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Marine Finfish Resources of India: Distribution, Commercial Exploitation, Utilization Pattern and Trade

P.U. Zacharia* and T.M. Najmudeen Senior Scientist and Head of Division Demersal Fisheries Division Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi *E-mail: zachariapu@yahoo.com

The world’s fisheries provide more than 2.6 billion people with at least 20 per cent of their average annual per capita protein intake (FAO, 2007). Globally, fish has been attracting increased attention not only as an item of connoisseur's delight and preferred food for health conscious elite but as a source of employment, livelihood and food security to several millions of poor people in the developing world. Capture fisheries and aquaculture supplied the world with about 142 million tonnes of fish in 2008 (Table 1). Asia contributes to 63.17 per cent of total fish production in the world. However, South Asia's contribution is only 6 per cent. India occupies a prime position amongst South Asian countries in fish production. While Bangladesh (17 per cent), Pakistan (9 per cent), Sri Lanka (3 per cent), Nepal have only small shares, India contributes to 71 per cent in this region (FAO, 2008). Table 7.1 Fish Production in India and the World and its Per cent contribution to World fish Production (in mmt) Source: handbook on Fisheries and Aquaculture ICAR, New Delhi Year Capture fish Production Global India 92.0 3,.691 89.7 3.845 89.9 3.859 89.7 4.105 90.0 4.02* Aquaculture Production Global India 44.3 2.967 47.3 3.180 49.9 3.112 52.5 3.479 55.1 4.27* Total fish Production Global India 136.3 6.659(4.88 %) 137.0 7.025(5.13 &) 139.8 6.971(4.99 %) 142.2 7.584(5.33 %) 145.1 8.290(5.71 %)

2005 2006 2007 2008 2010

Fisheries sector is an important player in the overall socio-economic development of India. The fisheries sector contributed 76913 crores to the GDP (at current prices) during 2009-10 which is 0.96 per cent of the total GDP at factor cost and 5.4 per cent of the GDP at factor cost from agriculture forestry and fishing. During 2010-11, the export of marine products reached over 8 lakh tonnes valued at Rs 12,901.47 crores and US$ 2.857 billion (Report of the working group, Planning commission, 2011). Indian marine fisheries which existed as a sustenance fishery for years, underwent a series of change with the advent of mechanisation in 1950s, evolving itself into a multi-billion dollar industry. India has earned US$ 2.84 billion mark in the export of marine products from the country (MPEDA, 2011).
Shyam S. Salim and R.Narayanakumar, (2012). Manual on World Trade Agreements and Indian Fisheries Paradigms: A Policy Outlook.

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Bensam.86 million sq.M. 70 Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. 458 pp. 2006) with third position in capture fisheries and second in aquaculture.02 million sq.3-39) 1.U. gender mainstreaming as well as export earnings.53 million t in 1950-51 to a maximum of 3. 5 per cent frozen. i.3 million t in 2010-11. delegating various erstwhile provinces with the responsibility of fisheries administration and management (BOBP. Najmudeen India is one of major fish producing countries in the world contributing over 3 per cent of both marine and freshwater fishes to the world production (Srinath and Pillai. employment generation. establishment of infrastructure facilities for processing and storage and to establish a strong R & D facility (James and Rao. 1982. 1992)..2 Indian marine fisheries statistics at a glance Gross value at landing centre 19. km on the east coast. 0. 6 per cent dry.16 million sq. km (fig 1).753 crores At retail point Export earnings per cent in export earnings Domestic markets Per capita fish consumption Share in GDP Share in agricultural GDP 28. . India has an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) covering a total area of 2. 1999). km (Vivekananadanet al. km on the west coast including the Lakshadweep Islands and 1. To increase fish production from the seas.. The marine fisheries sector has high potential for rural development.e.51 crores US$ 2. 2003). The first formal step towards the development and management of marine fisheries in India was the enactment of the Indian Fisheries Act of 1897. including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and a continental shelf of half a million sq. and improvement of fishing implements. the different FiveYear Plans took adequate care by developing the marine fisheries by mechanization of indigenous craft. Kochi : Cadalmin. introduction of mechanized vessels. 5 per cent fish meal 2.1 per cent 5. Zachariaand T.84 billion 3 per cent 81 per cent fresh.4 per cent Indian fisheries sector has been witnessing a steady growth since the First Five Year Plan. Table 7.P. domestic nutritional security. The marine fish production increased from 0.85 kg (0.

