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jhatter+ &a toang Volcanoes – Earth-shattering .

/i l0a- tin t1c g2y ch3n 45ng to6n c7u 8hi 49nh :inatubo 45t ng5t phun tr6o v6o ng6y ) ^url + ,u<ng,nkm,liAng news When Mount Pinatubo suddenly erupted on 9 June 1991, the power of volcanoes past and present again hit the headlines A Volcanoes are the ultimate earthmoving machinery. A violent eruption can blow the top few kilometres off a mountain, scatter fine ash practically all over the globe and hurl rock fragments into the stratosphere to darken the skies a continent away. But the classic eruption - cone-shaped mountain, big bang, mushroom cloud and surges of molten lava - is only a tiny part of a global story. Vulcanism, the name given to volcanic processes, really has shaped the world. Eruptions have rifted continents, raised mountain chains, constructed islands and shaped the topography of the earth. The entire ocean floor has a basement of volcanic basalt. Volcanoes have not only made the continents, they are also thought to have made the world s first stable atmosphere and provided all the water for the oceans, rivers and ice-caps. There are now about !"" active volcanoes. Every year they add two or three cubic kilometres of rock to the continents. #magine a similar number of volcanoes smoking away for the last $,%"" million years. That is enough rock to e&plain the continental crust. 'hat comes out of volcanic craters is mostly gas. (ore than )"* of this gas is water vapour from the deep earth+ enough to e&plain, over $,%"" million years, the water in the oceans. The rest of the gas is nitrogen, carbon dio&ide, sulphur dio&ide, methane, ammonia and hydrogen. The ,uantity of these gases, again multiplied over $,%"" million years, is enough to e&plain the mass of the world s atmosphere. 'e are alive because volcanoes provided the soil, air and water we need. B -eologists consider the earth as having a molten core, surrounded by a semi-molten mantle and a brittle, outer skin. #t helps to think of a softth;ng ! n<m =))=, s1c m>nh c?a c;c ,u@ n/i l0a trong ,u; kh1c v6 hiAn t>i m5t l7n nBa &u3t hiAn trCn c;c tDp chDnh c?a c;c b6i b;o. A../i l0a l6 cE m;y vFn 45ng ng7m trong lGng tr;i 43t r3t m>nh.(5t sH phun tr6o n/i l0a mInh liAt cJ thK thLi tung 49nh r5ng v6i kilomet khMi n/i, tung rNc tro bOi nhM trCn thHc tP trCn khNp to6n c7u v6 ,u<ng nhBng m@nh 4; vOn v6o t7ng bQnh lRu l6m tS# 4i b7u trT# c?a c@ m5t lOc 4Ua .hRng vO phun tr6o 4iKn hQnh ,4J l6 ,u@ n/i hQnh nJn, vO nL lVn,m5t 4;m m2y hQnh n7m v6 4Wt phun tr6n nham th>ch nJng ch@y- ch9 l6 m5t ph7n nhM trong c2u truyAn 4Ua c7u. ./i l0a, tCn 4Xt cho ,u; trQnh phun tr6o n/i l0a, thFt sH 4I 4Unh hQnh thP giV# n6y. .hBng 4Wt phun tr6o 4I &Y cNt c;c lOc 4Ua, 45n c;c dIy n/i, kiPn t>o c;c hGn 4@o v6 4Unh hQnh nCn 4Ua hQnh tr;i 43t. To6n b5 4;y 4># dRZng cJ n[n t@ng l6 4; ba\an n/i l0a .hBng n/i l0a kh]ng ch9 kiPn t>o nCn c;c lOc 4Ua m6 nhBng n/i l0a n6y cGn 4RWc tin 4I t>o t7ng khD ,uyKn Ln 4Unh 47u tiCn c?a thP giVi v6 cung c3p to6n b5 nRVc cho 4># dRZng,,song,suSi v6 chMm b<ng. ^iAn t>i cJ kho@ng !"" n/i l0a 4ang ho>t 45ng._1 mEi m5t n<m nhBng ,u@ n/i l0a n6y l>i bL sung thCm ` hoXc $ kilo mat khSi 4; cho c;c c;c lOc 4Ua. TRbng tRWng cJ m5t sS lRWng n/i l0a tRZng tH 4I lO# 4i trong suSt $%"" triAu n<m trRVc 42y. 8hS# lRWng n6y ccng 4? 4; 4K t>o nCn vM tr;i 43t. _;i gQ phun tr6i ra khMi miAng n/i l0a ph7n lVn l6 khD ga. ^Zn )"* lRWng khD ga n6y l6 nRVc 4RWc bay hZi td lGng 43t r3t s2u, 4? 4K kiPn t>o , tronh su]t $%"" triAu n<m 4J, lRWng nRVc cho t3t c@ c;c 4>i dRZng. :h7n cGn l># c?a khD ga l6 khD nitZ,c;c-bon 4i-]-&Dt, lRa huenh 4i-]-&Dt, mC-tan, a-m]-ni-<c v6 khD hi-4ro. 8hS# lRWng khD ga n6y m5t l7n nBa l>i 4RWc nh2n vV# $%"" triAu n<m, ccng 4? kiPn t>o nCn 4a sS b7u khD ,uyKn trCn thP giVi. _h/ng ta cGn sSng bbi nhBng ,u@ n/i l0a 4I cung c3p 43t, kh]ng khD v6 nRVc m6 ta c7n B._;c nh6 4Ua ch3t coi tr;i 43t cJ t2m nJng ch@y, 4RWc v2y ,uanh bbi m5t lVp vM s[n sAtfnhIo v6 m5t lVp vM bCn ngo6i c1ng,.ViAc n6y gi/p ta nghg tVi m5t ,u@ tr1ng 4un long 46o vVi lGng 4M cGn lMng nhRng lGng trNng tr1ng s[n sAthc1ng b ngo6i nhRng m[m b trongiv6 = lVp vM c1ng. .Pu nhR chiCcs vM n6y r>n m5t ch/t trong l/c lu5c thQ

jtratosphere+t7ng bQnh lRu larken sth away + l6m c;i gQ 4en 4i _lassic + 4iKn hi[n _one-shape+ hQnh nJn Bing-bang+ nL lVn (ush-room cloud+ m2y hQnh n3m jurge + sH s?i bmthni, sH t<ng vmt -lobal story+ c2u chuyAn v[ ,u@ 4Ua c7u Volcanism+n/i l0a Eruption + c;c 4Wt phun tr6o nifthvi+ &a to>c naise mountain chaino p5n dIy n/i _onstruct + kiPn t>o,&2y dHng Topography + 4Ua hQnh qcean floor + 4;y 4>i dRZng Volcanic basalt + 4; ba\an n/i l0a. _ontinent + lOc 4Ua Atmosphere+ khD ,uyKn rnstable + ko Ln 4Unh hadsi #nstability + sH ko Ln 4Unhhni All the water + to6n b5 nRVc #ce t cap + chMm b<ng Active + n<ng 45ng hadsi, 4ang ho>t 45nghvi _ubic + $.khSi _ontinential crust + vM tr;i 43t Vapour from + bay hZi td leep earth + lGng 43t r3t s2u The rest of gas + ph7n cGn l>i c?a ga The mass of + 4a sS c?a