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# 1126

PROCEEDINGS OF THE I-R-E

July

Some Techniques for Network Synthesis*
GEORGE L. MATTHAEIt, ASSOCIATE, IRE
Summary-Part I: Synthesis of Immittances with Two Poles and Two Zeros. Cauer's continued-fraction technique is generalized for use in realizing RLC network immittances. Using this method, element values are determined by simple processes of "forward" and "reverse" division. Immittances F(p) with two poles and zeros may be grouped in three classes according to the frequency jwm at which Re F(jw) is a minimum. For Class I, w,m=0; for Class II, &j = °; and for Class III, wOrn is finite. Class I and II F(p) can be realized immediately by making a continued-fraction expansion. If both F(p) and 1/F(p) are Class III, to obtain a realization without unity-coupled coils the function must be split into two terms which may then be expanded in continued fractions. Simple formulas are presented which enable one to easily classify F(p) and determine an appropriate realization method. Part II: A Constant-Resistance Ladder for Transfer Function Synthesis. The physical factors that determine the poles and zeros of a transfer function are examined. By use of physical insight, a design procedure for a constant-resistance ladder network is arrived at. This ladder network is found to have the same realm of application as the conventional, RLC, constant-resistance bridged-T. However, the ladder has the advantages of: fewer elements, more flexibility, and requiring less flat loss if the bridged-T requires flat loss. Complicated transfer functions may be realized in a chain of ladder sections having arm immittances with only two poles and two zeros. The techniques described in Part I may be utilized to facilitate the design of such sections.

Following Bode,2 we shall call F(p) an immittance since it may be regarded equally well as either an impedance or an admittance. A necessary and sufficient condition for F(p) to be realizable as a physical, passive imittance is that F(p) must be what Brune3 has defined as a positive-real function.4 It can be seen that in the case of the relatively simple function (1) the conditions for p-r character may be reduced to: A. All nonzero coefficients must be real and positive. B. Re F(jw) . 0 for all w. Condition A is easily checked, but we shall wish to have a simple method for checking condition B. Note that any immittance function can be expressed
as

F (p)

ml + ni
m M2

-+ + n2

(2)

where the m's are polynomials with only even-powered terms and the n's are polynomials with only odd-powered terms. As Guillemin shows5
Re F(jwo) =-mm2 - nll2 (3) M2 -n2 p jw From (3), it can be seen that if p-r condition A is satisfied, then p-r condition B will be satisfied if the equation mlm2 - nn2 = 0 (4)

PART I: SYNTHESIS OF IMMITTANCES WITH Two POLES AND Two ZEROS SYSTEMS HAVING transfer functions of any complexity can be synthesized in a chain of structures whose component impedances have no more than two poles and two zeros. Some structures which may be used in this manner are the constant-resistance lattice, the constant-resistance bridged-T, and a constantresistance ladder structure which will be described in Part II of this paper. In Part I we shall endeavor to see how we can find the simplest realization for any given impedance or admittance with two poles and two zeros (minimum number of circuit elements required may vary from two to nine if unity-coupled coils are excluded). In Part II a constant-resistance ladder structure having advantages for the synthesis of transfer functions will be introduced. The techniques described in Part I will be seen to be of considerable help in the synthesis of such networks.

has no roots of odd multiplicity on the jw axis. This is so because the numerator of (3) will have odd-order zeros on the jco axis if Re F(jw) swings from positive values to negative values. Constructing (4) from (1) and using some elementary theory of equation it can be seen that (4) will have no roots of odd multiplicity on the jw axis if b - ae + dg . 2Vgbd. (5) Thus we arrive at the important conclusion that if p-r condition A is satisfied for (1), then condition B will be satisfied if, and only if (5) is satisfied. Three Classes of Functions The Conditions for Realizability The nature of the Re F(jw) characteristic can tell us much about how difficult a given immittance will be to Any impedance or admittance function having two In general we can classify immittances of the realize. poles' may be represented in the form form of (1) in three classes: Class I having Re F(jto)min. gp' + ap + b (1) 2 H. W. Bode, "Network Analysis and Feedback Amplifier Dep2 + ep + d
F
*

t Div. of Elec. Eng., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley 4, Calif. Since, when including the point at infinity, every rational function has as many poles as zeros, we need only refer to the number of poles.
'

