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DEPARTMEbTT

OF AGRIOULT-e

FARMERS' BULLETIN No. 1'


moevisea)

TUBERCULOSIS IN

CATTLE

DUNCAN McEACHRAN, F.R.C.V.S., D.VAS


chiet vetedinarY InsPectoe fbe Osaad

VaaLISaE BY

AUTHArTlw

OF $14N

MfNMTgR

OF AQRaWVLTUR&

1900

FAREER S BUTLETIN.

11ti8uetis
dirt ear of t th

blletnona eath

ueca

fa eg pyva

veYitut a6 eig]id

nyteetn oow

1ti AWOndenh omand in -e hi ae, *rna 'a netur whs, ypo mandpetlenpis % sa In** thie drepades the eport ofr w he Boyst I&d

itie to det*

ffiain

Govament; te'apebt of the Bureas of Antdlde*ied gWrasn,'.SAProf. Theobold Smith, Harvard University ; Profs. Law and 'V . ore Wnl University; the late Prof. Walley, Edinburgih8HM7iNe &ce, as wel so the extensrve experiene-of the ieterinariy staff 01 hied une The statements contained herein are accepted gtwsnat% bY sci2htei-m eafag and our farer mxy accept them a uche% h@beGhavsoid mMAkn statementsen debatabk -oint& The-siteter trhaM the-f itefsledeSriswl a fHy red the bulBefin, preserve i fot futureaelasyl tik ge@ggtions con tained them to the"r own irtdividua cae. Fuffldiredtionter applyinWgthe tabercule teem *irgiv by flRhetng which an intellignt-person acenstinied to hasfe eastle MaY diseim etilei latent ease, wMech seldom present symptoms recognisable by mere clinical eamlaion. Aeemay in eondueting the, test being alidaPotteni; &"afd esi *tdb hi !#e tested br a -Go"teenet Inspectoir me hffl fit'dr estd by appRentin to the Desdertment of Agrioenhax" Ga tsalplY'IM r lsed to he wt Minisfte!r of Agrilmture. Tkis dme net agigig -htmap#, sgilb Idoiing of catdae for exiportation to the Unted states lu the event of an Imspecttedisferiftg-thr di9eusekali meM-,S" ssof the ed it widl be his duty to at esis -remove tahs ont of the by> tmu fmolated-piti whieh they mesM remn ar eetihei& 1Atil othetwise dThe ldsef; Th must also be disinfected to the:satisfaction af the Ingpenr

^INDEIMITY. As no provisiorn eofar bde fad ie Parlametht foi thle pimi arf Mld"ai for amnn&k esgts n aessnm of thr &imagse, unadetennary diraMtatistre ib&mtnity wiR be paia b th ltiniseer Af AqMfte.

4 OBLIGATIONS OF OWNERS OF DISEASED CATTLE. The following extract from the Animal Coiitagious Diseases Aet wili expiain to owners of diseased cattle their responsibilitv under this Act:Xoti ce of 3. Every cattle or farm stock owner, and every breeder of or dealer in diseaae to he unimals into Canforeigli bringing one every and animais, or other inister cattle shall, to the We of ada, on perceiving the appearance of infections or contagions ,Agriculture disease among the eattle or other animals owned by hini or under by breeders or his dealers. special care, give immediate notice to the Minister of Agriculture, at Ottawa, of the facts discovered by him, as aforesaid. Penalty for 4. Every owner of such diseased cattle or other animals who neglects neglect. to eomply with the provisions of the next preSding section shall forfoit his claini to compensation for any cattle or other animals slaughtered in accordance with the provisions of this Act; and no such compensation Or fraudulent shall bc granted him; and every penon who maliciously or fraudulently of diseaseconceals the existence of infections orcontagious disease among cattle or other animais, shall incur a penalty not exceedin.two hundred dollars. 48-49 V., e 70, s. 4Penalty for 5. Every person who turns out, keeps or grazes any animal knowing ke-aping diidegaed such animal to be infected with or labouring under any infections or conwnimalB in tagious disease, or to have been exposed to infection or contagion in or places not upon any forest, wood, moor, beach, marsh, common, waste Mclosedopen field, roadside, or other land, undivided or unenclosed land, shall, for every such offence, incur a penalty not exceeding two hundred dollars. 48-49 V., c. 70, s. 5, Penalty for 6. Every person who brings or attempts to bring into any market, fair brnging sach or other place, any animal knowii by him to bc infected aninialm to with or labouringrket, & ing under any infections or contagions disease, shall, for every such offence, ineur a penalty not exeeeding two hundred doUarB. 48-49 V., C. 70, S. 6. Penalty for 7. Every pemon who sells or disposes of, or puts off, or offers or exselling or puttlrg off poses for sale, or attempts to dispose of or put off any animal known 4uch animals, hy him to be infected with or labouring under any infections or contagious disease, or the meat, skin, hide, horris, hoofs or other parts of an animal known by him to bc infected with or labouring under any- infectious or contagions disease at the time of its death, whether such person is the owner of sueh animal, or of such meat, skia, hide. horns, hools or other parts of such an animal, or not, shall, for every 8uch offence, incur a penalty not exceeding two hundred dollars. 48-49 V., c. 70, S. 7. For thrwing 8. Every person who throws or places, or causes or suffers to be thrown earaam or placed, into or in any river, stream, canal, navigable or other water, or into or in the sea, within ten miles of the shore, the carcass of an animal whieh had died of disease, or which has been slaughtered as diseased or suspected of disease, shall. for every such offence, ineur a penalty net excesding two hundred dollars. 48-49 V., c. 70, s. S. Fard. 9. Every person who. without lawful authority or excuse, digs p or upAu= causes or a1lows to bc dug up the buried carcass of an animal carcas.% when which hs buried. died or is suspected of having died from infections or contagions di3ease, or whieh has been slaughtered as diseased or as suspected of disease, shall, for every such offence, ineur a penalty not exceeding one hundred dollars. 48-49 V.. c. 70, S. 9. Stich aniMale 10. If any animal infected with or labouring under any infections or if offered for. contagious disease, is sold, disposed of, or put off, or ii xposed or wde t be oeered for sale in any place whatsoever' or brought or attempted to be brought for the purpose of being exposed or offred for sale in agy market the Mayor, &rfair or other opeiq,(?r publie place where other animais are commouly expsed o,

