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Fundamentals of CAD


CAD can be defined as the use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. Also known as CADD (Computer Aided Design and Drafting)


Computer Aided Design (CAD) package has three components: a) Design b) Analysis and c) Visualization

a) Design: Design refers to geometric modeling, i.e., 2-D and 3-D modeling, including, drafting, part creation, creation of drawings with various views of the part, assemblies of the parts, etc. b) Analysis: Analysis refers to finite element analysis and optimization. In general, a geometric model is first created and then the model is analyzed for loads, stresses, moment of inertia, and volume, etc. c) Visualization: Visualization refers to computer graphics, which includes: rendering a model, creation of pie charts, contour plots, shading a model, sizing, animation, etc.

Various Disciplines of CAD .

Typical Product Life Cycle The Design Process Design needs Design definitions. and requirements Collecting relevant design information and feasibility study Synthesis Design conceptualization Analysis Design documentation and communication Design evaluation Design optimization The CAD Process Design analysis Design modeling and simulation Production planning Design and procurement of new tools Order materials NC. DNC programming The Manufacturing Process The CAM Process Production Quality control Packaging Shipping Process planning Marketing . CNC. specifications.

Better visualization of drawings. screws etc. any type of view can generated very quickly and efficiently. Easier creation and correction of drawings. Automation of repeated tasks. Parametric Approach.Due to parametric approach lot of time is saved in doing repetitive work.Once we create 3D model . realistic appearance of 3D objects can be obtained. can be stored in the library and can be recalled whenever required. nut-bolts. 3.Most frequently used designs and drawing symbols such asgears. .For the same object CAD system allow different types of projection views. 2.Advantages/Reason for Implementing CAD 1. Due to provision of rendering and shading effects. 4. washers.

Increased accuracy.Any change in the drawing is reflected in the 3D model/ assembly and vice versa. 6.Continue.Drawings can be more conveniently filed. Bi-directional associativity . the excellent and error free drawings can be produced very easily. retrieved and transmitted on disks. Improved filing system..Using computer. 7. 5. .

Data exchange format. Some of the standard formats are IOES. DXF. For this we use this standard file format is known as neutral file format.Continue.Nowadays numerious software are available for CAD/CAM applications.. STEP etc.. STL. 8. Every software has its own standard with the increase in number of CAD/CAM systems there is a desire for increased mobility of data both internally within a company and externally to and from other companies. . Thus to integrate various activities in the organization data must be exchanged and this can be only possible by introducing translator amongst various CAD/CAM softwares .

Multitask application. it can be used for numerous down streams applications of CAD which includes Computer aided Manufacturing (CAM). tolerance stacking. Finite element analysis (FEA). simulations etc. Computer aided process planning (CAPP). 10.Once 3D model is prepared.Continue.It is possible to make various types of analysis which includes mass properties.. Quick design analysis. collision between parts etc. . MRP system. Computer aided quality control (CAQC\ Robot programming. 9.

CAD 1.Disadvantages . Equipment is expensive 2. Need to train staff .

6. Modifying and improving models of the components. 5. Checking interference between mating parts of an assembly. 3. . 4. Developing solid models of various components and assemblies using cad software packages. Studying the product for its manufacturing planning.Applications 1. standardization and simplification. Getting the views of the product or components from different angles and different sections. 2. Color selection of solid models.

8. Stress analysis of machine components. 7. Preparing database for future reference and record. buildings and bridges. 9..Study the product for material requirement. .Continue. 10. Preparing detailed component drawings and assembly drawings. costing and value engineering.

instead of with pencil. . paper and eraser Instead of a pencil.CAD VERSUS PENCIL. AND ERASER (Conventional Design)   CAD programs are software that allow the designer to draw on his or her computer screen. PAPER. the applicator uses a mouse and keyboard.

PAPER. AND ERASER (Conventional Design)      Reuse Changes are faster Storage and retrieval are easier Exchange files with others Analysis can be done .CAD VERSUS PENCIL.

dynamics response. . heat transfer calculation etc. one or more graphical display terminals. Examples include Stress. keyboard and other equipment.Strain Analysis.Introduction   CAD hardware generally includes the computer. CAD software consists of the computer programs to implement computer graphics on the system plus application programs to facilitate engineering function of the user.

CAD software .

CAD software .

CAD software .