extension of fishing grounds. annual per capita consumption of fish eating population is projected about 16. Phase II (late 1960s-mid 80s) was marked with use of improved gear materials.28 511 crores (Narayankumar. with a growth rate of 4. acoustic fish detection and satellite-based remote sensing techniques. seasonal fishery ban. New Delhi) 2010.0 1956 1971 1986 1950 1953 1959 1962 1965 1968 1974 1977 1980 1983 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 Figure 7. increased mechanisation. and would rose to 18. Manual on World Trade Agreements and Indian Fisheries Paradigms: A Policy Outlook.0 2. introduction of synthetic gear material.62 per cent.5 Million tonnes 2.0 1. Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu About 35 per cent of Indian population eats fish. followed by Gujarat. 2011). The growth of marine fisheries in India can be demarcated into three phases (Srinath and Pillai. initiation of motorisation of country craft and intensification of fishery activities. Commercial Exploitation. the additional fish demand from the year Shyam S.8 kg in 2010. 2010). The III Phase which extends from mid80s to the present is characterised by intensification of mechanised fishing. Thus.Marine Finfish Resources of India : Distribution. Utilization Pattern and Trade 3. (2012). advances in electronic navigation. 71 2007 . The gross value of the marine fish landings at the landing centre level is estimated at Rs.5 3. open sea cage farming and breeding and hatchery development of marine finfishes for aquaculture. but steady growth in fisheries where non-mechanised craft and gears were operated (Fig 1).Narayanakumar. The Indian marine waters harbour around 1 707 species of fish. The developments in fish harvest technology has been in areas of craft technology and mechanization of propulsion.220 mmt (CMFRI.19 753 crores and at the retail level atRs. 2006). Salim and R. growth in motorisation and multiday fishing. Thus.5 0.5 1.5 kg by 2020.0 0.1 Three phases of development of Indian marine fisheries (Source: handbook on Fisheries and Aquaculture ICAR. the fishing industry in the last five decades has undergone significant developments leading to improvements in the working conditions and reducing the drudgery of fishermen. of which about 200 species are commercially significant. export trade expansion. introduction of molluscan aquaculture. The I Phase which extends from 1950s to late 1960s witnessed a slow. The estimated landings from the marine capture fisheries stand at 3. provisions for on-board fish processing and preservation. Under the baseline scenario. Kerala has emerged as the leading producer of marine fish in the country during 2009-2010.

52 per cent would be met from Indian major carps (IMC) followed by other freshwater fish (38 per cent).933 million people are employed in the sector on full-time basis.63 million t in 1960 to 1 mt in 1970. 2011).8 per cent of the total marine fish production. West Bengal and Maharashtra together contribute a major share (59. The trend based surveys have indicated that in the depth range up to 100 m. However.259 t/km followed by 953 t/km by Karnataka. Gujarat. considering the production per unit length of coast line. Another 20 year period (1970 – 1989) was required to cross the 2 million t mark. albeit more in qualitative terms. About 0. bill fishes and allied species whose combined potential is pegged at 0. However.2 per cent) to the marine fish production of the country. However.24 million metric tonnes (mmt) at the present exploitation rates. Zachariaand T.3 per cent). 1.2 per cent of the total coastline. lizard fish. Pelagic low value sardine mackerel. West Bengal has the maximum productivity of 2.26 lakh people are engaged as active fishers. 878 t/km by Kerala. nemipterids.t) compared to that of 2005. snappers. fishery production did not have a smooth sail. 2010. As per the early estimates of NMFC. but increased by leap and bounds.39 million are engaged in other ancillary activities. threadfins etc and Molluscs species would decline by 9 per cent.01 million on part-time basis and 1. The aquaculture has been found to hold the key for meeting the future demand challenges. the depth ranges beyond 100 m have avenues of expansion.e. there are about 8. the possibility revolves around oceanic resources like tuna.U.03 million tonnes (m. a twenty year period (1950–1970) was required to raise production by double. Kochi : Cadalmin. anchovies etc (14 per cent) and Demersal low value fish like rays. Najmudeen 2000 to 2020 would be about 3. Major fish production comes from the coastal resources.t in 2010 State-wise production Among the coastal states. the period 2005 -10 witnessed a meteoric increase in production by over 45 per cent i. contributions from the deep sea have been insignificant. During 1989 – 2010. with rest 70. Production has now touched 3. 72 Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute.2 per cent contributed by west coast. 458 pp. In marine fisheries.M. letherinids. 496 t/km by Tamil Nadu and 439 t/km by Maharashtra. 682 t/km by Goa. Out of this. 1. it contributes only 28.63 lakh fisher’s families in the mainland and about 9.21 million tonnes (Ref.P. soles etc (3. The estimated marine resource potential of the Indian EEZ is 4. Pradumankumar et al-handbook on Fisheries and Aquaculture ICAR. Demersal high value (rocks cods. While the east coast has 57. followed by Tamil Nadu. The additional consumption of shrimp. which contributes to about 86 per cent of the total exploited resources. catfish.3 m. practically there is little possibility of witnessing quantitative increase in production. while inshore waters have been almost exploited to the sustainable levels (CMFRI. Kerala. New Delhi). In this domain. .2 mmt with the lucrative yellow fin tuna contributing to the tune of 40 per cent to it. Present scenario of capture fisheries The period 1960 -70s saw a gradual increase in fisheries production from 0.