5-

sale, any elerk or inspector, or other oedleer of such fair or market, or any
Or bY any justice of the peace having jurisdiction in the Piaee, or authorized or appointed by the Governor in Council, miay sein iOni any tde samle, and report the eizure to the mayor or reeve, or to any justice of use ,iem ih thig having judesdiction in the place ; and such mnayor, reeve oF$ the pee inmay Couneil, in Governor the by t'ce or Person authorized or appointed ay, strw ecos t e cause the same, together with any pens hurdies troughs, ltterd to have been infected thereby, to b est'y Or ether artices wich he judges likely otherwise disposed of, in suchmanner as ho deems forthwith detoeo provided by this Act. 48-49 V., c. 70, S. 10. irceas is proper, .. as

""ntable

or

policeman, or any other persoFn authorized by the mayor or

ee,

TUBERCULOSS
This disease claimis for its vietims nearly, perhaps we might say, all the domestie anim'als, and few of the wild animals subjected to domestieation resist the contagion, Rats, mice, and other vermin which inas ia weHl known to hoepers of menageries. agents in habit houses and outbuildings not only contraet the disease but are active spreading it. eating 80ome species are more susceptible than others and contraet it readily by food containing the germ of the disease, or inimEg the dried germs given off from the lungs and throat and animals affected in thee organe. The most susceptible of the domnestio animais are cattle, swin chichens goats it can be produced in and rabbits. Thesle contract it readily in the natural way, but material. tabenduous with inocplation sheeP, dogs, cats and horses by hump Tuberculosis in the lower animais is the analogue of consumption in the howe--r is it but Bovis) Tuberculosis famniY, Tt is due to a similar germ (Bacillus mOre virulent than the human bacillus. man to the base8r Tt is communicable from other nania to man, and from inoeulation. by and infection ani'Mals, by natum1l TUGBERCLK. organisms of msinute mieroscopie size, whe The germa (bacilli), which are liin local irritation and the formation of they reach and become located in a tissue, produce AS These ae the tabercee. cells. and dluid 6wa11 reddened areas initrated 'with f yelow or gras a coou they become a little older ther enlarge and their Tliiraper central tisms.a changes that take place within causing the death of the cheese. of that resemble way this in ane' and consitence are of Thee.nduls my vry n szefrom a pin head to a cocessut, often they d t'O The tubercules may be coe of linie salts. Stnyhadies fonmte varosn the of exaple for gland, lymphatic r tssu o th boyseek as the ""'orgn mnaY be generaliza they or &c., ovaries or udder, or 'neentrYor hoaxorthe throat, l be inoled as wella those of a e, Ogns(lvrspenkdueYs, ablonna heart, lymph glands, &c. Often the pleura and peritoneum th' thorax, luepeua whose appearances are characteristid of this xeeSne ar 0vrd.wthgap-ik tuberieles are lodged for any length of time, much destructio hnee disease. Oeenre in the afete tissue.

