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DIGITAL FILTERS: AN INTRODUCTION

نويڻاڇ يددع : فراعت ڪه
رچڪيل 16 ، 17 Lecture 16, 17
يڻادرع دمحا ناسحا
Introduction to filters
 A filter is a system that attenuates some frequency
components of a signal more than it does others.
 It is usually used to eliminate/reduce the energy
contained in some frequency band(s) while retaining
the energy contained in other frequency band(s)
Applications
 Filters can be applied to the signal to be
transmmitted (to remove the carrier and a side
band)
 For anti-aliasing before sampling a signal
 For removing noise from a received signal
Filter bands
 Pass band
 Stop band
 Transition band
1+o
1
1-o
1
Passband
ripple
w
p
w
s
o
2
Filter types
 Low Pass Filter
 Passes frequencies smaller
than a cut-off
 High Pass Filter
 Passes frequencies higher
than a cut-off
 Band Pass Filter
 Passes frequencies between
two cut-offs
 Band Elimination Filter
 Passes frequencies other
than those b/w two cut-offs
 يڻاڇ راذگ ڍنن
 نويڍنن ناک اميد صاخ نهنڪ
نوترثڪ وٿ يراذگ
 ڏو يڻاڇ راذگ
 نويڏو ناک اميد صاخ نهنڪ
وٿ يراذگ نوترثڪ
 يڻاڇ راذگ يٽپ
 نويراو چو نئاميد نٻ نڪ
وٿ يراذگ نوترثڪ
 يڻاڇ ڪور يٽپ
 نويراو چو يج نئاميد نٻ نڪ
وٿ يڪور نوترثڪ
يڻاڇ راذگ ڍنن يلايخ
Ideal Low Pass Filter
-w
c
w
c
w
|H(w)|
u(w)
w
B
يڻاڇ راذگ ڏو يلايخ
High Pass Filter
|H(w)|
w
c
w
w
u(w)
يڻاڇ راذگ يٽپ يلايخ
Ideal Band Pass Filter
-w
0
w
0
B
w
w
|H(w)|
u(w)
يڻاڇ ڪور يٽپ يلايخ
Ideal Band Stop Filter
|H(w)|
u(w)
w
w
برقت اج نيڻاڇ گلانيا
Analog Filter Approximations
 Butterworth
 Chebyshev
 Type 1
 Type 2
 ٿر
َ
و رٽب
 يبيچ ويذ
 مسق 1
 مسق 2
نويڻاڇ يددع Digital Filters
 Take digital Input
 Digitized Speech
 Image
 Any other signal that is either digital by nature or is
digitized
 Give out Digital Output
 Might be implemented in
 Hardware
 Software
برقت اج نيڻاڇ يددع
Digital Filter Approximations
 Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filters
 Their impulse response is time-limited
 Also called non-recursive filters and all-zero
filters
 Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters
 Their impulse response is time-unlimited
 Also called recursive filters
Comparison b/w FIR and IIR
 Do not have any analog
counterpart
 Have linear phase response
 Simple to implement, do not
require feedback
 Certain responses are not
practical to implement with FIR
filters
 Require more computations /
memory
 Always Stable
 Have an analog counterpart
 Have non-linear phase response
 Difficult to implement, require
feedback
 One can implement any responses
with IIR filters
 Require less computation/ memory
 Stability not always gauranteed
FIR IIR
Comparison b/w FIR and IIR
 Less susceptible to the effect
of using a limited number of
bits to implement filters such
as round off noise, and
coefficients quantization error

 Use FIR if the number of
filter coefficients is not too
large and in particular if little
or no phase distortion is
desired.
 More susceptible to the
effect of using a limited
number of bits to implement
filters such as round off
noise, and coefficients
quantization error
 Use IIR when there are
requirements such as sharp
cutoff and high throughput.
FIR IIR
IIR Filters
 Requires feedback
 Output is fucntion of the present input, the past
inputs and the past outputs
| | | | ( ) | | ( ) | |
( ) | | ( ) | | ( ) | | T M n y a T n y a T n y a
T L n x b T n x b nT x b nT y
M
L
÷ + + ÷ + ÷ +
÷ + + ÷ + =
.... 2 1
.... 1
2 1
1 0
| | ( ) | | ( ) | |
¿ ¿
= =
÷ + ÷ =
L
i
M
i
i i
T i n y a T i n x b nT y
0 1
(1)
FIR filters
 No feedback
 Output is function of the present input and the past
inputs
 Output does not depend on the previous outputs
 Replace ‘a’ coefficients by zeros in equation (1)
 L+1 is said to be the filter length
| | | | ( ) | | ( ) | | T N n x b T n x b nT x b nT y
N
÷ + + ÷ + = .... 1
1 0
| | ( ) | |
¿
=
÷ =
L
i
i
T i n x b nT y
0