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**The Sphere Packing Problem
**

N. J. A. Sloane AT&T Shannon Lab Florham Park, NJ 07932-0971, USA Those who heard the talk will surely remember that I played Carl Or 's Carmina Burana" as the audience was being seated. I felt that drastic measures were needed to wake people up at 08:30. My original plan was to begin the talk with a second piece of music. I was going to start by digressing to talk about a proposal I made 2 or 3 years ago: the Eternal Home Page". This is a possible Internet service that some major organization such as the IEEE, Harvard University, AT&T, or even the Vatican, might o er: a home page in perpetuity". Such a perpetual page" or eternity page" would be a home page that the organization would help the customer set up, with a guarantee that it would last for say 500 years, or until the organization no longer exists. The details are described on my web site1 . Almost everyone wants to be remembered by posterity, and I still think this is one of my best ideas, even though I haven't succeeded in getting any organization interested in the proposal. At this point I was planning to play a recording of Jessye Norman singing the moving and unforgettable aria Remember Me" from Henry Purcell's Dido and Aeneas". However, in the end I omitted this part of the talk for lack of time. What follows is a heavily abridged version of the talk. For much more information and references see the Introduction2 to the Third Edition of my book with John Conway Sphere Packings, Lattices and Groups". The original title of the talk was Codes and Lattices", but in the end | keeping in mind my slogan that codes are to lattices as rock and roll is to classical music" | I decided to talk mostly about sphere packings and lattices. Although the sphere packing problem has a long history in geometry, the real story begins of course with Shannon. The connection is via the sampling theorem. As Shannon observes in his classic 1948 paper, if f is a signal of bandwidth W hertz, with almost all its energy concentrated in an interval of T secs, then f is accurately represented by a vector of 2WT samples, which may be regarded as the coordinates of a single point in R n , n = 2WT . Nearly equal signals are represented by neighboring points, so to keep the signals distinct, Shannon represents them by n-dimensional `billiard balls', and is therefore led to ask: what is the best way to pack `billiard balls' in n dimensions? Ambrose Rogers' book on Packings and Coverings" came out in 1964, and my plan in this talk was to imagine that I was giving a report to Claude Shannon on some of the progress that has been made since 1964. This year is a natural break point in the subject, since John Leech discovered his great 24-dimensional lattice sphere packing around 1965, and this triggered many of the subsequent developments. The report proceeds upwards in dimension, beginning in 2 dimensions. www.research.att.com njas eternal.html Available from my home page www.research.att.com njas

1 2

Andrew Odlyzko and I. A2 . Thomas Hales at the Univ. Let 1 denote the even integers in R 1 . D5 . The centers are the points of the root lattice p A2 . the highest possible density of a packing of equal nonoverL lapping spheres in R n . each touching six others. A3 ' D3 . among all lattices with this property. of Michigan made a dramatic announcement: he had nally settled the 387-year old Kepler conjecture3 that no 3-dimensional packing has greater p density than the face-centered cubic or f. Dimension 9. Nature.c.Dimension 2 The best packing in dimension 2 is the familiar `hexagonal lattice' packing of circles.c. It is trivial that 2 = 2L = 6. which is in a sense is the geometric mean of the f. Dimensions 4 8 Table 1 summarizes what is presently known about the sphere packing and kissing number problems in dimensions 24. This is the m. It had 3 See N. The density of this packing is the fraction of the plane occupied by the spheres: = 12 = 0:9069 : : :. n . or in other words L 3 = 3 = = 18. and. achieve n for n 9. 1998.c. D4 .J. It is known Fejes T oth. the `laminating' or `greedy' construction. that produces many of the densest lattices in dimensions up to 26. is both the densest packing and the least dense covering. lattice Conway and the author. the maximal number of spheres that can touch an equal sphere n in R resp. Laminated lattices There is a simple construction. In general we wish to nd n . and de ne the n-dimensional laminated lattices n recursively by: consider all lattices of minimal norm 4 that contain some n.c. together with that of the laminated lattice 9 . 435. It is remarkable that more L is still unknown. those inside a dashed line optimal among lattices. 2 .c. E8 achieve n for n 8.c. Oct. Entries enclosed inside a solid line are known to be optimal. or n . There is a littleknown three-dimensional lattice that is similar to its dual. and independently Vladimir Levenshtein.c. the highest density of any packing p in which the centers form a L lattice.c lattice A3. Sloane. E7 . and select those of greatest density. E6 .A. determined 8 and 24 . than 60 years later 9 The large box in the right-hand column refers to Watson's 1963 result that the kissing L numbers of the above lattices. b the least dense lattice covering. and c is geometrically similar to its dual lattice.1 as a sublattice. 1994. lattice and its dual the body-centered cubic b. The large box in the `density' column refers to Blichfeldt's 1935 result that the root lattices L Z ' A1 . In two dimensions the hexagonal lattice is a the densest lattice packing. in any lattice in R n . Kepler Conjecture Con rmed". or mean-centered cuboidal lattice. p. 1940 that 2 = 2 = = 12. and especially in the `kissing number L problem': nd n resp. The packings achieving these two bounds are unique. 1. Dimension 3 Just a week before this talk. We are also interested in packing points on a sphere.