CAD Workstation/CAD Lab .

color (2) A0 Laser Plotter  Tutor/Instructor workstation/server  Student Workstations  .Typical CAD/CAM Laboratory The CAD/CAM laboratory should offer an ideal solution to teach Computer Aided Design (CAD) & Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM). Computer Aided Engineering (CAE)  Includes  Printer Station (1) Laser printer (B&W)  Plotter Station (1) A0 Plotter with Roll Feed.

2 serial ports. dual core Processor. Windows XP. . 1 parallel port Graphics card. Desktop System Pentium motherboard. 2GB memory 160 GB hard disk 52xCDROM 17"SVGA monitor. Network card. Keyboard.Student Workstations Specification       Pentium based system. 3 button mouse.

3 button mouse. Keyboard. Network card. Windows XP PC desk . 2 serial ports. 1 parallel port Graphics card. 4 GB memory 160 GB SCSI hard disk drive 52x DVD ROM 21"SVGA monitor.Tutor/Instructor workstation/server specification       Pentium based system Pro 2000 Processor Server Pentium motherboard.

and button boxes. digitizers. . Some other input devices used in particular applications are data gloves. dials. trackball. joystick. and voice systems.Hardware and Software Requirements of CAD   INPUT DEVICES Most systems have a keyboard and one or more additional devices specially designed for interactive input. image scanners. touch panels. spaceball. These include a mouse.

INPUT DEVICES  Keyboards An alphanumeric keyboard on a graphics system is used primarily as device for entering text strings. or graphics functions. menu selections. The keyboard is an efficient device for inputting such non-graphic data as picture labels associated with a graphics display. Keyboards can also be provided with features to facilitate entry of screen coordinates. .

The optical sensor detects movement across the lines in the grid. two. One.INPUT DEVICES  Mouse A mouse is small hand-held box used to position the screen cursor. or three buttons are usually included on the top of the mouse for signaling the execution of some operation. Another method for detecting mouse motion is with an optical sensor. . Since a mouse can be picked up and put down at another position without change in cursor movement. such as recording cursor position or invoking a function. it is used for making relative changes in the position of the screen cursor.. Wheels or rollers on the bottom of the mouse can be used to record the amount and direction of movement. the mouse is moved over a special mouse pad that has a grid of horizontal and vertical lines. For these systems.

others function as stand-alone units. Most joysticks select screen positions with actual stick movement.INPUT DEVICES  Joysticks A joystick consists of a small. . others respond to pressure on the stick. vertical lever (called the stick) mounted on a base that is used to steer the screen cursor around. Some joysticks are mounted on a keyboard. Figure below shows a movable joystick.

or interactively selecting coordinate positions on an object is a digitizer. painting.INPUT DEVICES  Digitizers A common device for drawing. These devices can be used to input coordinate values in either a two-dimensional or a three-dimensional space. .

. Depending on the technology. coded pulses. and an electric signal is induced in a wire coil in an activated stylus or hand cursor to record a tablet position. or phase shifts can be used to determine the position on the tablet. Electromagnetic pulses are generated in sequence along the wires. either signal strength. Many graphics tablets are constructed with a rectangular grid of wires embedded in the tablet surface.

laser printer & inkjet printer are commonly used. . Eg: Dot matrix printer.HARD-COPY DEVICES  We can obtain hard-copy output for our images in several formats.

that spans a sheet of paper. An example of a table-top flatbed pen plotter is given in Figure below.below . and felt-tip pens are all possible choices for use with a pen plotter. a vacuum. ball-point. Either clamps. Crossbars can be either moveable or stationary. Plotter paper can lie flat or be rolled onto a drum or belt.  Drafting layouts and other drawings are typically generated with ink-jet or pen plotters. rollfeed pen plotter is shown in Fig. and a larger. or crossbar. while the pen moves back and forth along the bar. or an electrostatic charge hold the paper in position. Wet-ink. A pen plotter has one or more pens mounted on a carriage. Pens with varying colors and widths are used to produce a variety of shadings and line styles.

The operation of most video monitor is based on the standard cathode-ray tube (CRT) design. the primary output device in a graphics system is a video monitor (Fig. Refresh Cathode-Ray Tubes Raster-Scan Displays Random-Scan Displays Color CRT Monitors Flat-Panel Displays      .below).VIDEO DISPLAY DEVICES  Typically.

