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# MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4

SIMPLE STRAIN
Strain, Є
Is the deformation due to stress

* =

e L

Where: e = is the deformation in “mm” L = is the original length in “mm”

mm * = mm

++ no unit, a-stract

Solving for deformation, e: e=Є

L

. "

L

/

" e = is the deformation (Compression) >> (Contraction)

e L

e

. "

/

" e = is the deformation (Tension) >> (Elongation)

e

e

** If the unit stress is constant, the unit strain is:
Engr. erome !. !amadico of \$ %nd Semester S.&. %'#(-%'#) "age #

or 6odulus of Elasticit1 in “6"a” is al7a1s constant Re tri!ti"n in # in\$ t%e &"r'#(a "& )e&"r'ati"n: Engr. erome !. the unit strain is: d d e L HOOKE’S LAW: AXIAL DEFORMATION 0he unit stress is directl1 2ro2ortional to the unit strain u2 to the elastic limit.MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4 * = * = e L ** If the unit stress is varia-le. %'#(-%'#) "age % . !amadico of \$ %nd Semester S. E = = = = = 7hich " . = So.&. the general formula of deformation is: e = Where: e " L . L E is the deformation in “mm” is the a3ial load in “4” is the original length in “mm” is the cross-sectional area in “mm” is the &oung5s 6odulus. *=Є E * Solving for 8 = E e = Є to L then su-stituting 0herefore. e = 8 E L -ut " 8 .

-ut undergoes a change in sha2e from a rectangle to 2arallelogram as sho7n in the figure. 0he -ar must have a constant cross section and -e homogenous. Figure 1: Shear Deformation Engr. e = : . 0he load must -e a3ial. 0he stress must not e3ceed the 2ro2ortional limit. Ls.&. erome !.MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4 #. Shearing deformation: .n element su-9ect to shear does not change the length of its sides. %. = = = is the shearing force is the shearing area modulus of rigidit1 Where: : .. !amadico of \$ %nd Semester S.s . (. %'#(-%'#) "age ( .

erome !. !amadico of \$ %nd Semester S. %'#(-%'#) "age ) .MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4 Figure 2: Stress-strain Diagram Figure 3: Comparative Stress-strain Diagrams for different materials TERMS RELATED TO STRAIN: Engr.&.

erome !.llo7a-le Stress .luminum -ar having a cross-sectional area of #@' mm% carries the a3ial loads at the 2osition sho7n.MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4 #. !amadico of \$ %nd Semester S. !atigue Limit < is that value a -od1 ma1-e su-9ected to force re2etitivel1 7ithout causing 2ermanent deformation. B. Engr. !atigue < if a -od1 is su-9ected to force re2etitivel1."a. Altimate Stress < is that value of force a -od1 ma1-e su-9ected 7ithout causing 2ermanent destruction. Pra!ti!e Pr"+(e' : #. It cares the 7ear and tear during the e32ected life s2an of the structure. %. Elastic Limit < is that value a -od1 ma1 reach its 2oint of -eing elastic and again return to its original si=e and sha2e.is that value of force a -od1 ma1-e su-9ected 7ithout causing failure and? or deformation. com2ute the total deformation of the -ar. !actor of Safet1 < is also Cno7n as factor of ignorance. @. . . If E = B' .n . (.&.ssume that the -ar is suita-l1 -raced to 2revent -ucCling. Elasticit1 < is that 2ro2ert1 of matter to return to its original si=e and sha2e u2on the removal of the outside force. . %'#(-%'#) "age > . the -od1 7ill soon fail due to fatigue ). >.

E.D m / #> C4 (' C4 #. (> C4 '.l = B' 3 #'( 6"a. . in the .luminum tu-e is fastened -et7een a steel rod and a -ron=e rod as sho7n.&.n . erome !. (. . steel rod at / hel2s su22ort the load of >' C4.3ial loads are a22lied at the 2ositions indicated.ssume that the assem-l1 is suita-l1 -raced to 2revent -ucCling and that E S = %'' 3 #'( 6"a.MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4 . !ind the value " that 7ill not e3ceed a ma3imum overall deformation of %mm or a stress in the steel of #)' 64?m%.luminum of D' 64?m%. .' m E F #' C4 '. Eom2ute the vertical dis2lacement of the roller at E. !amadico of \$ %nd Semester S. 0he rigid -ars sho7n are se2arated -1 a roller at E and 2inned at . and F. and E/ = D( 3 #'( 6"a. or in the -ron=e of #%' 64?m%. Engr.@ m %. %'#(-%'#) "age @ . .

%'#(-%'#) "age B . STATICALL.F. !amadico of \$ %nd Semester S. = /0 . INDETERMINATE MEMBERS: If the anal1sis could not -e done -1 2lain a22lication of the three La7s of Static.F1 = /0 -M=/ Engr. the mem-er is said to -e indeterminate. erome !. determine its vertical movement. attached to t7o vertical rods as sho7n is hori=ontal -efore the load " is a22lied. 0he rigid -ar . If the load " = >'C4.&.MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4 ). ./.

!amadico of \$ %nd Semester S. 0he -eam is su22orted -1 t7o tim-er columns of the same material -ut of different cross-section. Eom2ute the value of the force at su22orts. %'#(-%'#) "age D . . @. erome !. 0he -eam as initiall1 hori=ontal -efore load " 7as a22lied. B. and carries a concentric load " = (' C4 at end F. a rigid -eam 7ith negligi-le mass is 2inned at one end and su22orted -1 t7o rods. hori=ontal -eam hinged at .MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4 We need to a22l1 2rinci2le such as DEFORMATION to determine the other unCno7ns. Pra!ti!e Pr"+(e' : >.s sho7n. !ind the vertical movement of " if " = #%' C4. . It carries an a3ial load " as sho7n. Eom2ute the value of the reactions. homogenous rod of constant cross-section is attached to un1ielding su22orts. Engr.&. .

MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4 D. homogenous -ar 7ith cross-sectional area of >'' mm% is added to rigid su22orts. "# = %> C4 and "% = >' C4. !amadico of \$ %nd Semester S. %'#(-%'#) "age \$ . erome !. It carries the a3ial loads. Fetermine the stress on each segment. .&. Engr.