where `best' means A remarkable property of 9-dimensional packings. In 1982 Conway and I determined all inequivalent laminated lattices for n 25. which we conjecture is the value of 9 = 9 . the density remaining the same at every instant. we L conjecture that n = n for n 9. lattice 9 has the following astonishing property. only touching them at isolated instants. been known since the 1940's that this produces the densest lattices known for n 10.Dim. Another result in the same paper is that there are extraordinarily many 16-dimensional packings that are just as dense as the Barnes-Wall lattice BW16 ' 16 . both having the highest density and not permitting any local improvement. Half the spheres can be moved bodily through arbitrarily large distances without overlapping the other half. We also nd what we believe to be the exact numbers of `uniform' packings among these. These assertions depend on certain plausible but as yet unproved postulates. In particular. What are all the best sphere packings in low dimensions? In a 1995 paper Conway and I describe what may be all the best packings in dimensions n 10. We also showed that the laminated 3 . those in which the automorphism group acts transitively. and found the density of n for n 48 Fig. For example. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 Densest packing Highest kissing number 2 6 ' A ' A 'D ' D ' D ' E ' E ' E ' Z 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 4 5 6 7 8 6 7 8 3 12 24 40 72 126 240 272 336 756 9 10 P10c 16 24 Leech ' 24 BW ' 16 K 12 16 4320 196560 306 from P9a 500 from P10b 840 from P12a Table 1: Densest packings and highest kissing numbers known in low dimensions. 1. Parenthesized entries are nonlattice arrangements that are better than any known lattice. A key result needed for this was the determination of the covering radius of the Leech lattice and the enumeration of the deep holes in that lattice. All these packings have the same L density. it appears that the best ve-dimensional sphere packings are parameterized by the 4-colorings of Z .

Lattice packings are indicated by small circles. This is our description of a code rst discovered by Best. Dimension 10.1g. . Higher Dimensions Figure 2 shows the density of the best packings known up to dimension 48. Consider the vectors abcde 2 Z=4Z 5 where b. and apply the `Gray map' 0 ! 00. n=96. Q32 is Quebbemann's lattice. d 2 f+1. 48 23 Leech . . together with all their cyclic shifts. . are easily obtained from `Construction A' Leech and Sloane. the locations of the lattices are only approximate. 000 15 BW16 E8 47 Figure 1: Inclusions among laminated lattices n . 1969. Construction A. . If C is a binary code of length n. . . nonlattices by crosses however. . 2523 26 70.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 9 112 123 133 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 . and P48q is an extremal unimodular lattice constructed from a self-dual code of length 48 over GF 3. 1 ! 01. and the nonlattice packing with the highest known kissing number in dimension 9. . e = b + c. . 4 . . 3 ! 10 to obtain a binary code C10 containing 40 vectors of length 10 and minimal distance 4. rescaled to make them easier to read. . the corresponding packing is P C = fx 2 Z n : x mod 2 2 Cg. The vertical axis gives log2 + n24 . Where the center density is the density divided by the volume of a unit sphere. The gure is dominated by the two arcs of the graph of the laminated lattices n . . a = c . In dimension 10 we encounter for the rst time a nonlattice packing that is denser than all known lattices. which touch the zero ordinate at n = 0. Then P C10 = P10c is the record 10-dimensional packing. K12 is the Coxeter-Todd lattice. . 2 ! 11. 24 the Leech lattice and 48. . c. This packing. d.

For descriptions of the beautiful packings in Fig.com njas 5 . and much more. But I've run out of space. 4 Available from my home page www.research. That's about the rst half of the talk.att.2 1 DENSITY SCALED 0 -1 -2 D3 -3 ROGER'S BOUND LEECH LATTICE 24 P48q 48 Q32 D4 4 8 = E8 K12 8 12 BW16 Kn 16 n n Ks36 n 20 24 28 32 DIMENSION 36 40 44 48 Figure 2: Densest sphere packings known in dimensions n 48. 2. see the Introduction4 to the Third Edition of my book with John Conway Sphere Packings. Lattices and Groups".

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