4ve ganissw with rounded ends and a agight e ladecibda a o-hpd Ne ie prapara to stainisg, and reqirig emplx aWoatory methods of eultivation snaierepspie g4y

6 It is a parasitic orgaiiism, which is o-nly found in the bodies and excretions, of animals affected by this disease. It thrives badly in the sunlight, which is said to kill it in front a few minutes to several hours. This fact shoiild bc remernhered in dealing with it with a view to preventing it. The invasion of the animal's body by the entrance into it of living bacilli is effected either through the digestive organs, (ingestion) or by the respiratory organs (inhalation), by transmission to the sexual organs when the testicle in invaded, and by inoculation, or by a eut or abraded surface. Without the entrance of the living bacillus into the body, tuberculosis cannot affect it. It is the seed from whieh it grows and it is easential to the development of the disease as oats, peas, or potatoes are to reproduce the plants. WUAT FLENDERS CATTLE SUSCEPTIBLE TO THIS DISEASE ? Impaired bealth froin whatever cause it arises renders cattle susceptible t tuterculosis. Heredity bas been proved iiot to bc an active cause of its propagation. It is well established by the experiments of Prof. Bang and others that calves may bc bred from tuberculous mothers, and if removed before the cow licks them, or they have sucked their mother's milk, are placed in absolutely healtliv ,4iirroundings and fed on milk from healthy cows, they can be reared and rernain so ar as iny inherited diseage is concerned perfectly fre, In-and-inbreediDg by producing animals with reduced vitalit.v. over-milking, under-feeding, want of sunlight and pure air, insufficient exercise, breeding too YOUI19Y are all what may be termed predisposing causes to tuberculosis, and should be avoided. One brecd of cattle is just as liable to contract this disease as another when subjected to the predisposing and exciting cause:. Dairy cattle are most subject to it because they are most exposed, they are more eongregated ; more closely and continnously housed, their vitality more drainP8 by heavy milking and they are kept longer than the bed breo. Their calves are more liable to milk infection, as they are fed on mixed milk, whereas the beef breeds usually .;uekl,. their ealves. The majorify of beef cattle are killed off at three or four years old, hence they are ecposed to the contagion for a shcrter term of Ide which is spent more in the open air and in sunlight. IIOW TRE DISEASE IS USUALLY INTIRODUCED INTO A IIERD AND HOW IT EXTENDS IN IT. A tuberculous bull is probably the most active agent in spmading this disease, both by cohabitation and sexual connection. Farmers canne be overcautious in buying a bull or in having cews served by one till lie has been subjected to the tuberculin test and found free froin the diBease. Nothing should induce a breeder to allow contact with his healthy cattle by a bull till he has every assurance that he is free from Tuberculosis. Tuberculous animals of any kind should bc prevented from coming in contact .with the cattle. TUBERCULOLTS ATTENDANTS. Tuberculous attendants; men or women suffering from pulmonary consumption ahould en no accourit be allowed to feed, milk, or have anything to do with cattle or pigB. The intercommunicability of the disease ftonl animals to man, and front man to animale, is an established fact no longer open to discussion. The bacilli rom the throats and lungs of diseased people or animals, being couglled up adhere to and dry on the woodwork, walls, floors and feed boxes in buildings, -cattle trucks or stock yards, and the dust being moved about by air currentB, or, . . g with the food in the hay rack or feed-trough, find acoess to the stomach and intestines, thence through the blood- or lymph channels to the abdominal glands and other organs. A^-

dieas from n e o ril rm tu ec lu cattle to,, e oisrt.i diseased cattlee is e al

l people, esp cill childre anc may bd dangerous, althoug ite

hy hee fcoY in th e freft ey See w that youranimls o beg o. tl eqaldNeveroigay nmlitotebr h ndmyPod hy kmmikad v nth ealthy. Th it is n(srcsweetb eri ay m inehborei Yiou Kiea ep yourlesf on bul. e g 16'bfr ntst helthi ofhais stokhoub may se i repatrabe injr10m ndetr sh outhe a ainm al l pe Yt be tubercnotestrah of i bll ri n eaue th e i u sl e. exeeinl a reuin r hCnver el, if ou th Al . atr hes s br ou tohnetb f rserve. tceieiso tn co s re biggvnOtt o tnmntsbfr a10 ey abou db his. t a kd nmi ce hsisdn ligl aswie calmsost ellied w o YourT yre musfatrbea elh ieuet s fti Pursan ce fa oi n pen y f iti e sseti tn h et h niai m fco orc rmy. be nt il spae.n L e y ou cwtble sufe esn;metfr ebe Wit Peiall i y f hie ar. et d'$8s rin ae onsaeacrtie th ermu becom cntmaminate byr emti tedeomomgvgea wellasb s the at t ly. nbti Urain yur onbuligs and d nit horoughb heviaonis bl oudteallimlp ta b properclou eon arif bu ob h

