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Barometers, Manometers, and Pressure Units.
Atmospheric pressure is measured with a barometer in which a pressure of one standard atmosphere (1 atm) will support a column of mercury 760 mm high. This is a pressure of 760 torr. By definition, 1 atm = 101,325 pascals (Pa) and 1 bar = 100 kPa. Manometers, both open end and closed end, are used to measure the pressure of trapped gases. An ideal gas is a hypothetical gas that obeys the gas laws exactly over all ranges of pressure and temperature. Real gases exhibit ideal gas behavior most closely at low pressures and high temperatures, which are conditions remote from those that liquefy a gas. Boyle's Law (Pressure–Volume Law). For a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature, volume varies inversely with pressure: V 1/P. A useful form of the equation is P1 V1 = P2 V2 .

Gas Laws.

Charles’ Law (Temperature–Volume Law). For a fixed amount of gas at constant pressure, volume varies directly with the Kelvin temperature: V T, or V1 / V2 = T1 / T2 . Gay-Lussac's Law (Temperature–Pressure Law). For a fixed amount of gas at constant volume, pressure varies directly with Kelvin temperature: P T, or P1 / P2 = T1 / T2 . Avogadro's Principle. Equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of moles when compared at the same temperature and pressure. At STP, 1 mol of an ideal gas occupies a volume of 22.4 L. Combined Gas Law. PV divided by T for a given gas sample is a constant: PV/T = C, or P1 V1 / T1 = P2 V2 / T2 . Ideal Gas Law. PV = nRT. When P is in atmospheres and V is in liters, the value of R is 0.0821 L atm mol-1 K-1 (T being, as usual, in kelvins). Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Volumes. When measured at the same temperature and pressure, the volumes of gases consumed and produced in chemical reactions are in the same ratios as their coefficients. Mole Fraction. The mole fraction XA of a substance A equals the ratio of the number of moles of A, n A, to the total number of moles, n total, of all the components of a mixture:

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures. The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases: In terms of mole fractions, PA = XAPtotal and XA = PA/Ptotal. Graham's Law of Effusion. The rate of effusion of a gas varies inversely with the square root of its density (or the square root of its molecular mass) at constant pressure and temperature. Comparing different gases at the same temperature and pressure,

Kinetic Theory of Gases.

An ideal gas consists of a large number of particles, each having

essentially zero volume, that are in constant, chaotic, random motion, traveling in straight lines with no attractions or repulsions between them. When the laws of physics and statistics are applied to this model, and the results compared with the ideal gas law, the Kelvin temperature of a gas is found to be proportional to the average kinetic energy of the gas particles. Pressure is the result of forces of collision of the particles with the container's walls.

Real Gases.

Because individual gas particles do have real volumes and because small forces of

attraction do exist between them, real gases do not exactly obey the gas laws. The van der Waals equation of state for a real gas makes corrections for the volume of the gas molecules and for the attractive forces between gas molecules. The van der Waals constant a provides a measure of the attractive forces between molecules, whereas the constant b gives a measure of the relative size of the gas molecules.… 1/2

we can calculate P. A ll rights reserv ed. Formula masses or molecular masses get us from grams to moles or from moles to grams. Copy right © 2008 John Wiley & Sons. Whether we start with grams of some compound in a reaction. or T. we must get the essential calculation into moles . we have completed our study of the tools needed for the calculations of all variations of reaction stoichiometry. edugen. The labels on the arrows of the flowchart suggest the basic tools. To use the coefficients requires that all the calculations must funnel through moles.wileyplus. After applying the coefficients. with the molarity of its solution plus a volume. With P– V– T data we can find moles or. With the study in this chapter of the stoichiometry of reactions involving gases. which provides the stoichiometric equivalencies needed to convert from the number of moles of one substance to the numbers of moles of any of the others in the reaction. knowing moles of a gas. V. The flowchart below summarizes what we have been The critical link in all such calculations is the set of coefficients given by the balanced equation. as long as the other two are known. we can then move back to any other kind of unit we wish. Inc.xform?course=c… 2/2 . or with P– V– T data for a gas in the reaction. Molarity and volume data move us from concentration to moles or back.9/27/12 Summary Reaction Stoichiometry: A Summary.