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Jawahar navodaya vidyalaya

Seegodu, Balehonnur, chikmagalur

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY
PROJECT REPORT 2013-2014

NAME: G L Sai Ramya CLASS: XII science

EXAM REG NO:

Jawahar navodaya vidyalaya


Seegodu, Balehonnur, chikmagalur

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that this bonafide project work in the subject of BIOLOGY has been done by G L Sai Ramya of class XII Science in the academic year 2013-14 and submitted to A.I.S.S.C.E. practical examination conducted by CBSE at Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya Seegodu, Chikmagalur.

Teacher incharge

principal

Internal examiner

external examiner

Acknowledgement
JAWAHAR NAVODAYA VIDYALAYA
Seegodu, Balehonnur, Chikmagalur

I hereby acknowledgement my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to the following personalities whose immense help, genius, guidance, encouragement and necessary suggestions, initiation, enthusiasm and inspiration made this work a master art and a joint enterprise.
Mr. M K Madhusudhan Mr. Anand H M Mrs. V V Soudamini Mr. K M Rami Reddy PGT biology Lab Assistant Vice Principal Principal

Aim: Study of construction and its


uses of Biogas Digester

Principle: Bio Gas is a mixture of


gases (containing predominantly methane) produced

by the microbial activities and which may be used as fuel requirements

BIOGAS
Biogas is an inflammable gas produced by bacteria in the process of fermentation of organic matter such as animal manure under anaerobic conditions. The process takes place in what is called a digester. The end results of the fermentation are: i. Biogas mainly composed of Methane (60 65%) and carbon dioxide (30 35%). The remaining is composed of hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulphide, Carbon dioxide and other gases. ii. Slurry this is a mixture of liquid and solid effluents of the anaerobic digestion, a good fertilizer. The process of decomposition can take place only if: I. Oxygen is excluded from the process (air tight conditions) II. The raw material contains Nitrogen III. The temperature is favorable the optimum is about 35 degrees Celsius (a range of 20 40) as a temperature much below or above this retards or arrests the process IV. The reaction is slightly alkaline, with pH of about 7.5

The facts about biogas from cow dung:


Cow dung gas is 55-65% methane, 30-35% carbon dioxide, with some hydrogen, nitrogen and other traces. Its heating value is around 600 B.T.U. per cubic foot. Natural gas consists of around 80 % methane, yielding a B.T.U. value of about 1000. Biogas may be improved by filtering it through limewater to remove carbon dioxide, iron filings to absorb corrosive hydrogen sulphide and calcium chloride to extract water vapour after the other two processes. Cow dung slurry is composed of 1.8-2.4% nitrogen (N2), 1.0-1.2% phosphorus (P2O5), 0.6-0.8% potassium (K2O) and 50-75% organic humus. About one cubic foot of gas may be generated from one pound of cow manure at around 28C. This is enough gas to cook a day's meals for 4-6 people in India. About 1.7 cubic metres of biogas equals one litre of gasoline. The manure produced by one cow in one year can be converted to methane which is the equivalent of over 200 litres of gasoline.

Gas engines require about 0.5 m3 of methane per horsepower per hour. Some care must be taken with the lubrication of engines using solely biogas due to the "dry" nature of the fuel and some residual hydrogen sulphide, otherwise these are a simple conversion of a gasoline engine.

SITE FOR PLANT


Area required for the biogas plant 100-800 sq. feet depending on requirement. There are some precautionary measures before you chose a site for the installation of plant, details is as under: High voltage electricity cables should not pass over the plant. Site should be at least 30 Meters away from the living area. There should be no trees & shed over the plant. Plant should be directly open to the sunlight.

Working of biogas digesters


The main part of a biogas system is a large tank, or digester. Inside this tank, bacteria convert organic waste into methane gas through the process of anaerobic digestion. Each day, the operator of a biogas system feeds the the digester with household by-products such as market waste, kitchen waste, and manure from livestock. The methane gas produced inside biogas system may be used for cooking, lighting, and other energy needs. Waste that has been fully digested exits the biogas system in the form of organic fertiliser.