h xye air s aremoved a repace byr ure m orcte ta dowt inti unle a eathin br of pros th o in su ede statcag.fteari conth e n imaie. r sm ot bc l l t d ingm s a re lih soter ;&faeg ab ouel neessr tomue kilD buig h m erwa. red b ta healh Thscnol ande windwbng left open it is durening admision. Proiie pe vetilaton providsfte fiintdang no ir it makrad dof foulairag As aru le fae' aurcitec trneo near camited by emantosf.tedpngs the air my be i h wi h t e m ati teoi s i ar e ga l th droppingb nd a o m b tt the steipr r&gdVnia YPOel The ventilator s or aimrtat a8fti ni eoe lcdi twenti fe subaft.n the feetS ofquare acedng ao u

the pnn th tp to within three feet of th eln; opnc r 1losed by cord running truhpulleys.

eigcnrl

by trap doors

CATE STAN

-G

HEAD TQ IID OBJECTONABLE.


isobetinal @ate imuc more

having aalyway th he heads of hette oppoite eahote epssanimalis opposite tubercI93Js roma health standpoint, asit

to th otgint

when thy arcace wib1K their hed

to th wl.

The

te Runig atrintrugspaa nfon men h gra ay be cuoss s reen, s y hs,~

ed

attle is oetoal il tuberin frontofth- wbple

the majority of cae

ould not be detected ev y

epets

paidby a frequent coiigh but no> lever. There is itracofesrtonth icesed resonance (in

uxiation of the luings by the usua ethl

Whou th ibo a is abdominal and the glns

n organ ini the bel

hel

THE TBRUI

ET

effe t waever wiefeefrom itthe eetoofhed3asinarytgsorwn

s4hty afecie

wa

cosietdimpsil

nms

ae.Ti

eti

otdlct

oe-he bos arie ny d tn e am eadae _8budb h dprmn be sat 40 20& dMro fhan av on stre oli. esaie ray r ue ing.nse ylag or dropsis at Ordiumzed eaniags 60 eela ber dand a ndlas thert a s a elasan ab d n tess a e hir c aMM hesfreco e . mrigs the animalo slthe crad
nd f teard inje floigsgetion, ans

It beigde

huntf ol

de cosie

.I

If thy asnimli s xtr 1,000owte, but vequal resuts will btmers mh wate 10'om f advnae s hepave Sutein eto earboileacid or crelin ahn they washr thepanrea eaety0 ie, to edul reirg isl ucslin onous.n cosa orrla of l ben :vual when irr edatio r d isee thegnskin ina advan tagear On o mr n thentlrent are atu, te. Intruetleshol be e s tablTed.fo h)o quie hnded stand the at anumboermd tals, tiahehi up ini theiracusome fcipeso ai n ba-w, aafn accutoed tofd a nd milka them. ae o mgs.o re toive disr the teperar bla m1 e sleiteig co---abou use is fore Takin Theeperatnue h aigh suhould ssist h oreno eausted Thee hermd yrnesrn and thumby withn oner and ho tli w it dnger.M and strs ori.u m n .ae below 100d, sin serted iantao the otae t nTehe tembeorsatu r inw a rook or y ad c a in thued ii et an hadaesoe ro ge isbed an thr e nmt ornm he a ds a e n thestsometer shd oaue tm e ti sae tou asd age ex g, andhet inol ih neriag, ith kn fon the ide iso shul n a inecn a a ter mmta ersa beo e banb n a per cent sltc eqa eut ilb mand, behint te 1,l00ofwtru the anowMen ofbigl ha soine on diamete, anid orh e in , an te lcl 9eshi set i - he d he datgofbi wh e e to in c the tie, shoab he ct, an are achn pa s he ted.-og fo Th Caire aecustae and mif ou mt era, thehee

10
tisse bneat th ski ; f nt houl 'with the lrnad-awl piere thLe si aninsert

th.e needle inito the. pumeture, then slowly inject the. fluiid witdaighenel

graualy.The a<dva1tage of this position la tiiat the anial wheu pricked wi$th theneelecrigesfroin it, aild needles are often broken, whercas in this position it towa instead of froin the oporator. cringes after finishTh~e Besi Tlame Io Liijeot the Test.-The injectioni may be comme in aigthe normali temperatures, say, nine o'ckeck ini the evening., oeprtrs at 6 'lc omnece to take the. Ittoio.epratreaftr i nextmornngtake theevery iliree hour. tiTI it fl to normalI agan If uec pointusull peetthere will b. a rise of temperatiure which attains ishget till i about twentyabout mid-day, souwetimes later and generally it fal.gadal fo~ur hours fro11 the hour of injetion it is niormal again, The ris. in tenxperaturei no indication of the extent of the. disae. Often the. slgtaffecreaction isl a hiIh1 temperature, and post m~orteri exaunination shows but

