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Proceedings of 58th Congress of ISTAM ( Held at : BESU Shibpur; Howrah, W.B. (

Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics Department Bengal Engineering and Science University, Howrah, WB, India Email:

Abstract: Machine parts are only strong as its weakest point. In strictly engineering terms,
the design of machine elements is focused reasonably on the regions where stress concentration occurs. In this paper a plate made of steel with an elliptical hole with a fixed long radius and its short radius is varied in length and loaded with a pressure load. A comparison is made between the results obtained from analytical equations (from reference 13) for a plate with anelliptical hole and the results obtained from FEA. To show that increasing the order of the element can be one way to improve the results obtained from FEA model two different finite elements (4 node and 8 node plane element) were used on the model. This was shown by measuring the length of the element at the tip of the ellipse. It is possible to produce a more accurate FEA model by increasing the number of elements in a mesh. To show this, the number of elements used to mesh the model were recorded and compared for each ellipse size.

Introduction Plates with cutouts are structural requirements of many aeronautical, mechanical and civil structures. In aircrafts components (such as wing spars and ribs) cutouts are provided to reduce the weight and to lay fuel and electrical lines. These are also provided for access to and service of interior parts in aircrafts and in bridges having plated structures such as box girders. These cutouts make the structure weak and susceptible to failure. The stress distribution associated with an elliptical hole in an infinitely wide plate subjected to uniformly distributed axial load has been obtained theoretically by Inglis (1] and Kolosoff [2]. Neuber [3] developed an approximate theoretical method which permits the determination of the value of the maximum stress in a plate of finite width, with an elliptical hole centrally located and subjected to the same loading. Durelli and Murray [4] worked out the stress distribution around the boundary of an elliptical hole in an infinite plate subjected to biaxial loading. Petersons [5] studied the abrupt changes in geometry in components under static loading for the isotropic materials and reported its effect on design of machine component. The SCF for different composite materials are also presented by Shiau and Lee [6]. An analytical Stress concentration around irregular holes using complex variable methods are reported by Simha and Mahapatra [7]. The analytical solution of infinite elastic plate with an circular hole and elliptic hole subjected to arbitrary biaxial loading was obtained by Gao [8]. Zirka et al. [9] have analyzed stress concentration around circular hole in a rectangular plate for orthotropic and isotropic plates under dynamic and static loading by using photo elastic method. Tafreshi [10] presented work on stress analysis of a series of thick, wide flat plates with oblique holes subjected to uniaxial tension and out-of-plane bending has been carried out using the finite element method (FEM), and in some cases the boundary element method (BEM). Kumar et al. [11] did a parametric study on different plate slenderness ratios and by varying the area ratio of opening to plate to determine the effect of ultimate strength on the size of rectangular opening. They found that increase in area ratio along the loading direction decreases the ultimate strength. Hasan [12] did stress analysis on steel plate having holes of various shapes, sizes and orientations using finite element method by the commercial software COMSOL.

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION Stress analysis of an elastic body is usually three dimensional problem. But, most of the practical problems appear in the state of plane stress or plane strain. Stress analysis of three-dimensional bodies under plane stress or plane strain can be treated as two-dimensional problems. The solution of two-dimensional problems requires the integration of the different equations of equilibrium together with the compatibility equations and boundary conditions. If body force is neglected, the equations to be satisfied are x / x + xy / x = 0 (1) y / y + xy / x = 0 (2) (2 / x2 + 2 / y2))(x + y ) = 0 (3) Substitution of stress components by displacement components u and v into Eq. (1) to (3) makes Eq. (3) redundant and Eq. (1) and (2) transforms to 2u/x2 + (1-v)/2(2u/y2) + (1+)/2 (2v/xy) = 0 (4) 2v/y2 + (1-v)/2(2v/x2) + (1+v)/2(2u/xy) = 0 (5) Now we need to find u and v from a two dimensional field satisfying the two partial differential Eq. (4) and (5).Instead of determining the two functions u and v the problem can be reduced to solving a single function (x,y), which can be determined by satisfying Eq. (4) and (5). The displacement potential function (x, y) can be defined as u = 2 /xy (6.1) v = - [(1-v) 2 /y2 + 22 /x2]/ (1-v) (6.2) By the above definitions the displacement components u and v satisfies Eq. (4) and the only condition reduced from Eq. (5) that the function (x, y) has to satisfy is 4 /x4 + 2 4 /x2y2 + 4 /y4 =0 (7) So, now the problem is to evaluate a single function (x, y) from the bi-harmonic Eq. (7), satisfying the boundary conditions specified at the boundary. This paper is a study of SCF under elastic loading conditions only i.e. the modulus of elasticity does not affect the results since the stress does not exceed the yield point of steel (250 MPa). The maximum stress will be max = SCF x nom. Here, nom is 1000 MPa for all the cases. Equation (8) is the stress concentration factor for an elliptical hole in a flat plate [13]. Equation (8) is only valid if a/b ratio is between 0.5 and 10. In this paper the ratio of a/b varies from 1 to 10. = 1 + 2. (2. ) + 3. (2. ) + 4. (2. )
2 3


