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5 1

MOMET ABOUT A AXIS

Today’s Objectives:

Students will be able to determine the

moment of a force about an axis

using

a) scalar analysis, and

b) vector analysis.

READIG QUIZ

1. When determining the moment of a force about a specified

axis, the axis must be along _____________.

A) the x axis B) the y axis C) the z axis

D) any line in 3-D space E) any line in the x-y plane

2. The triple scalar product u • ( r × ×× × F ) results in

A) a scalar quantity ( + or - ). B) a vector quantity.

C) zero. D) a unit vector.

E) an imaginary number.

APPLICATIOS

With the force F, a person is

creating the moment M

A

.

What portion of M

A

is used in

turning the socket?

The force F is creating the

moment M

O

. How much of

M

O

acts to unscrew the

pipe?

SCALAR AALYSIS

Recall that the moment of a force about any point A is M

A

= F d

A

where d

A

is the perpendicular (or shortest) distance from the point

to the force’s line of action. This concept can be extended to find

the moment of a force about an axis.

In the figure above, the moment about the y-axis would

be M

y

= 20 (0.3) = 6 N·m. However, this calculation is

not always trivial and vector analysis may be preferable.

VECTOR AALYSIS

Our goal is to find the moment of F

(the tendency to rotate the body)

about the axis a’-a.

First compute the moment of F about any arbitrary point O

that lies on the a’a axis using the cross product.

M

O

= r × ×× × F

Now, find the component of M

O

along the axis a’-a using the

dot product.

M

a

= u

a

• M

O

VECTOR AALYSIS (continued)

M

a

can also be obtained as

The above equation is also called the

triple scalar product.

In the this equation,

u

a

represents the unit vector along the axis a’-a axis,

r is the position vector from any point on the a’-a axis to any

point A on the line of action of the force, and

F is the force vector.

ENGR& 214 Lecture Notes for Hibbeler Section 4.5 2

EXAMPLE

Given: A force is applied to

the tool to open a gas valve.

Find: The magnitude of the

moment of this force about

the z axis of the value.

Plan:

1) We need to use M

z

= u • (r × ×× × F).

2) Note that u = 1 k.

3) The vector r is the position vector from A to B.

4) Force F is already given in Cartesian vector form.

A

B

EXAMPLE(continued)

u = 1 k

r

AB

= {0.25 sin 30° i + 0.25 cos30° j} m

= {0.125 i + 0.2165 j} m

F = {-60 i + 20 j + 15 k} N

M

z

= u • (r

AB

× ×× × F)

0 0 1

0.125 0.2165 0

-60 20 15

M

z

=

= 1{0.125(20) – 0.2165(-60)} N·m

= 15.5 N·m

A

B

COCEPT QUIZ

1. The vector operation (P × ×× × Q) • R equals

A) P × ×× × (Q • R).

B) R • (P × ×× × Q).

C) (P • R) × ×× × (Q • R).

D) (P × ×× × R) • (Q × ×× × R ).

COCEPT QUIZ

2. The force F is acting

along DC. Using the

triple product to

determine the moment

of F about the bar BA,

you could use any of the

following position

vectors except ______.

A) r

BC

B) r

AD

C) r

AC

D) r

DB

E) r

BD

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVIG

Given: A force of 80 lb acts

along the edge DB.

Find: The magnitude of the

moment of this force

about the axis AC.

Plan:

1) We need to use M

AC

= u

AC

• (r

AB

× ×× × F

DB

)

2) Find u

AC

= r

AC

/ r

AC

3) Find F

DB

= 80 lb u

DB

= 80 lb (r

DB

/ r

DB

)

4) Complete the triple scalar product.

SOLUTIO

r

AB

= { 20 j } ft

r

AC

= { 13 i + 16 j } ft

r

DB

= { -5 i + 10 j – 15 k } ft

u

AC

= ( 13 i + 16 j ) ft / (13

2

+ 16

2

)

½

ft

= 0.6306 i + 0.7761 j

F

DB

= 80 {r

DB

/ (5

2

+ 10

2

+ 15

2

)

½

} lb

= {-21.38 i + 42.76 j – 64.14 k } lb

ENGR& 214 Lecture Notes for Hibbeler Section 4.5 3

0.6306 0.7706 0

0 20 0

-21.38 42.76 -64.14

M

AC

=

M

AC

= 0.6306 {(20)(-64.14) – 0} – 0.7706 {0 – 0} lb·ft

= -809 lb·ft

The negative sign indicates that the sense of M

AC

is

opposite to that of u

AC

Solution (continued)

Now find the triple product, M

AC

= u

AC

• ( r

AB

× ×× × F

DB

)

ft

lb

ATTETIO QUIZ

1. For finding the moment of the

force F about the x-axis, the

position vector in the triple

scalar product should be ___ .

A) r

AC

B) r

BA

C) r

AB

D) r

BC

2. If r = {1 i + 2 j} m and F = {10 i + 20 j + 30 k} N, then

the moment of F about the y-axis is ____ N·m.

A) 10 B) -30

C) -40 D) None of the above.

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