99 5. Manual on World Trade Agreements and Indian Fisheries Paradigms: A Policy Outlook.96 15. On the other hand. the increase has been very prominent during the last 14 years.6 lakh t in 2010.570 species of finfishes and about 1.68 lakh tonnes in 1960 to 6. Resource-wise production The fishery resources of India is constituted by a large variety of species (nearly 1.85 lakh t in 2010 from 0. 73 . showing over a six fold increase during the last 50 years.9 lakh t in 1960 to 3.2 lakh tonnes in 1960 to 2.23 lakh t in 1960 to 5. Crustacean resources especially the non–penaeids dominate the landings in the NW and to a lesser amount in the SW.4 lakh t. landings are less from the SE and NE waters. (2012). only 200 species of finfishes and shellfishes are commercially important. while landings are poor in the northeast (NE) (Fig.83 7.39 On the East coast.Narayanakumar.43 10. landings are poor in the NE.9 lakh tin 2010. Maharashtra showed a steady increase in production from 1.90 3. In Orissa.39 3.34 3.79 0.95 lakh t in 1960. Utilization Pattern and Trade Table 7. Gujarat on the other hand increased its production to 5.08 10.43 2. Commercial Exploitation.90 0.08 lakh t in 2010. Salim and R.44 17. 2009). Kerala was the major contributor with an increase in annual landings from 2.41 0. demersals are exploited more in the northwest NW and SE and to a lesser extent in SW.3 lakh t in 1976 to 2.13 per cent 18.Marine Finfish Resources of India : Distribution. Tamil Nadu was the major contributor followed by West Bengal and Orissa.3).28 9. Marine fish production has shown a steady increase in Tamil Nadu from 1. The increase was prominent in West Bengal from 0. Highest marine fish production of Kerala was in 1990-91 when it touched 6. Region-wise studies show that pelagics contribute to the major share of the landings in the southwest (SW) and southeast (SE) and northwest (NW) regions. the production has increased from 0.09 lakh t in 2010. Among these.4 lakh t upto 2002 (4.000 species of shellfishes) co-existing in the same grounds (Srinath and Pillai.36 7.54 2.3.83 4. Marine fish production has been more or less steady in Andhra Pradesh during 1960-2010.5 lakh t) after which the production has shown a grave decline and now stands at 2. however. the production showed a tremendous increase of 2 lakh t during the last five years. On the west coast.62 lakh t.04 2. State-wise marine fish landings in India in lakh tones (average for 2006-10) Kerala Gujarat Tamil nadu West Bengal Karnataka Maharashtra Odisha Andhra Pradesh Goa Puducherry Average landings 5. Shyam S.

Najmudeen Figure 7. (v) Molluscan resources (oysters.86 3. (iv) Crustacean resources (prawns.21 2. pomfrets.48 2.4 Important species groups (all-India average 2006-10) in lakh tonnes Name of fish Oil sardine Penaeid prawns Indian mackerel Croakers Ribbon fishes Non-penaeid prawns Threadfin breams Bomaby duck Other sardines Catfish Avg landings 4.58 1.87 1. landings of apex predators like elasmobranchs. tuna. Zachariaand T. silver bellies however. did not show much variation. catfishes. mackerel and ribbonfish. Kochi : Cadalmin. chanks. skates.U. 74 Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Landings of Bombay duck.98 0. Contrary to this. squids and cuttlefishes).16 1. sharks. however very high change was noticed in oil sardine landings. clams. silver-bellies and horse mackerel).71 1.05 6.2 Resource-wise region-wise landings during 1961-2010 Important groups of marine fisheries resources of the country and their composition are as follows: (i) Pelagic resources (oil sardine. rays and fishes which are mainly caught by trawls). sciaenids. croakers. after registering an increase during 2000-04 has shown a decline during 2006-10. No significant increase was noticed for perches. lesser sardines. pomfrets and cephalopods during the last 5 years (Table 5). mackerel. flat fishes.P.09 5.57 5.M.62 3.14 3. (iii) Mid-water resources (Bombay duck. eels. lobsters and crabs). and (vi) Seaweed resources. seer fish. anchovies and ribbon fishes). shrimps.60 7. (ii) demersal resources (perches. polynemids.11 0. Table 7.64 1.18 1.64 Annual average landings of all major resources have shown considerable increase over the period. non– penaeids. 458 pp. lesser sardine. .81 Per cent 14.35 5. carangids and penaeid prawns. mussels.

