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ASSIGNMENT ABPK1203

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

DATE OF SUBMISSION:
15 NOVEMBER 2013

TABLES OF CONTENTS

No
1

Topic
INTRODUCTION

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0 INTRODUCTION Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention. personality psychology. language use. abnormal psychology."[1] Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines of psychological study including social psychology. perception.2 SUMMARY OF THE JOURNAL 4 3 JOURNAL REVIEW 6 4 SUMMARY OF ALL JOURNALS 10 5 CONCLUSION 12 6 REFERENCES 12 1. memory. problem solving. and thinking. developmental psychology. and educational 2 .

the objective of this study is to learn more about cognitive psychology through some reading of academic journal regards to this field. 1.1 Objective of the study The clear objective of this study are as below. • To gain experience in reviewing academic research articles which is essential exposure for university students during their final year research project. but are not limited to.psychology. SUMMARY OF ARTICLES OR JOURNALS Journal 1: Describing the creative design process by the integration of engineering design and cognitive psychology literature In this paper a ‘creative design process’ is proposed.0 To practice critical thinking through reviewing academic articles. Those processes include. • To get information on current issues related to the study on Cognitive Psychology. • To strengthen academic understanding on Cognitive Psychology. The main focus of cognitive psychologists is on the mental processes that affect behavior. • 2. based on an integration between 3 . the following: • Attrention • Memory • Perception • Language • Metacognition Thus.

HCBT is described and explained as a concept and as a teaching component for introductory psychology. Journal 2: Humanistic cognitive behavioral theory. while Mandarin also 4 . In addition. taking elements from the different design types proposed in engineering design and the creative outputs proposed in psychology. a value-added approach to teaching theories of personality Humanistic Cognitive Behavioral Theory (HCBT) is an emerging theory based on providing a value-added component to traditional reciprocal determinism. English and Mandarin talk about time differently— English predominantly talks about time as if it were horizontal. Journal 3: Does Language Shape Thought?: Mandarin and English Speakers’ Conceptions of Time Does the language you speak affect how you think about the world? This question is taken up in three experiments.a modernised consensus view of both the design process from engineering design and the creative process from cognitive psychology. a composite definition of a creative design output is also formed. the results of a study in which HCBT was presented as a component of a course are detailed. In this paper. In addition. This article briefly describes the HCBT model as a value.added approach incorporating courage in the learning environment. thus providing a descriptive model the different design operations are linked to the types of design output produced. The results of this study demonstrate HCBT to be an approach which aids in student understanding the content typically taught in introductory psychology classes (specifically personality). This integrated process and the composite definition are further linked.

Journal 4: Digital era psychology – studies on cognitive changes In recent decades there was an increasing impact of the technological development. 3. It is concluded that (1) language is a powerful tool in shaping thought about abstract domains and (2) one’s native language plays an important role in shaping habitual thought (e.0 REVIEWS OF THE JOURNALS Journal 1: Describing the creative design process by the integration of engineering design and cognitive psychology literature This research was to find out how the design process in engineering can be integrated 5 . how one tends to think about time) but does not entirely determine one’s thinking in the strong Whorfian sense.commonly describes time as vertical.. Our approach evaluates the impact of frequent use of “internet based activities” on the cognitive functions. The paper seeks also possible implications of cognitive changes in the whole personality. ICT have become present in many areas of activity and in increasingly more households.The study focuses on the possible consequences of the use of digital technologies (more specific: internet activities. felt most strongly in the area of information and communication technology (ICT).g. games etc. transforming our world in the so-called Information Society. This difference between the two languages is reflected in the way their speakers think about time.) on cognitive processes.

Having reviewed literature from the domains of engineering design and psychology. The integrated process and composite definition are linked within stating the process routes leading to the different design outputs. Whilst acknowledging that design processes observed in practice are more erratic than most representations suggest. a value-added approach to teaching theories of personality This pilot study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of Humanistic Cognitive Behavioral Theory in an educational setting. A composite definition of a creative design output is also presented. it is argued that understanding the linkages in the overall process will help engineers to better utilise creativity tools.with creative design from cognitive psychology. Insight into this process may also reveal where and when resources should be focused in order to enhance creative performance and the quality of the product designed. This deeper understanding will enable more effective tools to be created and utilised. Journal 2: Humanistic cognitive behavioral theory. taking elements from the different design types proposed in engineering design and the creative outputs proposed in psychology. prescriptive studies should be conducted with engineering designers to test the impact of the different types of information on creative inspiration at different stages of the design process. to further the support of creative activities it is clear that studies must be conducted with engineering designers to audit existing information types and sources used as design inputs. The study consisted of teaching a personality unit to two introductory psychology classes at an American university. a creative design process is proposed as an integration between the engineering design process and the creative process established from cognitive psychology. helping the engineering designer to produce more original ideas or to reach them more quickly. A clear definition of a creative design output consisting of measurable elements (originality and appropriateness) will enable researchers to gauge the effectiveness of any new creativity tools and methods proposed. but not fully understood role. As it has been shown that information has an important. In addition. 6 . methods and techniques.

