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# Problem Set 8 Solutions

Math 4613, Modern Algebra I Fall 2003

Problems 5.3: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6; and 5.4: 1, 3 5.3.1 Find Aut(Z). Solution: We know that 1 generates Z,so for any automorphism f ∈ Aut(Z), f (1) must also generate Z. Since there are only two generators of Z, namely 1 and −1, then there are two possibilities for f (1), namely f1 (1) = 1 and f2 (1) = −1. Note that f1 is the identity automorphism satisfying f1 (x) = x for any x ∈ Z, and f2 (x) = −x for any x ∈ Z. Both of these are bijections which preserve addition in Z and so are clearly automorphisms. Therefore Aut(Z) = {f1 , f2 }. Since there is only one two-element group, we see that Aut(Z) ∼ = Z2 . 5.3.2 Find Aut(Zn ). Solution: We claim that Aut(Zn ) ∼ = Z∗ n. Proof: First, recall that Z∗ n denotes the multiplicative group of integers relatively prime to n, under multiplication modulo n. This group is known to have φ(n) elements, where φ is Euler’s totient function. We proved in class that any automorphism of any multiplicative cyclic group a of order n is of the form f (x) = xm , where m is relatively prime to n. For Zn , which is written additively, this means that the automorphisms are of the form fm (x) = mx, where m is relatively prime to n. This says that, for each m ∈ Z∗ n , we have an automorphism fm ∈ Aut(Zn ). This correspondence may be written as ϕ : Z∗ n → Aut(Zn ) where ϕ(m) = fm . Now, this correspondence is clearly injective, since whenever m1 = m2 , then fm1 (1) = m1 = m2 = fm2 (1), so fm1 = fm2 . Since both Z∗ n and Aut(Zn ) have φ(n) elements, then this correspondence must also be surjective. It remains to show that it is an isomorphism. Now, for m1 , m2 ∈ Z∗ n , notice that ϕ(m1 m2 ) = fm1 m2 where fm1 m2 (x) = m1 m2 x = fm1 (m2 x) = fm1 (fm2 (x)). This shows that fm1 m2 = fm1 fm2 , or that ϕ(m1 m2 ) = ϕ(m1 )ϕ(m2 ). Thus ϕ is an isomorphism and Aut(Zn ) ∼ = Z∗ n. 5.3.3 Find Aut(K ), where K is the Klein 4-group. What about Aut(Z2 × Z2 )? Solution: The Klein 4-group may also be written as D2 = {1, a1 , a2 , a3 = a1 a2 }, an abelian group where each non-identity element has order 2. Now any two of the three elements in S = {a1 , a2 , a3 } may be used as generators of K . So for any f ∈ Aut(K ), 1

Then f (a2 ) ∈ S also. Ir . so there are three choices for f (a1 ). since both S3 and Aut(K ) have six elements. 5.f (a1 ) ∈ S . so is an automorphism.3. j = 5. Imr2 = Im . Also. Each fj is clearly bijective also. so ϕ is an isomorphism of groups. note that fσ may be written as fσ (aj ) = aσ(j ) . 8. and its images on the other elements are computed from these in a way that preserves the group operation.3. First. The six possibilities for automorphisms of K then permute the elements of S . so each fj is automatically a homomorphism. By Theorem 5. Im . ϕ(στ )(aj ) = fστ (aj ) = aστ (j ) . as explained. Proof: We will construct all of the automorphisms of D4 . Therefore. of which there are 4 choices. 7. we know that Ir2 = I1 . The correspondence ϕ : S3 → Aut(K ) given by ϕ(σ ) = fσ is also an isomorphism. we compute and list the inner automorphisms where Ig (x) = gxg −1 . so to one of the reﬂections. so they have the same automorphism group. so f is then completely determined. Note: The group Z2 × Z2 ∼ = K . Note that the inner automorphisms preserve the conjugacy classes (the other automorphisms do not). This gives a maximum of 8 possible automorphisms of D4 . but ϕ(σ )ϕ(τ )(aj ) = ϕ(σ )(fτ (aj )) = ϕ(σ )(aτ (j ) ) = fσ (aτ (j ) ) = aσ(τ (j )) . Also. the automorphism maps m to an element of order 2 that does NOT commute with r. since r2 ∈ Z . but since f is injective there remain only two choices for f (a2 ). 2 . as follows. and Imr . 6. any automorphism of D4 maps r to either r or r3 . x∈K f(1) (x) ∈ K f(1 2 3) (x) ∈ K f(1 3 2) (x) ∈ K f(1 2) (x) ∈ K f(1 3) (x) ∈ K f(2 3) (x) ∈ K 1 a1 1 a1 1 a2 1 a3 1 a2 1 a3 1 a1 a2 a2 a3 a1 a1 a2 a3 a3 a3 a1 a2 a3 a1 a2 Each fσ for σ ∈ S3 is clearly a bijection and is also a homomorphism. since Ir3 = Ir . This shows that D4 has exactly 8 automorphisms. exactly 4 of which are inner. Then only one possibility for f (a3 ) remains. Now. so we have two such choices. so there is a natural one-to-one correspondence with Aut(K ) and S3 . Extra: Determine how many of these are inner automorphisms. This shows that Aut(K ) ∼ = S3 . and Imr3 = Imr .4 Show that the group of automorphisms of D4 is of order 8. We must list I1 .1. To verify that Aut(D4 ) has 8 elements. and that there are 4 = |D4 |/|Z | inner automorphisms. note that fj is deﬁned on r and m so that fj (r) is either r or r3 and fj (m) is either mr or mr3 . we must verify that these all occur. and these are clearly equal. since these are the only elements of order 4. For the remaining automorphisms fj . It is clearly a bijection. so is an automorphism of D4 .