3 38. most of the fishing vessels are below 20 m OAL.5 179. As a result of the popularization and consequent expansion of mechanized fishing during the subsequent periods along with the motorization of artisanal crafts. small-scale fisheries contribute almost the entire marine fish production of India (Mathew.7 106.9 137.3 Ribbon fish 79.2 Non-Penaeid prawns 58.2 Pomfrets 37. 2000-2004 60. 75 .7 Other sardines 75. the contribution by the artisanal sector declined considerably.6 Flat fish 29.7 426. 2010).7 144. Thus. Vivekanandan and Mohamed. 2003.1 Carangids 105.5 Annual average landings (in 1000 tonnes) for major exploited resources Species 1985-89 Elasmobranchs 53.1 Silverbellies 60. gillnetting and long-lining.9 42.0 80. Salim and R. motorized and artisanal sectors contribute 25 per cent and 2 per cent respectively.3 53.5 Cat fish 50.7 Penaeid prawns 144. (CMFRI.1 131.9 353 87.5 53. Manual on World Trade Agreements and Indian Fisheries Paradigms: A Policy Outlook.Narayanakumar.7 103.1 161. Fishing vessels of this category would qualify to be called ‘small-scale’ and this would include all fishing methods that are employed by these vessels including trawling. While mechanized fishing sector of the country produces 73 per cent of the all India marine landings.6 109. Utilization Pattern and Trade Table 7. Commercial Exploitation.2 137.9 114.7 166.1 208. (2012). purse-seining.5 Bombay duck 93.Marine Finfish Resources of India : Distribution.8 197.1 Shyam S.3 68.1 66.8 Tunnies 28.4 2006-2010 48.1 Mackerel 123 Seer fish 34.2 51.3 (Source: CMFRI Annual Reports) Sector-wise landing Even though the size of the Indian fishing vessels.4 160.9 215.1 Croakers 103.2 Perches 89.4 109.1 47. 2009).2 163. range from 5 m OAL (overall length) to 30 m OAL.3 43 194.6 41.The pattern of marine fish landings in India during the past fifty years clearly reveals that the contribution by the artisanal sector to the total production was significant up to the sixties. in general.6 Oil sardine 141.7 152.7 122.8 Cephalopods 40.

the SE coast is characterized by the dominance of silverbellies and pig 76 Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute.000 tonnes) Oil sardine [15.9] Molluscan [4. catfish and pomfrets (together contributing 74. CMFRI census currently shows that 29. Najmudeen Major fisheries of India The major fisheries of India is depicted in Table 7.000 tonnes) and 2005 and at present contributes nearly 7-8 per cent of the all India marine fish production. 2006). Kochi : Cadalmin. 2009). The introduction of high opening bottom trawls has reduced the dependence of trawlers on shrimps as the chief revenue earner and cuttlefishes and squids have also emerged as principal income earners (Mohamed. Penaeid shrimps are the mainstay of the trawl fishery and catches showed more than 5-fold increase between 1960 (32.P.0] Crustacean [14. from 951.241 trawlers are registered and the states of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu have the maximum number of trawlers. 458 pp.129 km coastline.200 hp (1980) to 3. Whereas the NE coast is characterized by the dominance of sciaenids.0] Artisanal [4.8] Non-penaeid shrimp [5. out of which.8] Trawl Fisheries Trawling is the major gear used to exploit marine resources from all along India’s 8.3] Trawl [44.9] Carangids [7.448.4] Cephalopods [4.6 Classification of Indian marine fisheries based on different criteria Realm-wise Broad resource group-wise Finfish [80.5] Penaeid shrimp [6.6] Croakers [5.U. From 1999.5] Ribbonfish [5. Zachariaand T.M.0] Vessel-wise Gear-wise Pelagic fisheries [55] Demersal fisheries [45] Nonmechanized [4. Each region is characterized by dominance of specific finfish groups.6] Mackerel [5.4] Hooks and lines [2. sciaenids contributed maximum (18. followed by threadfin breams (17.0 per cent to the demersal landings). While the number of trawlers increased twice.2] Gillnets [18.8] Motorized [24.5] Major species-wise (exceeding 100.6 Table 7.1] Threadfin breams [3.4 per cent) to the demersal landings along the Indian coast. .9] Mechanized [70. The finfishes exploited by trawls belong to 21 major fish groups.3 per cent).570 hp (1998) (Vivekanandan and Mohamed.0] Bag nets [11.2] Bombay duck [4.4] Seining [19. the trawlers are also employed for deep sea fishing up to 400 m depth by modifying the winch drum and the trawl net. the estimated efficiency (engine horsepower) increased by nearly 4 times.