A ri i eprture of two or more dgeswill idicate tubereiilosis. In tubereulous herds, one and a half degree would indieste the. disease aiso ; but that teprature in a single animal ln a bord woild iudicate suspicioni cuily and sugs estn affer thrt days.
SAMPL1E OF CA No. ....
of Catt wned byMr ......

UjHART.

Tiircuin Testt.........

fi

1 8te

HOW TO DEAL WITH A DISEASEI) 11ERD. When tubereulosis is discovered in a herd irnmediately remove the diseased ones fr )M the healthy to another isolated stable, or a part of the byre May bc partitioned off by clo8 boards as far as possible from the rest of the herd. In the case of low-priced cattle the owner will best serve his own interests by 'laughtering thein at once. When they are specially valuable and in calf, the experiments of Prof. Bang and others show that the calf may be saved by removiDg it as soon as born, and before the cow has licked it, 'or it has heen suckled by its diseased mother, and by placing it in ail ail probability un'n'e'-ted building, and feeding it on milk from tested cows, it will in gr'w uP free from. tuberculosis. The herd should be tested every six months, and those which reaet likewise "'no'v'Bd till ail trace of it disappears. DISINFECTION OF PREMISES. 7MOst careful and complete disinfection of infected buildings and yards in which d"a,9ed cattle have been kept should bc employed to rid them of disease germs. Ill doing this before sweeping sprinkle the floors and walls well with water to The Pre'Vent dust rising, remove drinking troughs, feed boxes and stall divisions. "Il""& Diustbe specially scrubbed, the wa-Ils, ceilings and partitions should be carefully wa8lied, and all freely sprayed with a disinfectant solution snch as carbolie acid, one Tt May bp Pint of crude acid te four gallons of water, or better still, lime wash. that every sce to taken being care pump, spraying a or brush aPPlied. by a whitewash c0ner, crack and joint is thorougbly penetrated by it. cleansing and disinfection should exiend to drinkirig troughs and fences of The -the barn-yard to make disinfection complet. DISPOSAL OF TUBERCU-LOUS CARCASSES. Tt iB allowed in densely M animgls slaughtered should bc buried or burned. the disease is limited when that regulation Governinent by populated European centres and local the flesh may bc sold for food, all others are confiscated and destroyed. In Canada no provision is made in the Animal (',OntagiOus Diseases Act for such dispose on the contrary it is strictly forbidden under section 7, 48-49 V., c. 70, which is as fouows : 7. Every person who sells or disposes of, or puts off, or offers or exposes Ponlty for melling OT Putoff any animal known by him to ting off auch for sale, or attempts to dispose of or Put or contagiou.B disease, or infectious any under labouring or with infected &c. bc animal known by him iin of parts other or the Meat, skin, hide, horns, boofs or contagions disease infectious aily under labouring or with infected to bc of such animal, owner the is person at the time of its death wbether such an anime such of parts other or hoof8 horns, ide, skin, or of such meat, two exceeding not penalty a or net, Shall for every such offence, incur hundred dollars. 48-49 V., c. 70, s. 7. and voluntarily eradicate the Every stock owner should have bis stock tested, source of danger to, thebalance constant disease rom it, beeause diseased animais are a known to be suffering f rom products their or animals sell to unlawful is Tt herd. the of Buyers of breeding stock bc. a contagious disease as tuberculosis is well known to disease. of suspected herd should not purchase from a

Tn in a few yeabe ercant e frandia The rc Ia tenaetour anneor of catroduction ad'etinte of tuberemli ind ocer rdcso thoroughly knwn ad aevntive ns urae eorcdiotehmn family andelasohr uii wer anirm, this felu destrye Onc hua heng and te loer nare ree ippa from the Domini hy a b ep o. fllw ingthesugestonsaboe md. McEisa dt oBRAN, F.Ru.Vs, y let n

Chief

eterxiary onspector

foreCania.

mesrsaee4re

nbt

aiyadlwraias

hsfl

etoe

of a

hu

iapa D.

rri

oiin

4nsadtelw

MEACHAN, .RC..S.

ChefVeeinryIspctr

Cnaa