it appears that the presentation of a new theory. The data presented here. Subsequent studies currently underway will provide further data which may lend further support to the conclusions drawn here. the conclusion can be drawn that students opinions regardings the understanding of material typically taught in introductory units on theories of personality changes substantially once HCBT has been introduced. has a large enough n (n=139) to generalize to introductory psychology courses typically taught in the Unites States. In addition. a significant number of students effectively use and view HCBT as a means-to-an-end for understanding theories of personality. All in all. 2008). When contacted the professor indicated that she was excited about the opportunity to hear about a new theory as well as see the results of the research. Journal 3: Does Language Shape Thought?: Mandarin and English Speakers’ Conceptions of Time This research is to find In this experiment. further research will indicate the long-term efficacy of the study presented here. The school was selected for a variety of reasons.The university is rated as a “Tier 1” school. Anecdotal data indicate that this theory is a powerful tool for teaching psychology and the interconnectedness of theories of psychology. namely HCBT. While it may appear that this data is definitive. as her background is in psychopharmacology. In addition. native English and native Mandarin speakers were found to think differently about time. the professor felt that a subject area expert would be in a better position to teach about theories of personality. the primary one being that the professor teaching the class was eager to participate. 7 . is efficacious in assisting students to understand and process theories of personality in Introductory Psychology. This was true even though both groups were tested in English. with a selectivity rating as “more selective” (USNews and World Report. although from one study. From the data.

this group of participants was cho.dicted by the preponderance of vertical time metaphors in the Mandarin. it appears that language-encouraged habits in thought can operate regardless of the language that one is currently thinking for. then participants who learned English early on or had more English experience should show less of a ‘‘Mandarin’’ bias to think about time vertically. These results suggest that experience with a language can shape the way one thinks. All of the participants were Mandarin–English bilinguals whose first language was Mandarin. This habit of thinking about time vertically was pre. This habit of thinking about time horizontally was predicted by the prepon.derance of horizontal spatial metaphors used to talk about time in English. Journal 4: Digital era psychology – studies on cognitive changes This study is to find the effects of latest technology nowadays can affect the cognitive thinking of people especially children. In short. Experiment 2 was designed to further test the relationship between language experience and patterns in thinking. In order to be able to assess the effects of second-language learning on thought. The reverse was true for Mandarin speakers. How much and in what ways does learning new languages influence one’s way of thinking? Mandarin–English bilinguals were tested in a task similar to that described in Experiment 1.sen to vary much more in how early in life they began to learn English than did the participants in Experiment 1. If learning new languages does change the way one thinks. According to different studies.English speakers were faster to verify that ‘‘March comes earlier than April’’ after horizontal primes than after vertical primes. Mandarin speakers were faster to verify that ‘‘March comes earlier than April’’ after vertical primes than after horizontal primes. there is an 8 . it appears that habits in language encourage habits in thought. Since Mandarin speakers showed vertical bias even when thinking for English.

Some behaviors adapt to the virtual world (e. the social identity is changing due to new ways of socializing.0 SUMMARY OF THE JOURNALS As conclusions.g. 2006). It is generally considered as the digital era and especially the internetbased activities negatively affect children and adolescents. some studies have been focused on cognitive changes that have emerged among children and adolescents using frequently the computer (internet. especially. all four articles are discussing the field of cognitive psychology through different aspect and topic. chat etc. Besides the cognitive adjustments.). Emphasized using of the computer in the last decades appears to have lead to different changes in PC operators’ cognitive functioning. Jtirrlelti and Htikkinen develop a sociocognitive model for analyzing Web-based interaction (id. 2003). such as ADHD. Personality goes also through important changes. Yet increasingly more results suggest that adaptive cognitive changes occur from the intensive use of digital technology and these changes don’t influence in a negative manner the human functioning within the modern society. The emotional area is also adapting to a new world. Moreover the learning process is based increasingly more on the online activities. adolescents using computer-based activities for socializing. online tasks. Furthermore. multimedia usage for teaching in classroom and so on. 4. such as teacher students platforms interaction.). (Johnson. cyber bullying). web-sites visiting etc. There are even some opinions that IT technology is one of the factors underlying exponential growth of certain disorders.increasing number of children and. gaming. Journal Describing the creative design process by the integration of engineering design and cognitive psychology literature discuss the 9 . Tardieu and Gyselinck (2003) discuss (on empirical evidence) about working memory constraints and about the need to consider the limitations of cognitive resources available to a user of a multimedia system (Oostendorp. As a result. e-mail.