So Aut(Z2 ) × Aut(Z3 ) ∼ = Z1 × Z2 ∼ = Z2 . respectively. the two 3-cycles. since (2 3)(1 2 3)(2 3) = (1 3 2). since 5 is relatively prime to 6. Then gag −1 = a. and 3 elements. and the mapping f (z ) = 5z . Since any two groups with two elements are isomorphic. a cyclic group of order 2. so |C (z )| = 1. all of which are divisors of |S3 | = 6.4. since both (2. (1. 0). (2. So z is conjugate only to itself. |C (x)|=1 Proof: Let z ∈ Z (G). by exercise 5. Show that Z (G). First. 1). we conclude that Aut(Z2 × Z3 ) ∼ = Aut(Z2 ) × Aut(Z3 ). 2. (1. any 3-cycle is even. and (2 3)(1 2)(2 3) = (1 3). 3 . 1) have order 6 and so generate Z2 × Z3 . The transpositions are also conjugate since (1 3)(1 2)(1 3) = (2 3). The 3-cycles are conjugate. gzg −1 = zgg −1 = z .3. so ga = ag for any g ∈ G. This shows that a ∈ Z (G). Z (G) = C (x). that is. the identity. 5. ∼ ∼ ∗∼ Proof: We know that Aut(Z2 ) ∼ = Z∗ 2 = Z1 = {1} and Aut(Z3 ) = Z3 = Z2 . 1).6 Show that Aut(Z2 × Z3 ) ∼ = Aut(Z2 ) × Aut(Z3 ). a product of an even number of transpositions. Conversely. This shows that a 3-cycle and a transposition can never be conjugate. Now Z2 × Z3 = {(0. x∈G. 5. and transpositions themselves are odd.2. for any g ∈ G. (2. (0. This means that Aut(Z2 × Z3 ) has two elements.3 Determine the conjugacy classes of the symmetric group on 3 letters and verify that the number of elements in each divides the order of the group. These conjugacy classes have 1. the parity of any permutation σ is the same as that of any conjugate τ στ −1 . Furthermore. the center of G. suppose that a ∈ G is contained in a conjugacy class of only one element. We conclude that the conjugacy classes in S3 consist of the identity. 0).4. and the 3 transpositions. 1) and (1. Any permutation σ also has the same parity (even or odd) as σ −1 . is the union of all conjugacy classes of order 1.1 Let G be a group. Solution: There are three conjugacy classes in S3 .x ∈ D4 I1 (x) ∈ D4 Ir (x) ∈ D4 Im (x) ∈ D4 Imr (x) ∈ D4 f5 (x) ∈ D4 f6 (x) ∈ D4 f7 (x) ∈ D4 f8 (x) ∈ D4 1 1 1 r r r 3 r2 r2 r2 r2 r 2 r3 r3 r3 r r r3 r3 r r m m mr2 m mr 2 mr mr mr3 mr3 mr mr2 m m mr2 mr2 mr2 m mr2 m mr3 mr mr3 mr mr3 mr3 mr mr mr3 m mr2 mr2 m 1 r3 1 r 1 1 r r r2 r2 r2 r2 mr mr3 mr mr3 1 r3 1 r3 5. 0). for any g ∈ G. We know from the book that the only automorphisms of an additive cyclic group of order 6 are the mappings f (z ) = z . Then. 1)} is a cyclic group of order 6. the identity (1) is in a class by itself. So.3. so a is conjugate only to itself.