Decimal classification: R143. Original manuscript received by the IRE, January 19, 1954.

sign," D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, N. Y.; 1945. 3 0. Brune, "Synthesis of a finite two-terminal network whose driving-point impedance is a prescribed function of frequency," Jour. Math. & Phys., vol. 10, pp. 191-236; 1931. 4Herein we shall abbreviate positive-real as p-r. 6 E. A. Guillemin, "Modern Methods of Network Synthesis," Advances in Electronics, Edited by L. Marton, Academic Press, Inc., New York, N. Y., vol. III, pp. 261-303; 1951.

U 2(ak . = F(jO) b/d. = Figs. (9) Fig. mlm2 - n1n2 aCkm22 + akfl22 m2 2- n22 IP=jco) (10) When F'(p) is a Class III.from stant must be subtracted from a function to make the remainder satisfy (6). and 3-Real part characteristics which depict three classes of positive-real functions. at finite values of ±co (see Figs. Class II having Re F(jw)minj at w= m. For the Class III case we may utilize the following analysis. minimum-resistance. 1. Then one of the values is the height the procedure of removing a constant from the immit. 1. 2. let Re F'(jw) = Re F(jw)-ak Impedance realization of a continued fraction of positive-real terms. e. and g parameters being those of (1). III functions.n1n2 M22. = F(jf) = g. Re F(jco)min. It is possible for there to be two values of a which will satAn important process in the synthesis of networks is isfy (12) and (13). U 2d -e F'(p) = F(p) b/d (8) will be a minimum real-part. Continued-Fraction Expansions The input impedance function of the ladder network of Fig. and Class III having Re F(jw))min. (6) (14) F'(p) = F(p) -c Immittance functions which satisfy (6) are often called will be a Class III. p-r function. and the a. (7) Thus for this case. minimum real-part function.n22 iP=iX - 1127 ak at w=0. Sometimes it is necessary to know at what frequency but here we shall refer to them as minimum-real-part the minimum or maximum of Re F(jw) occurs for Class functions. respectively).k which satisfy the equations: (U2-4d2)ak2+ (4gd2+4bd. Similarly if F(p) is Class II and all of the coefficients in (1) are nonzero.1954 Matthaei: Some Techniques for Network Synthesis mlm2. b. Thus the function Re F'(jco)min. Using (3). then if F(p) is a Class I immittance where Xk is defined by (13). - Re F(jw)min. (15) nonzero. These frequencies are easily computed It is often necessary to determine how large a' con.of the Re F(jw) curve at a minimum while the other is tance function so that the resulting function F'(p) has the height at a maximum as illustrated by a1 and a2 in the property that Fig. from (10) it can be seen that mIm2 Re n1n2 - CZkm22 + akn22 = 0 F(jw) (11) CLASS I 0 cc (a polynomial in p) must have second-order roots on the jw axis at the frequencies where (6) is satisfied.> 2g - (13) where W = b = - ae + dg. 4 and removal of a constant equal to g will give the desired result. By analysis of (11) it can be shown that double roots will appear on the jw-axis for values of a. 2. 3.2UW)ak+ (W2-4gbd) = 0 (12) and CLASS Re F(jw) 0 II co W Xk = - aA. minimum real-part p-r function. minimum-conductance functions. and 3. d. = 0. 4 may be represented by the continued-fraction expansion . If all of the coefficients in (1) are jWk = j\Xk.

