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Plates are an integral part of any genre of engineering industry. Openings are provided in these plates
for access and maintenance. The presence of cutout creates stress concentration, which eventually reduces the
mechanical strength of the structure. In this paper the deflection and induced stresses for isotropic plate and
orthotropic plate with central circular and square cutout under transverse loading is studied with the help of finite
element method. The aim of this paper is to depict the variation in deflection and stresses with change in d/B and
b/B ratio for an isotropic material as compared to e-glass/epoxy (orthotropic material). Dependence of the
deflection and SCF on cutout geometry is also observed. Three different boundary conditions are considered. The
results so obtained are presented here in graphical form. A popular finite element package ANSYS is used for the
analysis.

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FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

*Swagatam Paul,

*,

,

** PG Scholar, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics

*** Professor, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics

Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, West Bengal 711103

Email: *kgec.swagy@gmail.com,

kanak_kalita@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

A general first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is developed to analyze the bending behavior of

isotropic plates having internal cut-outs. For the analysis a finite element program is developed using 9 node

isoparametric element. The plates having different aspect ratio (b/a), boundary conditions and transverse

loads (uniformly distributed load, hydrostatic varying load and sinusoidal varying load) are analyzed by the

proposed 9 node isoparametric element. The analysis is performed considering plate thickness ratio varying

from h/a = 0.01 to 0.1. The deflection and bending moment in non-dimensional forms are presented at

different location of the plate. The present solutions are compared with those obtained using ANSYS.

1. Introduction:

Transverse bending analysis of plates is very important as it has a very prominent effect on structural engineering.

Bending of plates depends on the loading, aspect ratio, thickness ratio and various sizes of cut outs. It is necessary

for practical purposes, to have some cut out in various shapes. Thick plates analysis cannot be done properly using

analytical method. In the present approach, we have used Mindlins Model (FSDT) to encounter the thick plate

problem.

Finite Element Method is a very powerful numerical technique to solve any kind of structural problem. In our present

approach we have developed a formulation on bending of plate with cut out, to get the deflections and moments

under different loading conditions. The present results have been validated with published and ANSYS model

results.

There are some appreciable work available on the analysis of plates with cut outs. The works of Hencky (1913),

Wojtaszak (1937), Timoshenko (1938), Evans (1939), Young (1940), Hutchinson (1992), Wang et al (2003), Taylor

and Govindjee (2004) are of much importance . Two main methods of approach i.e. double sine series used by

Szilard (1974), and the superposition method as a generalization of Henckys solution (Evans, 1938). After the first

numerical results for calculating deflections in clamped rectangular plates, the progress was made by

Hencky(1913). Hencky used hyperbolic trigonometric functions and his methodology shows good convergence.

Hutchinson (1992) used the solution form which was presented in Timoshenko & Woinowsky-Kreiger (1959).

But as per the review of literatures, there are no such availability of static analysis of rectangular plates with internal

cut outs. We in our recent study have developed a finite element formulation using nine node plate bending element

(Lagrangian) element, for rectangular plates with internal cut outs and developed a FORTRAN program to get the

deflections and moments in different nodes. We also developed a model of the same in ANSYS for comparison.

2. Finite element formulation:

2

In the present formulation, finite element method has been used for the analysis of rectangular plates. The middle

plane of the plate of the element considered as the reference plane. The effect of shear deformation has been taken

into account following the Mindlins hypothesis where it has been assumed that the normal to the middle plane of the

plate before bending remains straight. Element used in the present work is the nine node isoperimetric plate bending

element. One of the major advantages of the element is that any plate shape can be nicely handled through a simple

mapping technique which may be defined as

and

(1)

Where (x, y) are the co-ordinates of any point within the element, (x

r

,y

r

) are the co-ordinates of the r

th

nodal point and

N

r

is the corresponding interpolation function of the element. In this element, Lagrangian interpolation function has

been used for N

r

expressed as,

{

} = {

}

where,

x

, and

y

are the average shear rotation over the entire shell thickness and

x

and

y

are the total rotations in

bending. The other independent field variables are u, v and w, where w is the transverse displacement while u and v

are the corresponding in-plane displacements.

The interpolation functions used for the representation of element geometry, in Eqns. (1) has been used to express

the displacement field at a point within the element in terms of nodal variables as

(2)

The generalized stress-strain relationship with respect to its reference plane may be expressed as

{ } | |{ } D o c =

(3)

{}

] (4)

{ }

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

+

c

c

c

c

c

c

=

y

x

y

x

y

x

y

w

x

w

x y

y

x

x

v

y

u

y

v

x

u

u

u

u

u

u

u

c

(5)

| |

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

=

88

77

66

55 54

45 44

33

22 21

12 11

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

D

D

D

D D

D D

D

D D

D D

D

(6)

, ,

) 1 ( 12

44 54 45

2

3

55 44

D D D

Eh

D D v

v

= =

= =

( )

,

1 2

, ,

1

33 11 21 12 2 22 11

v

v

v +

= = =

= =

E

D D D D

E

D D

3

) 1 ( 2

,

2

1

88 77 44 66

v

v

+

= =

=

K

Gh

D D D D

.

with the help of eqns. (2) and (5) the strain vector may be expressed in terms of the nodal displacement vector {} as

{ }

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

=

=

yr

xr

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

r r

r

r

r r

r

r

w

v

u

N

y

N

N

x

N

x

N

y

N

y

N

x

N

x

N

y

N

y

N

x

N

u

u

c

9

1

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

{ } | | { }

=

=

9

1 r

e r r

B o c

{}= [] {} (7)

where [B] is the strain displacement matrix containing interpolation functions and their derivatives and {} is the nodal

displacement vector having order 45x1. Once the matrices [B] and [D] are obtained, the stiffness matrix of an

element [K]

e

can be easily derived with the help of virtual work method which may be expressed as

[

]=

[]

[][] || (8)

where | J | is the determinant of the Jacobian matrix.