8. 2009). 14. No 1. (2012). 3. the SW coast by the threadfin breams and other perches.7 State-wise detail of fishing vessels in India SI. Currently there are close to 1000 purse seiners mainly in the states of Karnataka (>50 per cent). 7. 10. Ring seines continue to be operated from traditional crafts fitted with outboard or inboard engines. lesser sardines. 9. 5. the purse seines with larger nets and power blocks became the method of choice along the SW coast. A fishery for this resource has recently emerged along the SE. NW and NE coast and this has been attributed to the phenomenon of climate change (Vivekanandan and Mohamed. Manual on World Trade Agreements and Indian Fisheries Paradigms: A Policy Outlook. catfish and threadfin breams (Vivekanandan and Mohamed. 2. Salim and R. 12. Utilization Pattern and Trade face breams. Goa and Maharashtra and more than 240 ring seiners mainly in the states of Kerala (>70 per cent) and Tamil Nadu. The main species harvested by seines are the small pelagics such as oil sardine. 11. State/Union Territory West Bengal Odisha Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Pondichery Kerala Karnataka Goa Maharashtra Gujarat Daman & Diu Andaman & Nicobar Lakshadweep India Mechanized Vessels 6829 3577 2541 7711 627 5504 4373 1087 13053 13047 562 165 667 59743 Motorized Vessels 1776 4719 14112 22478 2306 14151 3705 932 3382 7367 654 781 376 76748 Non Motorized Vessels 10041 15444 24386 24231 1524 9522 7577 532 7073 3729 211 1837 1341 107448 Total 18646 23740 41039 54420 4457 29177 15655 2551 23508 24152 1427 2783 2384 243939 Seine Fisheries With the advent of mechanization during the 1970s. 6. and the NW coast by the sciaenids. Table 7.Marine Finfish Resources of India : Distribution. 13. Shyam S. anchovies and mackerel. 2009). A modification to the traditional boat seine vessels to make it more efficient was the mini purse seines or locally called as the Ring Seine which has become the most popular seining method for the pelagics along Kerala coast. 4. 77 .Narayanakumar. Commercial Exploitation.

Kochi : Cadalmin. Najmudeen Gillnet Fisheries Gillnets are traditional gears which are being used by fishermen to capture pelagic fishes both large and small. Artisanal Fisheries The artisanal fisheries sector has dwindled with the advent of mechanization.000 t during the 1980s and 1990s.U. Hooks and Line Fisheries H&L contribute just about 2 per cent of the all India marine fish catch. Consequently. increased by more than 4-times in recent years. Because the volumes are high (~300. In Gujarat and Maharashtra. Several development schemes of the government has targeted promotion of H&L fisheries particularly the modern version of long line fishing for tunas.862 dolnetters. tunas and carangids. The average catch rates are about 72. Clupeids and croakers are mostly exploited by small meshed gillnets and large meshed gillnets exploit mostly sharks. the mid-water carnivore Bombay duck (Harpadonnehereus) and the golden anchovy Coiliadussumeiri. initially with outboard engines and lately with inboard engines as well. Trend in gillnet catch during the last 5 years in India show that the share of mechanized gillnetters (MGN) is increasing as compared to outboard gillnetters (OBGN). This gear mainly targets the large pelagic fishes such as sharks. Zachariaand T. pomfrets. and to withstand competition from the mechanized sector.7 kg/h and maximum was observed along the SW followed by NE coasts. However. As compared to trawls. which are epipelagic and occurring in high abundance. mackerels. motorized their crafts.5kg/h and the catches are principally comprised of nonpenaeid shrimps (mainly the Kiddi shrimp Acetesindicus). catfishes. seerfishes.206 t in 2008 and many tuna products including loin and sashimi grade are exported to the Far East. Bag net Fisheries Bag nets are a major gear used by artisanal fishers along NW and NE coasts. the yellow fin tuna catch has increased significantly from 9. indicus (length range 20-35 mm) and Nematopalaemontenuipes (length range 40-60 mm) constitute the principal by-catch. Other species include penaeid shrimps and ribbonfishes. 458 pp. The development of the Ring 78 Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. the artisanal fishers were instrumental in bringing innovation in their fishing gears. it also contributes a substantial portion (11 per cent) of the all India catch estimates. The development of H&L fisheries has been mainly in the motorization of the traditional boats. The contribution to the total catches decreased from an overwhelming 88 per cent in 1960s to about 2 per cent presently and continues to show a decreasing trend. The non-penaeid shrimps. could be selectively operated depending on availability and demand and can be operated at areas where bottom is not suitable for trawling (Vivekanandan and Mohamed. many idle large shrimp trawlers (>17 m LOA) in the NE coast have been recently converted to long liners. The gillnet catches which ranged from 100. the dolnet exploits the resources indiscriminately. and since these resources are relatively untapped from Indian waters. tunas and barracudas.000 to 135.P. and this class of vessels still contributes to the bulk of the estimated catches. gillnets exploit only a few species and up to 60 species have been recorded from drift gillnets along the Indian coasts. . Being a bag net. 2009). They are operated up to a depth of 40 m by employing mechanized crafts and also outboard engine crafts and currently there are about 8.086 t in 2007 to 13. Average productivity of this gear has been estimated as 13.000 t). the fixed variety of bag nets is called Dolnets. Gillnetting has become popular among fishers due to less capital intensive. such as A.M. As long line fishing for yellow fin tunas has been proven to be lucrative the world over.