The result will be of the form Fs(p) will not have a pole at infinity and will be p-r if Fo(p) is p-r. The result is of the form Fo(p) = -+ F3(p). (26) The function F6(p) will necessarily have a zero at infinity so it in turn can be broken up by use of operation hip 5. 5-Admittance realization of a continued fraction of positive-real terms. (19) Similarly reverse division will be defined as long division carried out in the manner indicated by: hkpk + * + hlp + ho)gpn + gn + F5(p) ho + h1p + can + hkpk)go + glp +. then Fo(p) has a pole at the origin. then a step of forward division will remove a constant equal to Re Fo(jw)minj = Re F(j )= F( oo). If Fo(p) is Class II function and n=k. Fo(p) = -- + F1(p). If terms go and ho are present and Fo(p) is a Class re(17) I p-r function. In this case the function is inverted to make the identified as series impedances or shunt admittances of a ladder network in accordance with (16) or (17). By use of these six operations. (20) An important kind of continued-fraction expansion be made by use of the following operations involving forward and reverse division: 1. then Fo(p) has a zero at the fraction of simple p-r terms. where F2(p) will not have a pole at the origin and will be p-r of Fo(p) is p-r. ho (23) Fig. If go>0 but ho=O. If n=k-1. Let F(p) Fo(p) =n-hk + F4(P) v (24) gpn + hkpk _lpn-1 + + hk-lp kl1 + g * + glp + go (18) + h1p + ho be an immittance of arbitrary complexity. The remainder function F3(p) will necessarily have a zero at the origin so it can be broken down further by operation 2. and the remainder function F6(p) will be a minimum real-part function. In this case the function is inverted to make the zero a pole. If go=0. and then operation 4 is applied to give Fo(p) = (25) -- *+ glp + go. and it can be removed by one step of reverse division. and LC immittances method and likewise for the lowest powers. 5. 3. then Fo(p) has a pole at infinity which can be removed by forward division to give = Some kinds of immittances are very easily realized in these forms by making a continued-fraction expansion by use of what shall herein be referred to as forward and reverse division. 5 may analogously be represented by 1 Yin = Yi + + zero at the origin become a pole and then operation 1 is applied to remove the pole. These terms can then be origin. + gpn. 2. The result is of the form Fo(p) = hk + F6(p). 6.' We shall define forward division as long division carried out in the manner indicated by: F4(p) will not have a pole at infinity and will be p-r if Fo(p) is p-r. but ho>0. numerous immittance where F1(p) will not have a pole at the origin and will functions can be completely broken into a continued be p-r if Fo(p) is p-r. 4. then Fo(p) has a zero at infinity. In this case the result is of the forin 1 (22) Fo(p) = -- glp +F2(p) Z2 + Y3 + 1 Z4 + - -- etc. RL. (21) 6 . and the remainder function F3(p) will be a minimum real-part p-r function. =Re F(jO) = F(O). then a step of reverse division will move a constant equal to Re F(jr)min. Also the input admittance of the network in Fig. the highest powers in the numerwill recognize that Cauer's continued-fraction readers ator and denominator polynomials cannot differ by more than one for synthesis of RC. If n k + 1. Many Since Fo(p) in (18) is to be p-r.1128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE I-R-E July Zin = Zi + Y2 + 1 1 Z3 (16) Y4+ * * * etc.