In the similar manner the load vector {P

e

} may be expressed as

{P

e

}= q [N]

T

J (9)

The integration of the above equations has been carried out numerically following Gauss Quadrature rule.

3. Results and discussions:

The problems are related to isotropic uniform thickness rectangular plates having different thickness ratios and

different boundary conditions. The required FORTRAN program is developed based on the above formulation for

bending analysis of isotropic plates and plates with central cut outs. Mesh division is designated as (mxn) if the plate

is divided into m equal divisions along the x-direction and n equal divisions along the y-direction. The formulation is

developed considering first order shear deformation theory.

4

Table 1: Deflection [w*= wD/ (qa

4

)] and moment [M*=M/qa] at position under UDL without cut out of a simply

supported square plate

Fig.1: Position of the measured points.(for plate without cutout)

Table 2: Deflection [w*= wD/ (qa

4

)] and moment [M*=M/qa] at position under UDL with cut out of a simply supported

square plate

h/a Position w*

(Present)

w*

(ANSYS)

M*

x

M*

y

0.01

11

2

4

6

8

10

0.0041 0.0041 0.0481 0.0481

0.0039 0.0039 0.0468 0.0461

0.0033 0.0033 0.0427 0.0402

0.0025 0.0025 0.0347 0.0304

0.0013 0.0013 0.0215 0.0171

0 0 0 0

0.1

11

2

4

6

8

10

0.0043 0.0043 0.0481 0.0481

0.0041 0.0041 0.0468 0.0461

0.0035 0.0035 0.0427 0.0402

0.0026 0.0026 0.0348 0.0305

0.0014 0.0014 0.215 0.0171

0 0 0 0

h/a

Position

w*

(Present)

w*

(ANSYS) M*

x

M*

y

1 0.0046 0.0044 0.0852 0.0852

3 0.0037 0.0033 0.0412 0.0472

5 0.0026 0.0027 0.0266 0.0337

7 0.0014 0.0014 0.0178 0.0182

9 0 0 0 0

0.01

2 0.0049 0.0047 0.0479 0.0544

4 0.0039 0.0042 0.0317 0.0434

6 0.0028 0.0023 0.0247 0.0321

8 0.0015 0.0015 0.0174 0.0178

10 0 0 0 0

0.1

1 0.0048 0.0046 0.1130 0.1130

3 0.0039 0.0038 0.0480 0.0521

5 0.0028 0.0022 0.0440 0.0351

7 0.0015 0.0012 0.0223 0.0188

9 0 0 0 0

2 0.0052 0.0050 0.0897 0.0963

4 0.0041 0.0044 0.0455 0.0454

6 0.0029 0.0030 0.0223 0.0365

5

Fig.2 Position of measured points with cut out.

Fig.3: Deflection curve

Table 3: Deflection [w*= wD/ (qa

4

)] and moment [M*=M/qa] at position under hydrostatic load without cut out for left

edge free and other edges simply supported.

h/a References Position w* M*

x

M*

y

0.01

Present

11

2

4

6

8

10

0.0031 0.0214 0.0332

0.0033 0.0172 0.0337

0.0034 0.0125 0.0333

0.0035 0.0077 0.0327

0.0035 0.0034 0.0322

0.0037 0 0.0326

Thin plate

sol. (1970)

11

10

0.0031 0.0214 0.0331

0.0037 0 0.0325

Table 4: Deflection [w*= wD/ (qa

4

)] and moment [M*=M/qa] at position under hydrostatic load with cut out for left

edge free and other edges simply supported.

4. References:

8 0.0015 0.0015 0.0169 0.0202

10 0 0 0 0

h/a

Position w* M*

x

M*

y

1 0.0037 0.0010 0.0347

3 0.0035 0.0020 0.0390

5 0.0035 0.0068 0.0363

7 0.0035 0.0069 0.0395

9 0.0036 0.0444 0.0585

0.01

2 0.0039 0.0233 0.0483

4 0.0038 0.0182 0.0446

6 0.0037 0.0108 0.0397

8 0.0037 0.0033 0.0365

10 0.0038 0.0013 0.0364

6

- Evans T H 1939 Tables of moments and deflections for a rectangular plate fixed on all edges and carrying a

uniformly distributed load. J. Appl. Mech. Trans. ASME 6: A7A10

- Hutchinson J R 1992 on the bending of rectangular plates with two opposite edges simply supported. J.

Appl. Mech. Trans. ASME 59: 679681

- Imrak C E, Gerdemeli I 2007 A numerical method for clamped thin rectangular plates carrying a uniformly

distributed load. Int. Appl. Mech.

- Szilard R 1974 Theory and analysis of plates (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs) Taylor R L,

Govindjee S 2004 Solution of clamped rectangular plate problems. Communi. Numer. Meth. Eng. 20: 757

765

- Timoshenko S P 1938 Bending of rectangular plates with clamped edges. Proc. 5th Int. Congress of Applied

Mechanics, (MIT: USA) 4043

- Timoshenko S P, WoinowskyKrieger S 1959 Theory of plates and shells (New York: McGraw-Hill)

- Wang C M, Wang Y C, Reddy J N 2002 Problems and remedy for the Ritz method in determining stress

resultant of corner supported rectangular plates. Comput. Struct. 80: 145154

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