In this experiment. Journal Humanistic cognitive behavioral theory. although from one study. As result. it is argued that understanding the linkages in the overall process will help engineers to better utilise creativity tools. The research try to include cognitve thinking into design process. the conclusion can be drawn that students opinions regardings the understanding of material typically taught in introductory units on theories of personality changes substantially once HCBT has been introduced. Insight into this process may also reveal where and when resources should be focused in order to enhance creative performance and the quality of the product designed. The result. Aspect visual perception of cognitive psychology we discussed throughly. native English and native Mandarin speakers were 10 . The study consisted of teaching a personality unit to two introductory psychology classes at an American university. a significant number of students effectively use and view HCBT as a means-to-an-end for understanding theories of personality. Journal Does Language Shape Thought?: Mandarin and English Speakers’ Conceptions of Time discussed whether the language you speak shape the way you understand the world. Whilst acknowledging that design processes observed in practice are more erratic than most representations suggest. A pilot study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of Humanistic Cognitive Behavioral Theory in an educational setting. methods and techniques. has a large enough n (n=139) to generalize to introductory psychology courses typically taught in the Unites States.cognitive psychology in aspect of complex cognitive process. Subsequent studies currently underway will provide further data which may lend further support to the conclusions drawn here. a value-added approach to teaching theories of personality study the issue related to cognitive psychology. a creative design process is proposed as an integration between the engineering design process and the creative process established from cognitive psychology. In addition. The data presented here.

Experiment 2 was designed to further test the relationship between language experience and patterns in thinking. 5. The results suggest that experience with a language can shape the way one thinks. adolescents using computer-based activities for socializing. Result of the study show the human cognition is changing: we are adapting to new ways of information processing. especially.g. iVideos all of them connected to Internet or to different Internet-based networks. online tasks.sory information is scarce or inconclusive (as with the direction of motion of time). multimedia usage for teaching in classroom and so on. As conclusion.found to think differently about time. However the visual path is used in an excessive way in the digital world and this could lead to a decrease of the cognitive performance due to overload.0 CONCLUSIONS In its early years. Besides the cognitive adjustments. web-sites visiting etc. When sen. e-mail. According to different studies. critics held that the empiricism of cognitive psychology was incompatible with its acceptance of internal mental states. This was true even though both groups were tested in English. However. 2006). Moreover the learning process is based increasingly more on the online activities. (Johnson. the sibling field 11 . the social identity is changing due to new ways of socializing. iPods. In addition the modern technology brought us different digital gadgets which surround all of us: iPhones. Some behaviors adapt to the virtual world (e. cyber bullying). languages may play the most important role in shaping how their speakers think. language can be a powerful tool for shaping abstract thought. such as teacher – students platforms interaction. Personality goes also through important changes. gaming. there is an increasing number of children and. Journal Digital era psychology – studies on cognitive changes discussed the effect of technology to make changes in people cognitive especially children. The emotional area is also adapting to a new world.

through the 1970s. Malone poses the assertion.com • www. many varieties of cognitive psychology and very little agreement about exactly what may be its domain". and the like quickly reveals that there are many. in his book: Psychology: Pythagoras to Present. As cognitive psychology gained momentum as a movement. in the opinion of many.wikipedia. 'human cognition'.sciencedirect.com 12 .of cognitive neuroscience has provided evidence of physiological brain states that directly correlate with mental states thus providing support for the central assumption of cognitive psychology. that "Examinations of late twentieth-century textbooks dealing with 'cognitive psychology'. 6. the complexity of the processes involved in human thought. 'cognitive science'.0 REFERENCES • www. fractured studies of cognition so greatly that the field lost cohesion. John C. and the embodiment perspective. The information processing approach to cognitive functioning is currently being questioned by new approaches in psychology. such as dynamical systems.