A.Sp+ p * h+ R3 AAvAv~ ----~--. If p-r condition A is satisfied. and the "inverse" netthis case if works to those in Figs. let us consider the synthesis of Class I and II minimum real-part functions having two poles. 4/3 + p 3+ p (30) F2(P) = 4/3 + 3+p p (31) has only one pole and one zero. each step of forward or reverse division. a/g d/e. Class I function can be written in the form (7 3p 3 -p 1 + 5 5/4 _ (34) Thus it is easy to check (27) for p-r character. 5. The function F (p) = u z3(p). (b) A realization equivalent to that in (a). then function (35) is p-r if Inverting the last term and dividing again gives 7 E. pp. how= F(p) (33) ever. we expansions the Z.7 These six operations are. By operation 3 the expansion becomes 1 2 (b) Fig. 6(a) while (34) gives (33) gives F(p) = gP P(27) p2±+ep±+d the circuit in Fig. 4 or 5. Since (29) has a zero at the origin. (28) F() To illustrate the use of the forward and reverse division operations. N. 198-216. minimum real-part function with poles can be expressed in the form ap + b p2 two + ep + d (35) -+ 4/9 + 3p 3+p (5/9)p This is simply (1) with g = 0.. Note that for these particular by letting b =0 in (1). Equation gp2 + ap the circuit shown in Fig. minimum real-part. "Communication Networks. respectively. Inc. also useful for synthesis of some RLC networks. the remainder function or its reciprocal must be a Class I or II p-r It is interesting to note that a somewhat different function. 1935. Any Class II. 1 + 4/9) + 27 9 The necessary condition which makes it possible to completely expand an immittance this way is that after 95p 5. 6(a) and 6(b) will be obtained. vol. If F(p) is defined find from (5) that p-r condition B will be satisfied for as an admittance. then expansions (33) and can be identified with (16) and Fig. Guillemin. we can break F(p) up some by applying operation 2 to give F (p) = 2 3p The remainder function. b/a < e. operation 6 leads to the expansion: tances Having Two Poles Synthesis of Minimum Real-Part.F(P) p (a) is of the form of (27) and satisfies (28). Evaluation of (31) at zero and infinity shows that F2(p) is a Class I function. additional techniques must be introof (30) before breaking it up. Y. expansions (33) and (34) may be identified with (17) and Fig. In general no more than .1954 Matthaei: Some Techniques for Network Synthesis 1129 1 utilizes these operations. impedance is zero. Class I and II Imit- F(p)-= 1 2 1 (34) 1 If F(p) is an impedance. Any two-pole. Equation (5) shows that if p-r condition A is fulfilled. New York. and the network can again be found by identifying the expansion with (16) or (17) and Figs.Ah 11i --f\IV\l 9 p2 + p2 + 2p + 2 3p_ (29) Z( P). Inverting F2(p) and using duced in order to break the remainder function down. If the remainder function and its reciprocal expansion can be obtained by inverting the F2(p) part are both Class III. (36) Function (35) is also easily expanded by use of forward and reverse division. 4. II. minimum real part function having two poles (a special case classifiable as either a Type A or B realization). 6(b).." John Wiley & Sons. All p-r functions with only one pole and one zero must be either Class I or Class II functions. 6-(a) An impedance realization of a Class I.