1 = 1.00 + 2.00. ( ) 2 = 0.351 0.021. ( ) 2.483. ( )

3 = 3.621 5.183. ( ) + 4.494. ( )

4 = 2.270 + 5.204. ( ) 4.011. ( )

Where, a = the long radius of ellipse (100 ( mm) b = the short radius s of ellipse (will be var ried from 10 0 mm to 100 0 mm in 10 mm increm ments) D = wid dth of the fl lat plate (10 000 mm) K = stre ess concentr ration facto or for an elliptical hole in a flat pla ate. When a = b for the e last case th he elliptical l hole becom mes a circul lar hole and d equation (8 8) yields a SCF of o 2.538. Re eference 13 also contains specific analytical equations e fo or a circular hole. K = 3.0 00 - 3.13 (2r r/D) + 3.66 (2r/D) 2 - 1.53 (2r/D) 3 . (9) Where, r = radius of the cir rcular hole D = wid dth of the pl late Equatio on (9) yields s a SCF of 2.508 2 which h is only 1.1 16% less as compared to SCF obta ained by equation (8). Method dology A flat square s plate e with an ell liptical hole e made of steel s (E=210 0 GPa and P Poissons ra atio 0.3) with dimensions of o 1000 mm m width wit th long rad dius of 100 mmand a short radius that is i length from fr 100mm m to 10mm m in 10mm increments s, was load ded with a 1000 N varied in pressure e load. The e objective of this wor rk is to stud dy the effec ct an elliptic cal hole has on the stress distribution d o the of flat plat te as the sha arpness of th he ellipse in ncreases fro om a circle to t a narrow crack (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 ter plate (F Fig. 1) is modelled m in n ANSYS with w left ve ertical edge e constraine ed in XA quart 2 directio on and botto om edge co onstrained in Y-direct tion. A pressure load of 1000 N/mm N is applied to the top edge. e Free mesh m on qu uarter plate is i applied by b using the element sm mart size option available in n ANSYS and a the SC CF so obtain ned is recorded in tab ble 1. This value is compar red with th he analytica al SCF obt tained from m equation (8) and d deviations are a also recorde ed in table 1. The nex xt step is to determine the t SCF wit thin 1% acc curacy of th hat obtained from the an nalytical equations. This is done by applying a ma anual contr rols to mesh the geom metry. Suita able line division ns for eleme ent creation n is selected and the val lues are recorded in tab ble 2 along with the new found SCF which w is in n better agr reement wi ith the analytical resu ults. The fo ollowing comman nd is used to t easily set t the desired d number of f elements per p line in th he model. LESIZE E, _Y1, , ,10 0, 3, , , ,1

This command will generate 10 elements on the assigned line with a scaling factor of 3, i.e the elements at the near end of ellipse will be 3 times as small as the element at the far end on the same line. This procedure is needed so that the FEA analysis is able to capture the SCF at the uniform boundary easily. To establish that increasing the order of element would improve our results, two element types are compared- a 4 node plane element and an 8 node plane element (specified as PLANE182 & PLANE183 in the ANSYS library). PLANE182 is used for 2-D modeling of solid structures. It is defined by four nodes having two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. PLANE183 is a higher order 2-D, 8-node or 6-node element. PLANE183 has quadratic displacement behavior and is well suited to modeling irregular meshes. This element is defined by 8 nodes or 6 nodes having two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. Both the elements may be used as a plane element (plane stress, plane strain and generalized plane strain) or as an axisymmetric element. Both this elements have plasticity, hyperelasticity, creep, stress stiffening, large deflection, and large strain capabilities. They also have mixed formulation capability for simulating deformations of nearly incompressible elastoplastic materials, and fully incompressible hyperelastic materials.