400 t dry alginophytes. Marine finfish exports and utilisation The export of marine products in India both in terms of quantity and value has been more or less increasing at a steady pace since last five decades. 79 . chilling and icing have become important preservation methods for domestic marketing of fish produce. shark fin rays. The shell is also sold to cement and carbide factories.048 crores in 2010. The surveys carried out by Central Salt and Marine and Chemical Research Institute (CSMCRI).000 tons (wet weight) (Dhargalkar and Pereira. The export in terms of value has increased from a meagre Rs. Altogether 23 per cent is consumed in processed and preserved form that includes 16 per cent used for drying.6 million tonnes of fish produce exported from the country are subjected to some form of processing. 2010). The estimated fishery from bivalves is approximately 1 lakh t. 2005). These resources have great potential for the development of seaweed-based industries in India. (2012). Commercial Exploitation. The meat is also sold both in internal markets as well as to export processing plants. planning commission. 7 per cent for freezing and less than one-half per cent for canning. salting and smoking are in vogue in coastal areas. The State of Kerala leads India in the production of clams with estimated annual landings of about 66. especially in the state of Gujarat. India produces 110-132 t of dry agar annually utilizing about 880-1100 tons of dry agarophytes. there has been considerable diversification in terms of both products and markets in the recent past. While frozen shrimp was the prime export commodity earlier. Along with battered and breaded products. On the west coast. crab or squilla. approximately 67 per cent of the total fish produced in the country is consumed in fresh form and nearly 6 per cent is used for reduction into fishmeal (Report of the working group. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) and other research organizations have revealed vast seaweed resources along the coastal belts of South India.0 and 40. Fish processing and marketing As per available data. lobster.00. chitin and chitosan from the exoskeleton of shrimp.. Bivalve fishery Fishery exists for clams and mussels mainly in inland waters and bays. ready-to-eat fish in modified atmosphere packages and fish-incorporated products like condiments and maricream form the range of value added products. abundant seaweed resources are present on the intertidal and subtidal regions.Narayanakumar. canning and production of surimi have been employed for exports. Traditional methods of fish preservation like drying. 2011). etc. The shares of frozen shrimp and fresh/frozen fish to the total export are presently 21. Sea-weed production The total production of seaweeds in India in 2005 was approximately 1. while freezing.almost all of these under medium and small. Manual on World Trade Agreements and Indian Fisheries Paradigms: A Policy Outlook. ready-to-cook. fish maws from fish bladder.0 per cent Shyam S.scale sectors.000 tons (t) in 2008-09 (Suja and Mohamed. 3. viz. The low valued fishes or byproducts are also subjected to processing for several industrial products. With increasing inter-state movement of fresh fish.600 to 5.9 crores in 1961-62 to Rs 10. Annual algin production is 360 to 540 t from 3. bulk of the produce for domestic market is consumed fresh. Utilization Pattern and Trade Seine fishery for small pelagics along the SW coast is a typical example of this innovative spirit. collection is by handpicking and by use of hand dredge operated from a dug out canoe. While over 0. fishmeal and oil.Marine Finfish Resources of India : Distribution. Salim and R.

0 and 19. 1% Dried items. 458 pp. 31% Figure 7. 7. The marine finfish resources of India are marketed both in export and domestic markets (Fig 7. . respectively.M.4 Item wise contribution to export quantity (per cent) of marine products from India during 2011-2012the years. 7.5). Figure 7. In order to realize better export earnings in the coming years the country has to develop appropriate strategies for marketing of ornamental/live fishes and value added fishery better market potentials.857 billion mark.47 crores (Fig.U. Najmudeen in terms of quantity and 43. 13% Frozen fish. Among the frozen products (Fig. 39% Frozen shrimp. 3% Frozen squid. 26% Other.0 per cent in terms of value. 12 901.P.3). The major items in the marine fishery exports are the frozen products.5 and 7. Kochi : Cadalmin.3 Indian marine products export over years As regards overseas destinations. 9% Frozen cuttlefish. squid and cuttlefish are two important commodities exported mainly to the EU and south-east Asian countries. While USA has been the top importer of shrimps from India. 9% Others. Japan and USA have become important markets for fishery products. During 201011 (April 2010 – March 2011). The export of marine fishery products from India has made substantial progress over Chilled items. Zachariaand T. A wide array of processed or value added products from marine finfishes are being exported to various countries.6). valued at Rs. marine finfish is the major contributor in 80 Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. In volume terms the exports aggregated to 813 091 mt. the European Union. export earnings for the first time in the history of marine products exports from India touched US $ 2.