F(p) is a Class I. only then the expansion begins with forward division (operation 6). though some special cases will require less. It should be noted that sometimes when F(p) is Class (41) I or II. 5 we get the network shown in Fig. For a numerical example consider the function 22p2 + 46p + 45 1p/=IF(p)' (45) Supposing F(p) to be an admittance. Appendix A shows that F(p) is a Class II. (37) and p-r condition A are satisfied while b -dg d ad-be (38) a/g g > b/d and 0 < e a eg gd . This was also the case in (33) and (34). Any Class III function can be realized sible form for the continued-fraction expansion is by Brune's method. 1/F(p) may be respectively Class II or I. . nonminimum real-part function. Thus (45) will lead to a continued fraction which is without what would ordinarily be the first term. 7. The same is true for the Class II case.e. Type A Realization: This procedure works for Class I or II immittances only. p-r function if (39) and p-r condition A are satisfied while b gd (40) . 7-Admittance realization of a nonminimum real part. minimum real-part function with two poles. The Type A and B procedures described in this paper differ from his in mathematical technique only. 0 < g - Class II (43) < b/d. function having two poles (Type A realization). Type B realizations also require no more than five elements. hence F(p) both Type A and B realizations may be possible. If conditions (43) are satisfied the reciprocal of F(p) is a Class II function while if conditions (44) are satisfied the reciprocal of F(p) is a Class I function. minimum realpart function. I If unity-coupled coils are to be excluded 2 1 2p+ the simplest procedure appears to result from breaking the Class III function into the sum of a Class I. by identifying (42) with (17) and Fig. hence it is a Class I or II function then the Type A and B is a Class II.3 but his method requires unity1 1 coupled coils in order to realize a Class III function of 1 (42) the form of F(p) =-+ (1). F(p)= gp2 + tp + (a-t)p + b p2 p2 + ep + d + ep + d (46) be shown that both terms in (46) will be p-r if p-r condition A is satisfied and (47) gd/e t a b/e.b If in (1) or (39) then F(p) is possibly a Class II function. This gives p (3/2) 44p2 + 48p + 54 If F(p) is a Class I function (nonminimum real-part) then a realization is easily obtained by making a continued-fraction expansion starting with reverse division (operation 3) and then continuing with the forward or reverse division operations that become appropriate. To get the network we may start with and then expand 1/F(p) as in a Type A realization. p-r function if Fig. (44) a - ge (p-r condition A assumed to be satisfied). The General Case with Two Poles and Zeros Now we shall review procedures which taken together provide means for realizing any immittance having the form of (1). If F(p) fails to qualify for a Type A realization we may next test for the properties L2* 2 S4 3 3 YIN G1 T S G 313 G G« 52 *] then F(p) may possibly be a Class I function. If in (1) (37) g > b/d. mini1 3 3 mum real-part function plus a Class II. One posprocedures fail. and causes no trouble.1130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE I-R-E July four elements will be required to realize a Class I or II. As is shown in Appendix A. It can - 8 Brune also shows how to obtain what were herein called Type A and B realizations. Type B Realization: Some F(p) functions which are Class III as they stand become Class I or II functions if inverted. Type C Realization: If neither F(p) nor its reciprocal This function is seen to satisfy (39) and (40). g < bid and eb - da bb -dg b/a. Type A realizations will require no more than five elements. F(p) functions of the form of (1) which satisfy p-r condition A and (37) and (38) or (39) and (40) are all susceptible to this type of realization which will be herein referred to as a Type A realization.

For the remainder of this Type D realization discussion the b. 8. Type D Realization: If F(p) satisfies p-r condition A Both function (57) and its reciprocal are Class III funcand (5). By (14) realization fails because Re F(jo')min. a.1 and without unity-coupled coils. + F'(p). nected ance. F(p) function cannot be broken into the sum (58) F (p)-=-+ +2 p2 + 2p ± of a p-r Class I function plus a p-r Class II function as specified by (46) and (47). The next step is to break F'(p) up into a term 9 g.05206 -(p) (51) F(p) a.1=0.109p + 1. Thus tively.8130p + 0.W12 d an to be construed impedis If F(p) together.109 = Observe that Fig. Equation (56) gives by (10) to (14) we can obtain 0. Then one of the ladders will have four elements while the other will have only three.J)p2 + (b + aK)p p3 + (e + K)p2 + (d + Ke)p + dK (56) to qualify. three-element ladders connected in series. Jp2 + Jo12 p3 + (e + K)p2 + (d + Ke)p + dK gp3+ (a + gK . the realization is as shown in Fig. respecinto a constant plus a minimum real-part function.5p +(1/7) + (gp2 + ap + b)(p +K)-J(p + jw)(p -jcoi) (I2 + ep + d)(p + K) It can be shown that the first term will be p-r if edw2 J(p + jwl)( p.29394 . p3 + 2. 8 represents two. . P + 3. but doesn't satisfy the conditions for Type A. tions.5542 and J=0.1. ladder networks con. The coefficients in (57) fail to satisfy (47) so B.j'l) (p2 + ep + d)(p +K) K= (54) Equation (50) represents two. then 1/F(p) also fails The first term of (56) can be expanded in a continued fraction by starting with inversion and forward division (operation 5) while the second term can be expanded by starting with inversion and reverse division (operation 2).5 .554p2 + 3. 3.5p (p2+ ep+d)(p+K) (49) p2+2p+ 1 p2+2p+ 1 and then splitting (52) to yield ~~~(48) The two terms in (49) can be expanded in continued fractions to give F (p) 1 2 p + = F'(p) = 1 1 1 +A + 1 1 r. The first step of this procedure is to break F(p) up By (54) and (55). 8-A Type C realization example. lp2 + 0.6130 + 0. Equation (46) becomes (52) '(p) = (gp2 + ap + b)(p + K). or C realization. It can be shown that if F(p) fails to qualify for Type C realization.1197p2 + 0.1954 Matthaei: Some Techniques for Network Synthesis 1131 Consider the example: having a zero at infinity and zeros at p = ±jwl. and (15) to find a. and a second term having a zero at the origin and zero realp2 + 4p + 7 part at p = ±jw1. Type D realization may be utilized to obtain a circuit We may use (12). while the second term will be p-r and will have a zero at the origin if K has the above value and R2.p2 + 2p + 2 (57) = where F'(p) is a function such that Re F'P(j) = 0 at iw = ±jwl.4 I 2p 3. is so small that the F'(p) p2 + 0. This may be accomplished by multi+1 +2p p2 plying the numerator and denominator of F'(p) by In this case (47) can be satisfied on both sides by an (p+K) to give9 equal sign if t = 1/2. Consider the example . I bK J=C3 2 (55) ZIN The final result is: G3 7 F'(p) = Fig. K=0. In these cases Type C jw1=jO. then what will herein be called a Type D realization is necessary. In general it will be found that this type of realization will require no more than seven elements.09394 Class III. In most cases it will only be possible to satisfy (47) by an equal sign on one side.1 1 (50) .1197. e. and d parameters will be used to refer to F'(p).6588. (13).5p+ 7 p2+0.

