemented in the Malaysian Airlines System (MAS). The emphasis is on data collection based on employee perception. The study did not attempt to establish cause and effect analysis, but focused exclusively on determining the relationship between 10 selected variables and employees’ acceptance of a planned change program. The findings may help managers to direct efforts toward the variables that influence employees’ acceptance, which will increase probability of employee participation, which, in turn, will lead to the success of the implementation process of the change program. A questionnaire was developed and administered with 250 employees. The findings clearly indicated that top management involvement and organizational commitment appeared as the two largest coefficients for the impact on the acceptance level of employees toward the planned change effort. Based on the findings some managerial implications and future research agenda were recommended. Hence, research in future should include the causality framework in order to establish more convincing findings.

Received January 2010; revised May 2010; accepted June 2010. Address correspondence to Mat Zin Razali, Department of Management & Marketing, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: matali@ 229

management involvement. this resistance is expressed through reduction of output. In contrast. Z Razali and D. strategic planning. and resistance in order to reach the positive stages involving recovery. disengagement. Its main base is Kuala Lumpur . forecasting HRM needs. 2002). operating scheduled services to more than 100 destinations worldwide. increasing productivity. and ultimately commitment. it may be useful to consider stage models that describe the process by which individuals experience change in the workplace (Bridges. Employees react to change in a variety of ways. 2003). In short. Hussein. An HRIS provides current and accurate data for purposes of control and decision making. hostility and even turnover (Bridges. Some vehemently resist the change and continue to do so months and even years after its implementation. 2007). Oftentimes. planned change Information technology has. HRIS can be a potent weapon for lowering administrative costs. acceptance. a critical question for practitioners and researchers alike is: What are the factors in change situation which produce this movement from resistance to the acceptance of such particular change initiative? BACKGROUND OF HUMAN RESOURCES INFORMATION SYSTEM (HRIS) IN MALAYSIA AIRLINES (MAS) Malaysia Airlines (MAS) is the national airline of Malaysia. others seem to exert extra effort to achieve the objectives of the change and even promote the value of the change to those both inside and outside of the organization (Herscovitch & Meyer. and Cornelius (2007) claimed that HRIS is vital for providing a data and communications platform that helps HRM link and leverage the organization’s human capital to achieve competitive advantage. human resources management. quarrelling. and enhancing services.230 M. 1991). of course. career and promotion planning. It also operates domestic network and charter services. Perhaps the most central use of technology in HRM is an organization’s Human Resources Information System (HRIS) (Bohlander & Snell. changed the face of human resources management (HRM) throughout the world. and evaluating human resources policies and practices. One assumption of the phase models is that an individual must work through the negative stages characterized by feelings of denial. it moves beyond simply storing and retrieving information but also includes broader applications such as producing reports. Vrontis KEYWORDS human resources information system. organizational commitment. anxiety. loss. Therefore. In this sense. exploration. anger. Wallace. speeding response time. improving decision making. To understand such differences.

The plan in the near future is to design the HRIS. The company needed an automated solution that would not only improve the overall training and hiring process but also improve the quality of applicants seen by the hiring managers. Penang International Airport. It is one of only five airlines in the world to have been awarded a five-star rating by Skytrax.malaysiaairlines. and Kuching International Airport. hiring new employees is conducted via training classes where as many as 50 new hires come aboard at one time. and Singapore Airlines. employee training and development. As the company continued to grow and each new advertisement generated more than 400 resumes. flight attendants. Since its inception the company had experienced more consistent growth both in route and fleet expansion and in the number of employees (http://www. Ninety percent of the company’s employees are located on the front lines in various positions including customer service agents. performance appraisal. Qatar Airways. which not only focus on recruitment activities. benefits administration. and pilots. Too much time was spent evaluating nonqualified candidates and not enough time was allocated for assessing the applicants’ skills and talents. and safety enhancements to their customers. employee relations. limiting their ability to effectively evaluate potential employees. Due to the volume of resumes received by HR Department. As is typical in the airline industry. Knowledge required for front line positions is specialized and industry requirements necessitate successful completion of the training class prior to an actual job offer. . In the past. Cathay Pacific. with hubs at Kota Kinabalu International Airport. delivering a superior level of customer service. As part of its Business Turnaround Plan that was launched in 2006. and employee date maintenance. those who were at the top of the stack got looked at first. MAS made a departure from a paper-based process to an automated system known as Human Resources Information System (HRIS). Since then the top management has seen a lot of improvement both in quantity and quality.Reactions of Employees Toward HRIS 231 International Airport. compliance reporting. managing the process of attracting new applicants and facilitating the training was handled through a paper-based process that began with placing an advertisement for job openings in various newspapers. on-time performance. and the process did not allow the recruitment managers to necessarily consider an applicant for all the openings for which they might best the others being Asiana Airlines. but also covers other HRM functions such as payroll management. Hiring the best of the best had so far improved their customer service offering and thereby delivered a much more enjoyable in-flight and boarding experience for their customers. HRIS has beginning to show its impact by helping MAS to achieve its business goals because of the trickle down effect resulting from improved human resources management processes. continuing to use a paper-based system just did not fly.