16% Frozen shrimp. USA (2 per cent) and Japan (2 per cent).75 lakh tonnes during 2001-02 to 3.) China FrozenOthers. 81 . 6). 4% Tunisia. 1% Japan. 2% UAE. However in term of value. 1% Hong Kong. Commercial Exploitation. 5% Other.6 Major markets for the finfish export from India by quantity Shyam S. During 2011-2012. 11% Figure 7. in terms of value (Fig. frozen cuttlefish (9 per cent) and frozen squid (9 per cent). 1% Frozen fish. 50% Thailand. 10% cuttlefish. However. 55% Figure 7. the foreign earnings from the export of frozen finfishes alone was Rs. Dried7% items. 1% UK. 1436 crores (Fig. Tunisia (4 per cent). the Chinese market provides only 40 per cent to the total foreign exchange earnings from finfishes. 2% USA. 3482 crores. Salim and R. followed by frozen cuttlefish (8 per cent) and frozen squid (7 per cent). Kuwait. with an annual average export of 2. (2012). The export of frozen finfishes from the country increased from 1.Marine Finfish Resources of India : Distribution. 2% Malaysia. 8).26 lakh tonnes worth of Rs. 21% China. followed by frozen shrimp (26 per cent). Manual on World Trade Agreements and Indian Fisheries Paradigms: A Policy Outlook.5 Item wise contribution to export value ( per cent) of marine products from India during 2011-2012 Leads in the import of finfish from India (40 per cent) followed by Thailand (11 per cent). The market wise analysis shows that (Fig. frozen shrimp is the major contributor to the export earnings (55 per cent). Malaysia (4 per cent).47 lakh tonnes in 2011-12.Narayanakumar. 3% Chilled items. 8% Frozen squid. leaving the frozen finfishes (16 per cent) to the second position. Utilization Pattern and Trade terms of quantity exported (36 per cent). 7.

. 458 pp. Najmudeen Figure 7. frozen croaker (10397 t) and dried fish meal (5549 t). Frozen finfish is the major form of export from India amounting 2.09 lakh tonnes with a share of 47 per cent to the total frozen products export from India.2012 (t) About 83 per cent of the dried marine products exported from India were marine finfishes (Table 1). Item wise export shows that. Among chilled items. fish surimi (11261 t).9 Contribution of different resources to the total marine finfish exports from India Fishery Resource Ribbonfish Croakers Tuna Mackerel Pomfrets Total Quantity (t) 83507 27546 18797 14010 11976 143860 Per cent 35 11 8 6 5 60 82 Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute.182 t.7 Export of frozen finfish from India during the period 2001 . among marine finfishes. Zachariaand T. followed by frozen mackerel (14009 t).M. frozen ribbon fish is the major export product with an export of 81. Table 7.P. Kochi : Cadalmin.8 Contribution of finfish to the various marine products export categories from India Items Frozen Chilled Dried Othes Total Total export (t) 443666 7631 17178 69751 538226 Finfish export (t) 209764 5227 14220 11274 240485 Share of finfish ( per cent) 47 68 83 16 Table 7.U. the marine finfish components were 83 per cent with an average annual export of 5227 tonnes.

followed by skipjack tuna (27 per cent) (Fig. Ribbonfishes contributed about 42 per cent of the total frozen marine finfish exports (Fig. 26% Ribbonfish.8 per cent). Among the tunas. yellowfin tuna export was 36 per cent. The dried finfish products (Fig. 7% Silver croaker. 7. 42% Yellowfin tuna.3 per cent). 5% Figure 7. Tuna (11 per cent). 4% Mackerel. 4% Croaker.9 per cent) and Gutted tuna (2.. Manual on World Trade Agreements and Indian Fisheries Paradigms: A Policy Outlook.Narayanakumar. ribbonfish products were the major contributor (Table 10) with a share of 35 per cent to the total marine finfish exports.9 Item wise export of frozen marine finfishes in India Among the chilled products.3 per cent). 83 . Tuna (8 per cent). chilled fish contributed about 39 per cent of the total chilled fish exports (Fig. Salim and R. Sardines.9) Figure 7. kingfish (3. followed by Croakers (14 per cent). Utilization Pattern and Trade Among the fishery resources. The other major resources were croakers (11 per cent). Tuna (2. 12) exported were dominated by Shyam S. king fish and reef codes were contributed 2 per cent each to the frozen marine finfish exports of India. 9). (2012). Mackerel (7 per cent) and Lizardfishes (3 per cent).8 Contribution by different fish groups to the total frozen fish exports Skipjack tuna.0 per cent). 3% others. Commercial Exploitation. 4% Silver Yellow pomfret. 11) followed by chilled pomfrets (15. reef cods (8. chilled threadfins (13.7 per cent). mackerel (6 per cent) and pomfrets (5 per cent). 5% croaker.Marine Finfish Resources of India : Distribution.