Fig.3- 4 node element Results and Discussion

Fig.4- 8 node element

Table 1: Comparison of SCF obtained analytically and from quarter plate FEA model using smart mesh size 2.

a 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

b 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

D(width) 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

a/b 10 5 3.333 2.5 2 1.667 1.429 1.250 1.111 1

SCF (analytical) 17.030 8.932 6.250 4.916 4.118 3.589 3.212 2.930 2.712 2.538

SCF (Plane 182) 20.360 11.431 8.130 6.169 4.952 4.591 3.967 3.622 3.425 3.238

% Error -19.554 -27.979 -30.082 -25.500 -20.242 -27.921 -23.502 -23.602 -26.294 -27.598

SCF (Plane 183) 21.054 11.226 7.976 6.223 5.229 4.585 4.100 3.733 3.519 3.321

% Error -23.6291 -25.6835 -27.6184 -26.5984 -26.9678 -27.7535 -27.6424 -27.3896 -29.7601 -30.8684

Table 2: Comparison of SCF obtained analytically and from quarter plate FEA model using manual element size selection procedure with 4 node plane element (PLANE 182).

a/b 10 5 3.33 2.5 2 1.67 1.43 1.25 1.11 1

SCF (analytical) 17.030 8.932 6.250 4.916 4.118 3.589 3.212 2.930 2.712 2.538

SCF (FEA) 17.031 8.859 6.243 4.897 4.107 3.624 3.227 2.954 2.696 2.536

Side 1 58 40 34 20 16 12 8 7 5 4

No. of elements/side Side Side Side 2 3 4 30 30 50 30 30 40 12 12 17 12 12 17 9 9 12 8 8 10 7 7 9 7 7 7 6 6 6 4 4 4

Side 5 50 40 16 12 6 6 5 5 5 4

Element length (mm) 1.262 4.603 11.765 20 25 33.33 50 57.143 80 100

Total no. of elements 1742 1471 408 283 141 109 76 59 44 20

Table 3: Comparison of SCF obtained analytically and from quarter plate FEA model using manual element size selection procedure with 8 node plane element (PLANE 183).

a/b 10 5 3.33 2.5 2 1.67 1.43 1.25 1.11 1

SCF (analytical) 17.030 8.932 6.250 4.916 4.118 3.589 3.212 2.930 2.712 2.538

SCF (FEA) 16.975 8.909 6.253 4.947 4.135 3.623 3.24 2.941 2.732 2.528

Side 1 48 31 27 16 10 8 6 5 4 3

No. of elements/side Side Side 2 Side 3 4 20 20 30 17 17 25 12 12 17 12 12 15 11 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 5 6 3 3 3

Side 5 36 25 16 10 6 6 5 5 4 3

Element length (mm) 1.462 4.654 14.815 25 40 50 66.67 80 100 133

Total no. of elements 688 522 308 225 105 77 56 54 31 12

Fig. 5 Element length vs. ellipse short radius.

Fig. 6. No. of elements used to mesh side 1.

F Fig. 7. Numb ber of element ts used to me esh the quarte er plate mode el.

Fig. 5 shows s that for f capturing g the same SCF around d a geometr ry the FEA analysis using an 8 node element uses a larger ele ement lengt th than a 4 node n element. This me eans that the e 4 node element t needs mo ore refinem ment to capt ture the sam me SCF which w is wit thin +/- 1% % of the analytic cal solution n. Also, we see that as the hole becomes nar rrower an in ncreasingly y smaller element t is needed. . For instan nce, Plane 182 had an element e len ngth of 1.262 mm as co ompared to 1.462 2 mm of Pla ane 183 elem ment in the e model with h b = 10 mm m. Fig. 6 an nd Fig. 7 sho ows that the accu uracy of the FEA mod del would in ncrease by increasing the number r of elemen nts used. Both th hese figures s show that the 8 node e element is s more effic cient at mes shing the geometry g since it produces th he same res sults as the 4 node elem ment even when w using considerabl ly lesser number r of element ts. Conclu usion Any dis scontinuity in structure e penetrates the strength of the stru ucture and t the flow of stress is altered due to discontinuity. Stress S conce entration oc ccurs near th he discontin nuity. It is seen s that alytical equa ations for calculating SCF S around d elliptical holes h can b be used to calculate c the ana SCF around circul lar holes with w sufficie ent accuracy y. It is also o seen that the accurac cy of an FEA model m can be e increased by twometh hods. The first f method d is to increa ase the orde er of the element t used in th he model. Itis seen th hat the 4-n noded plane e element (Plane 182) needed smaller elements and a moreof f them in or rder to capture the str ress concentration factor to be within +/+ 1% of theclosed t fo orm solution n for the st tress concen ntration fact tor for this specific geometr ry, ascompared to the 8-noded plane p elemen nt (Plane 183). The se econd meth hod is to increase ethe numbe er of elem ments in th he model. This is do one by sho owing that t as the ellipseb became nar rrower, mo ore elemen nts were needed n in order to obtain the e stress concent trationfactor within 1% % of the cl losed form solution to o equation ( (8) for the specific geometr ry.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.


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