This type of display is called a refresh CRT. Because the light emitted by the phosphor fades very rapidly. A beam of electrons (cathode rays). The phosphor then emits a small spot of light at each position contacted by the electron beam. One way to keep the phosphor glowing is to redraw the picture repeatedly by quickly directing the electron beam back over the same points. some method is needed for maintaining the screen picture. . passes through focusing and deflection systems that direct the beam towards specified position on the phosphor-coated screen. emitted by an electron gun.Refresh Cathode-Ray Tubes   Operation of a CRT.

In the vacuum inside the CRT envelope.below). or an accelerating anode can be used. Heat is supplied to the cathode by directing a current through a coil of wire. . inside the cylindrical cathode structure. negatively charged electrons are then accelerated toward the phosphor coating by a high positive voltage. This causes electrons to be “boiled off” the hot cathode surface. Sometimes the electron gun is built to contain the accelerating anode and focusing system within the same unit. a in fig below . The primary components of an electron gun in a CRT are the heated metal cathode and a control grid (fig. called the filament. The accelerating voltage can be generated with a positively charged metal coating on the in side of the CRT envelope near the phosphor screen.

the “excited” phosphor electrons begin dropping back to their stable ground state. When the electrons in the beam collide wit the phosphor coating . and the remainder causes electron in the phosphor atoms to move up to higher quantum-energy levels. they are stopped and there are stopped and their kinetic energy is absorbed by the phosphor. Spots of light are produced on the screen by the transfer of the CRT beam energy to the phosphor. Part of the beam energy s converted by friction into heat energy. The frequency ( or color ) of the light emitted by the phosphor is proportional to the energy difference between the excited quantum state and the ground state. . After a short time. giving up their extra energy as small quantums of light energy. What we see on the screen is the combined effect of all the electrons light emissions: a glowing spot that quickly fades after all the excited phosphor electrons have returned to their ground energy level.

 Different kinds of phosphor are available for use in a CRT. graphics monitor are usually constructed with a persistence in the range from 10 to 60 microseconds. A phosphor with low persistence is useful for animation . static pictures. . have excited electrons returning to the ground state ) after the CRT beam is removed. a high-persistence phosphor is useful for displaying highly complex. Besides color. a major difference between phosphors is their persistence: how long they continue to emit light ( that is. Although some phosphor have a persistence greater than 1 second. Lower-persistence phosphors require higher refresh rates to maintain a picture on the screen without flicker. Persistence is defined as the time it take the emitted light from the screen to decay to one-tenth of its original intensity.

Each screen point is referred to as a pixel or pel (shortened forms of picture element). the electron beam is swept across the screen.Raster-Scan Displays  In a raster. Picture definition is stored in memory area called the refresh buffer or frame buffer. This memory area holds the set of intensity values for all the screen points. the beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots. Stored intensity values are then retrieved from the refresh buffer and “ painted” on the screen one row (scan line) at a time (fig. .below). one row at a time from top to bottom. As the electron beam moves across each row.scan system.


is called the horizontal retrace of the electron beam. . the electron beam returns (vertical retrace)to the top left corner of the screen to begin the next frame. after refreshing each scan line. Sometimes. Refreshing on raster-scan displays is carried out at the rate of 60 to 80 frames per second. although some systems are designed for higher refresh rates. The return to the left of the screen. refresh rates are described in units of cycles per second. where a cycle corresponds to one frame. And at the end of each frame (displayed in 1/80th to 1/60th of a second). or Hertz (Hz). At the end of each scan line. the electron beam returns to the left side of the screen to begin displaying the next scan line.

 On some raster-scan systems (and in TV sets). Then after the vertical retrace. each frame is displayed in two passes using an interlaced refresh procedure. . the beam sweeps out the remaining scan lines(fig. Interlacing of the scan lines in this way allows us to see the entire screen displayed in one-half the time it would have taken to sweep across all the lines at once from top to bottom. the beam sweeps across every other scan line from top to bottom. In the first pass.below).

Random-Scan Displays  Random scan monitors draw a picture one line at a time and for this reason are also referred to as vector displays (or stroke-writing or calligraphic displays).The component lines of a picture can be drawn and refreshed by a random-scan system in any specified order .

drawing commands have been processed. display program. Random-scan displays are designed to draw al the component lines of a picture 30 to 60times each second. Picture definition is now stored as a set of line-drawing commands in an area of memory referred to as the refresh display file. Sometimes the refresh display file is called the display list. Refresh rate on a random-scan system depends on the number of lines to be displayed . After all line. the system cycles back to the first line command in the list. . or simply the refresh buffer. To display a specified picture. the system cycles through the set of commands in the display file. drawing each component line in turn.