27 per cent) and dried fish maws (4. followed by frozen yellow croaker (32 per cent) and frozen silver croaker (29 per cent). Pomfrets were exported as 12 products.34 2.P. among which.7 per cent). Zachariaand T.U.5 per cent). . Other than frozen products.10 Contribution ( per cent) of various finfish groups to the export of chilled items in India There were about 9 products made of ribbon fishes utilised in the export market. minor quantities of this resource are utilised as surimi and chilled and dried products as well. which are exported as 5 types of products.5 per cent). dried salted fish (9. Minor quantities of surimi croaker (2 per cent) also exported from India. Tuna are exported as 20 different products from India (Table 11). dried Bombay duck (4.M. Kochi : Cadalmin.39 6. Figure 7.74 2. with the highest representation by frozen yellowfin tuna (42 per cent) followed by frozen skipjack tuna (28 per cent). frozen silver pomfret is the major export item (72 per cent) followed by frozen black pomfret (8. Mackerels are mainly exported as frozen mackerel (62 per cent) and IQF mackerel (38 per cent).75 3.27 per cent). The major component in the frozen finfish export basket was ribbonfishes (42 per cent) followed by croakers (14 per cent) and Tuna (11 per cent). Table 7. Apart from frozen products. 458 pp. The other major resource among marine finfishes is the crockers. frozen white pomfret (3. with 97 per cent export was in the form of frozen whole fish.7 per cent) and IQF silver pomfret (3. small quantities of tuna are exported in the form of chilled products.89 3. The major items are frozen products such as frozen croaker (38 per cent). frozen whole tuna (6 per cent) and IQF skipjack tuna (5 per cent).7 per cent).10 Various forms of tuna exported from India Product Frozen Yellow fin tuna Frozen Skipjack tuna Frozen Whole tuna Frozen Skipjack IQF Frozen Yellow fin gutted IQF Frozen Tuna gutted Frozen Yellow fin IQF Frozen longtail tuna Quantity (t) 7882 5336 1179 893 731 629 515 489 per cent 41. chilled pomfret (6.60 84 Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Najmudeen dried fish meal (39 per cent) followed by dried whole fish (38.27 4.93 28.09 per cent).

09 0.28 0.01 100 FROZEN Ribbonfish Croaker Silver pomfret Yellow croaker Mackerel Silver croaker Yellowfin tuna Skipjack tuna others Figure 7.Narayanakumar.20 0.82 0.11 Major items in the annual average export of frozen marine finfish (t) from India Fish surimi Frozen mackerel Dried fish meal Chilled fish Frozen croaker Frozen ribbon fish Figure 7. Commercial Exploitation. 85 .87 0. Utilization Pattern and Trade Frozen Skipjack tuna whole round Chilled tuna Frozen Tonggol tuna Frozen Tuna loins Chilled gutted tuna Frozen Bigeye tuna Frozen Yellow fin tuna roe Chilled Yellow fin tuna loins Frozen Tuna streaks Frozen Tuna streak IQF Frozen Tuna cubes Frozen Yellow fin tuna chunk Total 351 154 128 126 105 90 53 40 39 37 17 3 18797 1.67 0. Manual on World Trade Agreements and Indian Fisheries Paradigms: A Policy Outlook.Marine Finfish Resources of India : Distribution.21 0.12 Major items (quantity t) in the export of marine finfish from India Shyam S. (2012).68 0.21 0. Salim and R.48 0.56 0.

will be critical to reducing transaction costs and physical losses and to enhancing transparency and competitiveness in traditional fish markets. primary and secondary fish markets. Ranging from construction of Fishing Harbours (FH) and Fish Landing Centres (FLCs) to establishment of hygienic domestic markets and setting up of cold chains. it is yet to take roots in the fisheries sector. where fish are transported in insulated trucks with ice to distances of over 2. Hence. Other concerns are with regard to transportation system including roads. Infrastructure development The infrastructural requirements of the fisheries sector are manifold. and electricity. refrigerated vehicles. . Zachariaand T. There is considerable time lag during the transportation of fish from the landing centre to the interior markets.700 crores annually on a national basis. Najmudeen Issues in Marketing and Trade Marketing of fish and fishery products in the country is still unorganised. with Kolkata being the major market. major and minor retail (including roadside) markets. except in a few towns and cities. 2011). Establishment of FH/FLCs and cold chains are some of the areas where PPP mode can work well and the NFDB could facilitate the process. A study in the Ernakulam District of Kerala and West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh showed the post-harvest losses in fish to the extent of 15 per cent. Majority of domestic markets lack proper fish storing and handling facilities.U. good quality ice. 458 pp. About 75 per cent of fish produced in the country is marketed domestically through wholesale.000 km. the prime objective is to ensure that spoilage is reduced and fish reaches the consumers in the best possible condition. telecommunications.P. with municipalities and other local bodies looking into the marketing aspects (Working group report. Kochi : Cadalmin. which results in poor quality of the material leading to high nutritional and post-harvest losses. availability of potable water. amounting to over Rs 2. While the PPP concept has picked up in many other infrastructure development sectors. There exists a cold chain in case of fish production from Kolleru Lake region of Andhra Pradesh (East Godavari and Krishna districts). electricity and waste disposal system. public investments to expand access to rural infrastructure and services such as rural roads and transport services.M. Planning commission. ********** 86 Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute.