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STATIC ANALYSIS OF RECTANGULAR PLATE WITH INTERNAL CUT-OUT USING


FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
*Swagatam Paul,

Kanak Kalita, **Abir Dutta and ***Dr. S. Halder


*,
,
** PG Scholar, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics
*** Professor, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics
Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, West Bengal 711103
Email: *kgec.swagy@gmail.com,

kanak_kalita@yahoo.co.in

Abstract
A general first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is developed to analyze the bending behavior of
isotropic plates having internal cut-outs. For the analysis a finite element program is developed using 9 node
isoparametric element. The plates having different aspect ratio (b/a), boundary conditions and transverse
loads (uniformly distributed load, hydrostatic varying load and sinusoidal varying load) are analyzed by the
proposed 9 node isoparametric element. The analysis is performed considering plate thickness ratio varying
from h/a = 0.01 to 0.1. The deflection and bending moment in non-dimensional forms are presented at
different location of the plate. The present solutions are compared with those obtained using ANSYS.

1. Introduction:
Transverse bending analysis of plates is very important as it has a very prominent effect on structural engineering.
Bending of plates depends on the loading, aspect ratio, thickness ratio and various sizes of cut outs. It is necessary
for practical purposes, to have some cut out in various shapes. Thick plates analysis cannot be done properly using
analytical method. In the present approach, we have used Mindlins Model (FSDT) to encounter the thick plate
problem.
Finite Element Method is a very powerful numerical technique to solve any kind of structural problem. In our present
approach we have developed a formulation on bending of plate with cut out, to get the deflections and moments
under different loading conditions. The present results have been validated with published and ANSYS model
results.
There are some appreciable work available on the analysis of plates with cut outs. The works of Hencky (1913),
Wojtaszak (1937), Timoshenko (1938), Evans (1939), Young (1940), Hutchinson (1992), Wang et al (2003), Taylor
and Govindjee (2004) are of much importance . Two main methods of approach i.e. double sine series used by
Szilard (1974), and the superposition method as a generalization of Henckys solution (Evans, 1938). After the first
numerical results for calculating deflections in clamped rectangular plates, the progress was made by
Hencky(1913). Hencky used hyperbolic trigonometric functions and his methodology shows good convergence.
Hutchinson (1992) used the solution form which was presented in Timoshenko & Woinowsky-Kreiger (1959).
But as per the review of literatures, there are no such availability of static analysis of rectangular plates with internal
cut outs. We in our recent study have developed a finite element formulation using nine node plate bending element
(Lagrangian) element, for rectangular plates with internal cut outs and developed a FORTRAN program to get the
deflections and moments in different nodes. We also developed a model of the same in ANSYS for comparison.
2. Finite element formulation:
2

In the present formulation, finite element method has been used for the analysis of rectangular plates. The middle
plane of the plate of the element considered as the reference plane. The effect of shear deformation has been taken
into account following the Mindlins hypothesis where it has been assumed that the normal to the middle plane of the
plate before bending remains straight. Element used in the present work is the nine node isoperimetric plate bending
element. One of the major advantages of the element is that any plate shape can be nicely handled through a simple
mapping technique which may be defined as

and

(1)
Where (x, y) are the co-ordinates of any point within the element, (x
r
,y
r
) are the co-ordinates of the r
th
nodal point and
N
r
is the corresponding interpolation function of the element. In this element, Lagrangian interpolation function has
been used for N
r
expressed as,
{

} = {

}
where,
x
, and
y
are the average shear rotation over the entire shell thickness and
x
and
y
are the total rotations in
bending. The other independent field variables are u, v and w, where w is the transverse displacement while u and v
are the corresponding in-plane displacements.
The interpolation functions used for the representation of element geometry, in Eqns. (1) has been used to express
the displacement field at a point within the element in terms of nodal variables as

(2)
The generalized stress-strain relationship with respect to its reference plane may be expressed as

{ } | |{ } D o c =
(3)
{}

] (4)

{ }

c
c

c
c
c
c

c
c

c
c

c
c

c
c
+
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
w
x
w
x y
y
x
x
v
y
u
y
v
x
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
c
(5)
| |
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
88
77
66
55 54
45 44
33
22 21
12 11
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
D
D
D
D D
D D
D
D D
D D
D
(6)
, ,
) 1 ( 12
44 54 45
2
3
55 44
D D D
Eh
D D v
v
= =

= =
( )
,
1 2
, ,
1
33 11 21 12 2 22 11
v
v
v +
= = =

= =
E
D D D D
E
D D
3

) 1 ( 2
,
2
1
88 77 44 66
v
v
+
= =

=
K
Gh
D D D D
.
with the help of eqns. (2) and (5) the strain vector may be expressed in terms of the nodal displacement vector {} as
{ }

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

c
c

c
c
c
c

c
c

c
c

c
c

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=

=
yr
xr
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r r
r
r
r r
r
r
w
v
u
N
y
N
N
x
N
x
N
y
N
y
N
x
N
x
N
y
N
y
N
x
N
u
u
c
9
1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

{ } | | { }

=
=
9
1 r
e r r
B o c

{}= [] {} (7)
where [B] is the strain displacement matrix containing interpolation functions and their derivatives and {} is the nodal
displacement vector having order 45x1. Once the matrices [B] and [D] are obtained, the stiffness matrix of an
element [K]
e
can be easily derived with the help of virtual work method which may be expressed as
[

]=
[]

[][] || (8)
where | J | is the determinant of the Jacobian matrix.
In the similar manner the load vector {P
e
} may be expressed as
{P
e
}= q [N]
T
J (9)
The integration of the above equations has been carried out numerically following Gauss Quadrature rule.

3. Results and discussions:
The problems are related to isotropic uniform thickness rectangular plates having different thickness ratios and
different boundary conditions. The required FORTRAN program is developed based on the above formulation for
bending analysis of isotropic plates and plates with central cut outs. Mesh division is designated as (mxn) if the plate
is divided into m equal divisions along the x-direction and n equal divisions along the y-direction. The formulation is
developed considering first order shear deformation theory.



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Table 1: Deflection [w*= wD/ (qa
4
)] and moment [M*=M/qa] at position under UDL without cut out of a simply
supported square plate
Fig.1: Position of the measured points.(for plate without cutout)
Table 2: Deflection [w*= wD/ (qa
4
)] and moment [M*=M/qa] at position under UDL with cut out of a simply supported
square plate
h/a Position w*
(Present)
w*
(ANSYS)
M*
x
M*
y



0.01
11
2
4
6
8
10
0.0041 0.0041 0.0481 0.0481
0.0039 0.0039 0.0468 0.0461
0.0033 0.0033 0.0427 0.0402
0.0025 0.0025 0.0347 0.0304
0.0013 0.0013 0.0215 0.0171
0 0 0 0




0.1
11
2
4
6
8
10
0.0043 0.0043 0.0481 0.0481
0.0041 0.0041 0.0468 0.0461
0.0035 0.0035 0.0427 0.0402
0.0026 0.0026 0.0348 0.0305
0.0014 0.0014 0.215 0.0171
0 0 0 0
h/a
Position
w*
(Present)
w*
(ANSYS) M*
x
M*
y


1 0.0046 0.0044 0.0852 0.0852
3 0.0037 0.0033 0.0412 0.0472
5 0.0026 0.0027 0.0266 0.0337
7 0.0014 0.0014 0.0178 0.0182
9 0 0 0 0
0.01
2 0.0049 0.0047 0.0479 0.0544
4 0.0039 0.0042 0.0317 0.0434
6 0.0028 0.0023 0.0247 0.0321
8 0.0015 0.0015 0.0174 0.0178
10 0 0 0 0
0.1
1 0.0048 0.0046 0.1130 0.1130
3 0.0039 0.0038 0.0480 0.0521
5 0.0028 0.0022 0.0440 0.0351
7 0.0015 0.0012 0.0223 0.0188
9 0 0 0 0
2 0.0052 0.0050 0.0897 0.0963
4 0.0041 0.0044 0.0455 0.0454
6 0.0029 0.0030 0.0223 0.0365
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Fig.2 Position of measured points with cut out.
Fig.3: Deflection curve

Table 3: Deflection [w*= wD/ (qa
4
)] and moment [M*=M/qa] at position under hydrostatic load without cut out for left
edge free and other edges simply supported.
h/a References Position w* M*
x
M*
y




0.01



Present
11
2
4
6
8
10
0.0031 0.0214 0.0332
0.0033 0.0172 0.0337
0.0034 0.0125 0.0333
0.0035 0.0077 0.0327
0.0035 0.0034 0.0322
0.0037 0 0.0326
Thin plate
sol. (1970)
11
10
0.0031 0.0214 0.0331
0.0037 0 0.0325

Table 4: Deflection [w*= wD/ (qa
4
)] and moment [M*=M/qa] at position under hydrostatic load with cut out for left
edge free and other edges simply supported.









4. References:
8 0.0015 0.0015 0.0169 0.0202
10 0 0 0 0
h/a
Position w* M*
x
M*
y


1 0.0037 0.0010 0.0347
3 0.0035 0.0020 0.0390
5 0.0035 0.0068 0.0363
7 0.0035 0.0069 0.0395
9 0.0036 0.0444 0.0585
0.01
2 0.0039 0.0233 0.0483
4 0.0038 0.0182 0.0446
6 0.0037 0.0108 0.0397
8 0.0037 0.0033 0.0365
10 0.0038 0.0013 0.0364
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uniformly distributed load. J. Appl. Mech. Trans. ASME 6: A7A10
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Appl. Mech. Trans. ASME 59: 679681
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distributed load. Int. Appl. Mech.
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Govindjee S 2004 Solution of clamped rectangular plate problems. Communi. Numer. Meth. Eng. 20: 757
765
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Mechanics, (MIT: USA) 4043
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