2006). However. 2001. Thus. Resistance is often attributed to departmental and individual investment in the status quo (Bandura. the ease and frequency with which individuals . Neubert. (2007) reported that people who are more likely to be cynical about change were those who felt they lacked meaningful opportunities to participate in decision making. displaying supportive leader behavior. 1948). Bommer. Based on Miller.. emotional reactions to imposed change (i. and cognitive rigidity (i. a number of articles have been published regarding the predictors and behavioral consequences associated with resistance to change (Oreg. Oreg (2003) designed a scale to measure an individual’s dispositional inclination to resist change. experiencing feelings of stress and tension when plans are changed). 2003). etc. felt uniformed in general about what was going on in the workplace. 2000. and had supervisors and union representatives who were poor communicators. their research suggests that one way to develop employees who are more receptive to organizational change is to use transformational leadership behaviors (e. improve ability to articulate a clear and compelling vision for the change) as a tool to generate greater commitment to and acceptance of planned changes.). recent research findings indicate that transformational leadership can have a negative influence on employee cynicism about organizational change (Self. Vrontis.. 2000. to some degree. Rich. Evidence suggests that the disposition has a four-facet structure made up of routine seeking (i.g. modeling appropriate behavior. Piderit. and negative affect toward the change. & Rubin (2005) examined American workers at three privately owned manufacturing firms. Johnson.e. within the individual (Piderit. 2003. many believe that resistance lies. preference for low levels of stimulation and novelty).232 M. 2000). 2000.g. these researchers suggest that change implementers who engage in transformational leader behaviors can effectively reduce their subordinate’s resistance toward organizational change. Vrontis LITERATURE REVIEW: RESISTANCE AND COMMITMENT TOWARD A PLANNED CHANGE PROGRAM Resistance to organizational change has been a topic of scientific research since the 1940 s (Coch & French. and simply that the benefits to the organization are not necessarily consonant with the interest of the individuals (Oreg. For the most part.e. Z Razali and D. 2007). In addition. & Grau’s (1994) conceptualizations. articulating a vision of the future. & Yi. 1982). lack of motivation for altering behaviors (George & Brief. Wu. Wanberg & Banas.e. 1992). There is no single reason as to why an individual may resist a change. the current study defines resistance as an unwillingness to support the change. Wanberg & Banas.... Since then. Vrontis & Vignali. and discovered that leaders high in organizational change resistance were less likely to engage in transformational leader behaviors (e.

and empowerment are widely recommended for the implementation of change (Herscovitch & Meyer. commitment to change is defined as ‘‘a force (mindset) that binds an individual to a course of action deemed necessarily for the successful implementation of a change initiative’’ (Herscovitch & Meyer. It is likely that these strategies increase involvement. an employee’s commitment to change is considered by many to be one of the most important factors involved in successful change initiative (Armenakis. For example. This conceptualization of how affective commitment develops provides a basis for why certain strategies such as training. 2002). value relevance. 2002). a recognition that there are perceived costs associated with no supporting the change (continuance commitment). & Feild 1999). The current research is also built on the idea that certain individual differences are likely to predict resistance to organizational change. affective commitment is also associated with behaviors that involve going along with the spirit of the change as well as those that require considerable personal sacrifice and=or promote the value of the change to others. Instead. As its name suggests. and= or a sense of obligation to support the change (normative commitment). Elias (2009) in his study examines three potential antecedents of 258 police officers’ attitudes toward organizational change (ATOC). Commitment to organizational change is more than simply the antecedent of resistance to change. Meyer and Herscovitch (2001) propose that affective commitment develops from any personal or situational variable that contributes to the likelihood that the individual will become intrinsically motivated by or absorbed in a course of action. However. the authors believe that all the factors considered to be involved in the development of affective commitment are likely to be accompanied by a strong positive emotion. they provide evidence that each type of commitment is related to compliance with the requirements of a change. recognize its value-relevance. participation. In fact. It is also likely that individual disposition particularly amenable . which might be termed as openness to change. whereas the locus of control=AOC and internal work motivation=AOC relationships are partially mediated by ATOC. and=or identification and therefore foster affective commitment. 2002). Herscovitch and Meyer (2002) conceptualize this mindset to reflect a desire to provide support for the change based on its inherent benefits (affective commitment). This is one aspect that differentiates affective commitment from the other forms. Harris. These mindsets alone and in combination contribute to varying degrees of behavioral support for a change initiative (Herscovitch & Meyer. the officers’ police department was restructuring its organizational design.Reactions of Employees Toward HRIS 233 change their minds). Structural equation modeling indicates the growth need strength= AOC relationship is fully mediated. At the time of data collection. and whether ATOC mediates the relationships between these antecedents and affective organizational commitment (AOC). or derive his or her identity from working toward the objective.

and positive affectivity. Self (2007) and Jones and Sinar (2006) emphasized that it is the change leader’s responsibility to guide the . Underlying culture and operating climate became evident for their positive influence to determine the readiness required for acceptance of the TQM change program (Meyer & Herscovitch (2001). A few other studies have been carried out to investigate antecedents of acceptance of organizational change efforts. Meyer and Smith (2000) concluded that top management commitment and active participation by employees through Management By Objectives (MBO) programs increased job satisfaction at a statistically significant level. Other researchers such as Armenakis. Positive attitude toward change has been found to be predicted by employees receiving quality information and having a high need for achievement (Meyer & Herscovitch. Managers and decision makers can benefit from the knowledge about acceptance and its antecedents. 2001). job satisfaction. if not. managers can assess these factors before starting the implementation process of a planned change. job satisfaction is positively associated with employees’ participation and the success of the MBO initiative. Antecedents to willingness to participate in a planned organizational change are those factors that influence employees’ evaluation of whether the change should be supported. Harris. Some of these factors have already been identified in previous studies. & Feild (1999) further concluded that acceptance of an organizational change is increased by organizational commitment. their psychological ‘‘contracts’’ become reformulated in such a way that they become cynical about further organizational change efforts. environmental opportunity (jobs available outside organization). in turn. Connell and Waring (2002) and Watt and Piotrowski (2008) suggest that when employees fail to perceive a good rationale for change. Based on a sample of public school educators. and tenure. they should make an intervention in those factors trying to adjust them an adequate level (Meyer & Herscovitch. job motivation.234 M. Vrontis to situations involving change have the potential to contribute to these same factors. viewed with indifference or opposed. and. Broner (2003) concluded that employees react negatively to organizational change when they have been ignored in the decision-making process or feel that change efforts will not be beneficial. job security. 2001). By knowing what influence acceptance. and decreased by union membership. In a related vein. Acceptance of organizational change is also influenced by participation of workers in the decision-making process on both strategic and tactical issues as researched and concluded by Furnham and Miller (1997). they tend to accept more. Employees’ acceptance is fundamental for the success of any change programs. role conflict. harmonious industrial relations climate. If results are favorable they can proceed with confidence. On the other hand. Once employees tend to participate more in the change process. Thus. a discussion regarding individual differences that are likely to alleviate resistance and foster affective commitment to change follows. Z Razali and D.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The main purpose of this study is to investigate the possible predictors of acceptance of a planned change effort. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study would address some of the problems encountered when introducing any change efforts. namely Human Resources Information System (HRIS) in Malaysia Airlines (MAS). Hypothesis 4: There will be a positive relationship between climatesupport and acceptance of a planned change program. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES The line of research inquiry was guided by 10 hypotheses. as follows: . the change leader attempts to shape attitudes toward the change. organizational climate (reward. supervisory support. warmth. 2006). Hypothesis 1: There will be a positive relationship between organizational commitment and acceptance of a planned change program. By effectively managing readiness. Hypothesis 3: There will be a positive relationship between climatewarmth and acceptance of a planned change program. Hypothesis 2: There will be a positive relationship between climatereward and acceptance of a planned change program. . . not attempt to overcome resistance to it. participation in the work environment. with the expectation that participation in the planned change effort will be intensified. Once the concept of how employees accept or reject change efforts and managers understood it. indifference or rejection) regarding a planned change program has not been the target of many studies in the context of Malaysian working environment (Razali. the process must target creating readiness for the change. . The possible predictors included in the study were organizational commitment. and support). top management consistency and top management involvement. . job satisfaction. Successfully doing so may lead to adoption rather than resistance behaviors by organizational members. Thus. freedom to participate in the implementation of the change program. The contribution of this study to the field is evident because the relationship between employees’ attitudes and their reactions (acceptance.Reactions of Employees Toward HRIS 235 organizational member to embrace the change rather than resist it. their efforts can be directed to increase employee’s level of acceptance.

All the . The key aspects of this model are basically the cyclical sequence of activities such as diagnosis. Hypothesis 8: There will be a positive relationship between supervisory support and acceptance of a planned change program. feeling free to put it on the top. . . It took the respondents from 20 to 50 minutes to answer the 117 items. the respondent would drop it in a box. While the respondents worked on the questionnaire. Vrontis Hypothesis 5: There will be a positive relationship between general job satisfaction and acceptance of a planned change program. an organizational representative explained the research process. Respondents were reminded that questionnaires were anonymous and that the survey results would not be used for any reward or to discipline specific employees. METHODOLOGY This research is based on action research model. . data gathering. The representative from MAS left the room as soon as respondents started filling out the questionnaires. and action. The purpose of such a cycle of activities is to change behavior in organizations. . Data Collection Data was collected through the questionnaire consisting of 117 items. only the researchers remained in the room to answer any questions and address any concerns. discussion of the results. The type of information collected in this research requires that anonymity and confidentiality be assured. M. feedback to the client group. Once the respondents were accommodated in the room at the company’s site. bottom or in the middle of the pile of questionnaires. Hypothesis 9: There will be a positive relationship between top management involvement and acceptance of a planned change program. Z Razali and D. hence action research is closely aligned with organizational development efforts. action planning. to avoid been identified. It is important to note that the questionnaire used in this research was prepared to evaluate several dimensions previously validated by other researchers with some modifications to suit the local imperatives of the company under investigation. Hypothesis 10: There will be a positive relationship between top management consistency and acceptance of a planned change program.236 . The researchers worked directly with the employees in MAS who have been selected as respondents for this research. Hypothesis 6: There will be a positive relationship between freedom to participate and acceptance of a planned change program Hypothesis 7: There will be a positive relationship between participative environment and acceptance of a planned change program. Upon finishing the questionnaire. .

and 67. From the company’s staff directory.4% were females. as follows: . Respondents The stratified random sampling method was used to select the respondents for the study. 20. Exceptions can be observed for six coefficients.6% were holding middle-level managerial positions.6% were the lower-level staff.05 level. climate support and one variable. warmth. The independent variables were forced to enter the model at three steps. (2) middle level managers. Multiple Regression Analysis A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was carried out for the dependent variable (acceptance of a planned change). 32.01 level. The median age was 28 years and the composition in terms of staff hierarchy was as follows: 10. 60% in the lower level rankings. . Only three categories were included for this study because the outsourced employees were not having contractual employment with MAS but rather with their respective employers who were contractors for MAS. These variables were grouped because they represent organizational climate dimensions. and general job satisfaction. reward. Ninety-six percent of the respondents were hired on a full-time basis while the remaining were part-timers.6% males. the researcher divided the employees in MAS according to four categories: (1) top management. all of them between climate reward and one other variable. support. Step 1: Organizational commitment. almost all intercorrelation coefficients are statistically significant at the . Based on the above stratification.Reactions of Employees Toward HRIS 237 items designed to assess study variables were to be answered by respondents using a 5-point Likert scale. At the first stage. and 10% as outsourced employees. From the sample. 20% in middle management. it was determined about 10% of employees were in the top management category. 250 employees were randomly selected from the company’s staff directory to participate in the survey. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS Descriptive Statistics and Intercorrelation Variables for Study Variables As indicated in Table 1 among the predictors (numbered from 2 to 11).8% were among the top management. and supervisory support and four other variables that are statistically significant at .. (3) lower level employees: and outsourced employees. and 58.

42 .05.43Ã Note.11 3.34ÃÃ .52ÃÃ .01.72 .28ÃÃ .38 4.29ÃÃ .26 3.41ÃÃ .51ÃÃ .33ÃÃ . Ã p < .58ÃÃ .01 3.59 3.28ÃÃ .29ÃÃ .08ÃÃ .42 .99ÃÃ .46ÃÃ .35Ã .64 4.24ÃÃ .06ÃÃ .28ÃÃ .29 .27ÃÃ .41ÃÃ 3.28ÃÃ . ÃÃ p < .23ÃÃ .71 .34ÃÃ .53Ã .29Ã .24ÃÃ .13ÃÃ .64 .74 .39ÃÃ .29ÃÃ .52ÃÃ .46ÃÃ .23ÃÃ .62 .26ÃÃ .33ÃÃ .28 4.24ÃÃ .36ÃÃ .23ÃÃ .58 .01 .47ÃÃ .38ÃÃ .09 3.22ÃÃ .56Ã .65 .39ÃÃ .77 .42ÃÃ . .TABLE 1 Descriptive Statistics and Intercorrelation Variables for Study Variables Mean SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Variables 238 .23ÃÃ .24Ã .54ÃÃ .27ÃÃ .36 3.33Ã Acceptance of Planned Change Organizational Commitment Climate-Reward Climate-Warmth Climate Support General Job Satisfaction Freedom to Participate Participative Environment Top Management Consistency Top Management Involvement Supervisory Support .35ÃÃ .41ÃÃ .48ÃÃ .19ÃÃ .48ÃÃ .55 4.22ÃÃ .32ÃÃ .

467 0.038 .494 p < .036 .355 . the first block of predictors explained 35% (adjusted 2 R ) of the variance in acceptance for a planned change program.396ÃÃÃ . 239 . Results of the multiple regression analysis are presented in Table 2.044 . . These two variables are related to employees’ perceptions of leadership styles of top and middle level management and their commitment to the planned change program.163ÃÃÃ p < . Ã p < .464 27.62 .029 .350 . and supervisory support.196ÃÃÃ .012 .214ÃÃ .4% in the adjusted R2). These variables represent pressure to take part in the change program and opportunities employees have to take part in the decision-making process of the organization.042 . When the second block of predictors was entered in the equation. p < .482 .01. the ones with most impact in the regression equation are organizational commitment (B ¼ 0.022 R2 Adj. it significantly explained (change in F ¼ 27. It is worth noting that the contribution in the equation was mainly due to participative environment TABLE 2 Multiple Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting the Acceptance of Employees Toward a Planned Change Program Variables Organizational Commitment Climate-Reward Climate-Warmth Climate Support General Job Satisfaction STEP 1 TOTAL Freedom to Participate Participative Environment STEP 2 TOTAL Supervisory Support Top Management Involvement Top Management Consistency STEP 3 TOTAL Note.039 .019 .269.086 52.103ÃÃ À.05.028 .001.269ÃÃÃ À. p < .066 . ÃÃ B . Among the predictors.355 66. top management consistency.0 l).038 SE B . 196. Step 2: Freedom to participate in the planned change program and participative environment.001) a unique variance in acceptance for a planned change program that was not accounted for by the other variables (3. ÃÃÃ . R2 R2 change F change .021 .233Ã .384 .Reactions of Employees Toward HRIS . As Table 2 shows.016 . Step 3: Top management involvement.136ÃÃ .

It was an expectation of this study that involvement of top managers in the implementation process would be the most important influence on employees in the Malaysia Airlines for the acceptance of the new initiative to implement HRIS. climate-support. any action that impacts acceptance will eventually have a positive impact on acceptance of the initiative. p < .00 l) while supervisory support and top management consistency did not make a significant contribution (B ¼ 0. Top management involvement appeared as the largest coefficient for the impact on the acceptance level of employees toward the planned change effort. it could be speculated that both management leadership and participation in an organizational change initiative have a positive influence on employees’ commitment to the organization. employees see company actions in management’s behavior. climate-warmth.2% (adjusted R2) of the variance in acceptance for a planned change program is attributable to the independent variables entered in three subsequent steps in the regression equation. 19) respectively. Organizational commitment produced the second largest coefficient in the analysis. Results in Table 2 show that 48. 2007.038).396.240 M..163. Z Razali and D.00I). and top management involvement. The organization speaks through the top managers. with most of the contribution being made by organizational commitment. The third and last block of predictors also significantly explained variance in climate for quality (change in F ¼ 52. As this study has shown that there is a positive influence of organizational commitment on employees’ acceptance of the change initiative. participation. Wu et al. Elias.214.062) and (B ¼ 0. Top management involvement contributed most in the equation (B ¼ 0. It could be speculated that participative environment in general (opportunities for employees to express opinions and make suggestions) is more important than freedom to participate in creating a situation where employees would react positively toward accepting any planned change program. p < . Thus..e.8% in the adjusted R2. Miller et al. involvement and support in the implementation process of any change effort or program are of fundamental importance for the success of the change initiative (Razali. adding 9. Based on the above analysis. A possible explanation for this could be that top managers not only represent the organization but they are the organization. 2006.01) and not due to freedom to participate in the planned change program (B ¼ 0. p < . Climate-reward and general job satisfaction did not impact significantly on the employees’ acceptance of the new HRIS. (1993) noted that employees tend to view actions by agents of the organization as actions of the organization itself. This finding confirmed what has been largely published lately that top management leadership. 2009). i. Vrontis (B ¼ 0. it is apparent that organizational commitment and top management involvement are the most important predictors of employees’ acceptance of any planned change effort in an organization. It seems to be .

Eisenstat. Once employees tend to participate more in the change process they tend to be more committed. & Spector. Managers and decision makers can benefit from the knowledge about the acceptance and its antecedents. A key issue related to top management involvement with the acceptance for a planned change program is visibility. Top management should ensure that employees are committed to the organization and they also must definitely get involved and participate in the implementation process of the change initiative. Employees’ acceptance is fundamental for the success of the change effort. Rodgers. By knowing what . Hunter. LIMITATIONS. It is timely for the top management in MAS to be seen actively engaged themselves in committees or task forces that are designed for the purpose of managing on daily basis the change program. 1992. 1993) but it also points out the importance of people in leading positions in the organizations taking responsibility over the implementation process of a planned change initiatives. This particular finding suggests that employees who are committed to the organization would be more inclined to accept and be part of any organizational change program. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS. AND FUTURE RESEARCH One of the major findings of this study can be a strong recommendation for the top management in MAS. The MAS as an organization must not view the change program in isolation with other behavioral aspects of employees in organization. The finding of this study not only corroborates conclusions of previous research (Beer. Efforts must be taken seriously to ensure that the commitment levels of employees toward organization are sustained because those who are committed tend to accept the change program more positively. Berry & Parasuraman. 1990.Reactions of Employees Toward HRIS 241 a direct conclusion that two conditions should be present in order to enhance the probability of employees to react positively by accepting and embracing the change program initiated in the organization. Similar results were found by Iverson (1996). Employees particularly at the middle and lower layers of the MAS bureaucracy must be empowered to join the task forces or teams that are directly engaged in implementing the change program. CONCLUSIONS. showing their commitment and support. Organizational commitment has been conjectured in the first place to positively impact employees’ reactions of a planned change effort. Not only top managers in MAS must support and be committed to the change project. who concluded that organizational commitment has a significant impact on employees’ readiness to embrace a planned organizational change implementation. & Rogers. but it is also very important that employees see themselves really participating in the implementation process from the very beginning.

Hypothesis 4: There will be a positive relationship between climate-support and acceptance of a planned change program.001 Not supported .05 Supported p  0. Hypothesis 10: There will be a positive relationship between top management consistency and acceptance of a planned change program. only general job satisfaction has been assessed.01 Not supported Not supported Supported p  0. especially in terms of work environment.242 M. they can proceed with confidence. Several other aspects related to the job could have been assessed. managers can assess these factors before starting the implementation process of the planned change. less repetitive movement. Hypothesis 8: There will be a positive relationship between supervisory support and acceptance of a planned change program. If results are favorable. Acceptance of planned change program Supported p  0. In this study.01 Not supported Supported p  0. Z Razali and D. TABLE 3 Summary of the Results of the Hypothesis Testing Hypotheses Hypothesis 1: There will be a positive relationship between organizational commitment and acceptance of a planned change program. importance of the task. When dealing with planned change programs. Hypothesis 5: There will be a positive relationship between general job satisfaction and acceptance of a planned change program. Hypothesis 3: There will be a positive relationship between climate-warmth and acceptance of a planned change program. Hypothesis 7: There will be a positive relationship between participative environment and acceptance of a planned change program. Hypothesis 6: There will be a positive relationship between freedom to participate and acceptance of a planned change program.001 Not supported Supported p  0. Hypothesis 9: There will be a positive relationship between top management involvement and acceptance of a planned change program. etc. The results of this study can be summarized in Table 3. Vrontis influences acceptance. quality improvement. job involvement. One of the shortcomings has to do with several aspects related to employees’ jobs. Hypothesis 2: There will be a positive relationship between climate-reward and acceptance of a planned change program. as follows: It seems that several shortcomings have happened in this study that should be seriously considered in future research endeavors. one of the most important issues to be considered is the impact the initiative has on employees’ jobs. Workers expect that any program eventually turns out particular changes that directly affect their daily tasks. if not they should make an intervention in those factors by trying to adjust them to an adequate level.

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