Appl. but again since Type D realization requires the most elements of all. 9. B.. Fig. Where they overlap. vol. C. or D realizations may be possible depending on relative locations of zeros. (1). Some readers will note that this same circuit could be obtained by the method of Bott and Duffin. positive root of a third-order polynomial. Continued-fraction expansions based on forward and reverse division are seen to provide a straight-forward. The Type A. 423p The region of Type C realizability overlaps all of the region of Type A realization and part of the region of Rs ¢ 0.109 hatched region marked A1 (45 degree cross-hatch lines Adding a1 to (59) and expanding in two. however.1 Type B realization.5560 is a Class III function. and D synTo give a better insight into when these different thesis procedures described are also suggestive of the kinds of realization are possible..4337p Conclusion Immittances having two poles are commonly used as building blocks in the design of filters. region (45 degree cross-hatch rising zero 1 F(p)=0. any of the Type A. If the is in the A. Phys.34) + 0. 1949. part XVI. either F(p) or its reciprocal 1 2. F(p) will be p-r if it has a real.j so With these given poles. This circuit has nine elements which is the maximum number required for a Type D realization. p3 + 1." ibid.bld positive multiplier and the zeros occur in conjugate If F(p) is taken to be an impedance then (60) represents the circuit shown in Fig. August. C.9548p + 2. one would probably only want to use Type C realization when the zero lies in one of the unshaded regions marked C.047p2 + 0. J.. it would usually be undesirable unless the second-quadrant zero lies in one of the vertically cross-hatched regions marked D. The region of Type D realization overlaps part of the region of Type C realization and part of the region of Type B. 20. p. then both F(p) and its reciprocal are Class III p-r functions. "Impedance synthesis without the use of transformers. If the zero lies within the crossp3 + 2..01945 Type B realization ( horizontal cross-hatching) overlaps (0. this approach is believed to be somewhat easier since the Bott and Duffin method requires finding the real.. as well as networks with only The Ranges of Realization two kinds of elements. since more elements are required. Bott and R. F(p) is a Class II function and Type A realization is again possible. It is interesting that the boundaries of various regions of realization in Fig. 9-A Type D realization example. F'(p) = F(p) .109p + 1." ibid. If F(p) has simple zeros on the real axis. By use of the formulas presented in this paper it is possible to relatively quickly determine the significant properties of such immittances and choose an appropriate synthesis procedure. 10 all have geometric symmetry with respect to the circle about the origin which passes through the poles. and where they do not overlap.04477p the Type A region in places.1 132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE I-R-E July pairs such that the second-quadrant zero lies within the outer curved contour. B. then the function is Class I fractions we obtain and can be realized with a Type A realization. 816." Jour.554p2 + 3. equalizers. 0. 10 illustrates the synthesis methods which are possible when the immitvarious ranges of zero locations of F(p). poles are located at p = -2 ±jl.1 + from left to right). Duffin. " 10 R. p. yet flexible tool for synthesis of RLC networks. 11 "Modern methods of network synthesis. If the second-quadrant zero lies within the outer contour but outside of the regions of 1 p I+ Type A or B realization.'0 However. Re F(j oo) = g > Re F(jO) = Re F(jw)min. Also "Modern methods of network synthesis. Note that the region of (8. both p F(p) and its reciprocal are Class I or II functions. 294. and amplifiers. continued falling from left to right). Only the second quadrant of the p-plane is shown since no zeros can occur in Appendix A the first or fourth quadrants and the second and third If (1) is a Class I function then quadrants are symmetrical with respect to the real axis. Fig.355p + 21. when the tance has more than two poles and zeros. (g- p2 + (a - p p d p2 + ep + d .

provided that the impedance of the network to the right of Z1 does not have the same poles. They arise physically in the following ways: 1. 5) shorting out the signal. When Z. = ReF(j oo) = g < Re F (jO) p2 = b/d. the zeros of the input impedance will be the same as the ator. . points of infinite loss (poles of T(p)) will be generated at frequencies at which the ouputs from the various routes cancel.g = (a-ge)p + (b-dg) p2 + ep + d a"p + b" + ep + d ~~~~(62) must be a Class II. By the poles of shunt admittances (such as Y1 in the ladder of part I. If the system is driven by a zero internal impedance voltage generator. Thus we see that in many cases the zeros of T(p) will be completely defined when the input impedance of the system is defined. Fig. By applying condition (28) to (61). then the frequencies of natural vibration will occur at the same frequencies as the zeros of the input impedance. minimum real-part. provided that the admittance of the network to the right of Yi does not have the same poles. PART II: A CONSTANT-RESISTANCE LADDER FOR TRANSFER FUNCTION SYNTHESIS Generation of Points of Infinite Gain and Loss If a transfer function is defined so that T (p) Input Inut(63) Output then the zeros of T(p) will be points of infinite gain and will occur at frequencies of natural vibration of the circuit. 4) blocking transmission. The poles of T(p) are points at which all transmission is stopped. so F"(p) = F(p) . p-r function. If (1) is a Class II function then Re F(jc)min.'2 On the other hand if the system is p= +p+d -(61) driven by an infinite internal impedance current generp2 + ep + d must be a Class I. 12 Sometimes the presence of some input-impedance zeros is obscured because they are cancelled by poles at the same frequencies. If part of the circuit has more than one route of transmission. 2. and the impedance to the right have the same poles they act as a voltage divider and transmission is not blocked. In this case the zeros of T(p) will be the same as the poles of the input impedance except for possible exceptions due to cancellation between poles and zeros in the input impedance or in the transfer function. Application of condition (36) to (62) yields condition (40). p-r function. By the poles of series impedances (such as Z.1954 Matthaei: Some Techniques for Network Synthesis I1133 a~axis Fig. then the frequencies of natural vibration will correspond with the poles of the input impedance. 10-Ranges of second-quadrant zero locations for the various kinds of realizations when the immittance-function poles are at p= -2 +jl. 3. condition (38) is ob- tained. If Y1 and the network to the right have the same poles of admittance then they will act as a current divider and transmission will not be blocked. g'p2 + b'p zeros of T(p). Fig. while the poles will be points of infinite loss. in the ladder of part I. Except for possible cancellation effects. These cancelled zeros are nevertheless indicative of natural modes which will be apparent in other meshes. minimum real-part. and they will cotrrespond to zeros of T(p) if there are no further cancellations between transfer function poles and zeros.