FERMENTATION
There are two basic types of organic decomposition that can occur: aerobic (in the presence of oxygen), and anaerobic (in the absence of oxygen) decomposition. All organic material, both animal and vegetable can be broken down by these two processes, but the products of decomposition will be quite different in the two cases. Aerobic decomposition (fermentation) will produce carbon dioxide, ammonia and some other gases in small quantities, heat in large quantities and a final product that can be used as a fertiliser. Anaerobic decomposition will produce methane, carbon dioxide, some hydrogen and other gases in traces, very little heat and a final product with a higher nitrogen content than is produced by aerobic fermentation. Anaerobic decomposition is a two-stage process as specific bacteria feed on certain organic materials. In the first stage, acidic bacteria dismantle the complex organic molecules into peptides, glycerol, alcohol and the simpler sugars. When these compounds have been produced in sufficient quantities, a second type of bacteria starts to convert these simpler compounds into methane. These methane producing bacteria are particularly

influenced by the ambient conditions, which can slow or halt the process completely if they do not lie within a fairly narrow band.

GAS COLLECTION
The biogas in an anaerobic digester is collected in an inverted drum. The walls of the drum extend down into the slurry to provide a seal. The drum is free to move to accommodate more or less gas as needed. The weight of the drum provides the pressure on the gas system to create flow. The biogas flows through a small hole in the roof of the drum. A non-return valve here is a valuable investment to prevent air being drawn into the digester, which would destroy the activity of the bacteria and provide a potentially explosive mixture inside the drum. Larger plants may need counterweights of some sort to ensure that the pressure in the system is correct. The drum must obviously be slightly smaller than the tank, but the difference should be as small as possible to prevent loss of gas and tipping of the drum.

Bio-gas digesters collect human and animal waste (feces and urine) in an underground tank. Microorganisms break down the waste within the tank by anaerobic digestion, which releases a mix of gases, mostly methane. The gas rises and collects in a domed ceiling where it builds pressure. A valve and a hose attach to the top of the tank, allowing it to be piped directly into the house where it is connected to a gas-burning stove. The gas does not smell (like many might suspect) and does not make smoke. When the tank reaches capacity, excess effluent that has already undergone digestion (slurry) is pushed out of the tank by natural pressure, through an overflow pipe and into a holding bin, where organic waste like leaves, grass or rice husks can be added to create highquality fertilizer and much.

Application/use of Biogas digester


i. A bio digester makes an important contribution and improvement of natural resources and environment through provision of energy for cooking and lighting ii. It can be used as a tool for clearing and digesting animal manure making it better and ready as fertilizer for use in gardens and fish ponds iii. It improves the sanitary conditions in homesteads. Among other advantages are: - being smokeless, reduce amount of petroleum products needed by a household, saves household time and money as well as firewood. The gas is non poisonous. Biogas can be produced from and animal (cattle, pigs and chicken) waste.

Biogas Utilization
Biogas can be used readily in all applications designed for natural gas such as direct combustion including absorption heating and cooling, cooking, space and water heating, drying, and gas turbines. It may also be used in fueling internal combustion engines and fuel cells for production of mechanical work and/or electricity. If cleaned up to adequate standards is may be injected into gas pipelines and provide illumination and steam production. Finally, through a catalytic chemical oxidation methane can be used in the production of methanol production.

Uses of biogas
Excrement from animals and humans is turned from waste to benefit The waste collected from one cow or buffalo, a couple goats and one family provides enough gas for regular cooking needs Families with more animals and a larger tank could also use gas for heating and lighting The gas is a renewable, clean-burning source of fuel Gas replaces wood or charcoal for cooking, eliminating the need to cut firewood and greatly reducing deforestation Families in unforested areas no longer have to pay for firewood or charcoal, saving them money The post-digestion slurry is (nearly) free of pathogens and creates excellent natural fertilizer and mulch for crops, eliminating the need for families to buy chemical fertilizers, saving them money and retaining more nutrients in the land Using gas instead of wood or charcoal eliminates respiratory health issues caused by inhaling smoke from open fires in kitchens and open spaces which affects women especially (who do most of the cooking) Gas provides fuel for boiling water, sterilizing it and saving families and children from waterborne diseases

(many people already know to boil water, but where fuel is scarce or expensive, free gas may lead to families feeling freer to boil water more consistently) If used for lighting, families can avoid using kerosene and its dangerssmoke inhalation and risk of fires and burns

Typical composition of biogas


Compound
Methane Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Hydrogen Hydrogen sulphide Oxygen

Molecular formula
CH4 CO2 N2 H2 H2S O2

%
5075 2550 010 01 00

In the fermentation pathway, acetic acid undergoes a dismutation reaction to produce methane and carbon dioxide:[16][17] CH3COO + H+ CH4 + CO2 G = -36 kJ/reaction

bibliography
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biogas biogas.ifas.ufl.edu/digesters.asp http://www.ecomena.org/working-of-a-commercial-biogas-plant/ www.biogas.de/en/technology