In this manner any number of such simple sections can be designed separately and then cascaded together to give a ladder 13 "Modern methods of network synthesis. Both vP and P2 will be greater than zero since T(p) was stipulated to be a nonminimum real-part p-r function. The network in Fig. and ladder impedance is to be written function Transfer this. pi. Equation (68) can also be expressed H2\ as the continued- fraction: (K2H Zin 1 + K2H. 11 A constant-resistance ladder section. bridged-T. and the stipulation that (64) is p-r. Carrying out the synthesis in a similar but dual manner. = 2=2 (65) = H1 Hi The polynomial H1 has been introduced in (65) to give the circuit the proper frequencies of natural vibration." ibid. Having only one route of transmission. Now let us define vl = Re H2(jW) min." and it does not create any points of infinite loss. (72) Tm(p) will be defined later. constant-resistance network in Fig. THEVENIN_GENERAT~J~ TRANSMISSION NETWORK LY~ Fig. the impedance Z. We shall temporarily stipulate that T(p) is a nonminimum real part p-r function./ Zl + Za. Since the zeros of T(p) are natural frequencies of vibration. We shall stipulate + that the network is to be driven by a generator with a (KIHi _ K1K2) + KjK2 one-ohm internal impedance. serves as what Guillemin and others refer to as a "zero-shifting branch. however as we shall see. 1 K2H minimum-phase transfer function. and = 1+Z1 + -(70) parallel-ladder networks are generated primarily by the ya first method. a shunt conductance can be removed entirely by the second and third methods. > 0. the transfer function for this network has the same zeros as those in (64). Since the input impedance of the transmission network in Fig.. H2 Equation (71) corresponds to the circuit in Fig. By (68). 11 has the transfer function (64) within a constant multiplier. pp. (68) 1 + K2 . 11. the impedance level of one section of this type can be adjusted so that its input will serve as the proper constant load resistance for another section. a single-ladder network generates its points of infinite loss Since (64) was stipulated to be a nonminimum realpart p-r function. 11 (or in Fig. points of infinite loss will be created at the poles of Y2 and these are seen to be the same as the poles (points of infinite loss) of the transfer function (64).'3 However. from Ya in (70) to give: Synthesis of a Constant-Resistance Ladder K2H I + i /= Let us now consider the design of a ladder network having a constant-resistance input and a prescribed. 12 is obtained.1134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE I-R-E July The points of infinite loss of lattice. A1 is a constant. . Then (65) can be written Zin where = I = H2 H2 lHi + + tH K2H K2H. Note that (65) causes this network to have natural frequencies of vibration at the zeros of H1 when Zin is driven by either a zero-impedance voltage generator or an infinite-impedance current generator. 286-290. If the generator has an internal resistance of one ohm K HI and the network has an input resistance of one Iohm. match (63) may 1 =1 +Z1 + (7 1) Hi (64) T(p) = Al. 12) is a constant-resistance. since the impedance Za seen to the right of Z. and 0 < K. (69)..= AiTm(p) GL Y2 + H2 where where H1 and H2 are polynomials. + K2H. I 12 IU EL then the zero-impedance voltage generator in a Theve| THEVENIN -iT NS K21-K1K IH2 L nin equivalent circuit will see the resistance: -H2) H1 HI = 1 +--* Zi. Hl(jw) >0 and V2 = Re Hl(jwo) H2(jCO)| (j) m max. has the same poles as Z._ V2 (69) Both Z1 and Za are guaranteed to be p-r due to (67). this stipulation is easily removed. This network also has the transfer function (64) within a constant multiplier. \HiK2H. .