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Plates are an integral part of any genre of engineering industry. Openings are provided in these plates
for access and maintenance. The presence of cutout creates stress concentration, which eventually reduces the
mechanical strength of the structure. In this paper the deflection and induced stresses for isotropic plate and
orthotropic plate with central circular and square cutout under transverse loading is studied with the help of finite
element method. The aim of this paper is to depict the variation in deflection and stresses with change in d/B and
b/B ratio for an isotropic material as compared to e-glass/epoxy (orthotropic material). Dependence of the
deflection and SCF on cutout geometry is also observed. Three different boundary conditions are considered. The
results so obtained are presented here in graphical form. A popular finite element package ANSYS is used for the
analysis.

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AMIE, Institute of Engineers (I) PG Scholar, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, W.B. E-mail: 1kanak_kalita@yahoo.co.in, 2abhikbanerjee7@gmail.com

Abstract Plates are an integral part of any genre of engineering industry. Openings are provided in these plates for access and maintenance. The presence of cutout creates stress concentration, which eventually reduces the mechanical strength of the structure. In this paper the deflection and induced stresses for isotropic plate and orthotropic plate with central circular and square cutout under transverse loading is studied with the help of finite element method. The aim of this paper is to depict the variation in deflection and stresses with change in d/B and b/B ratio for an isotropic material as compared to e-glass/epoxy (orthotropic material). Dependence of the deflection and SCF on cutout geometry is also observed. Three different boundary conditions are considered. The results so obtained are presented here in graphical form. A popular finite element package ANSYS is used for the analysis. Keywords: Deflection, Finite Element Method, Internal Cutout, Stress, Transverse Loading

1. INTRODUCTION

The stress analysis of infinite plate with openings is an interesting field of investigation. Cut-outs are provided in structures in order to satisfy some service requirements but these cutouts result in strength degradation of the plate or structure. In actual practice, holes of different shapes are used for different applications. For example-manhole of any pressure vessel is either circular or elliptical while the window or door of an airplane is rectangular hole having chamfer of some radius at corners. These cut-outs work as stress raisers and may lead to the failure of the structure or machine component. Hence it is necessary to predict the deflection and stress pattern for these cutouts. Isotropic material finds widespread applicability in various engineering industries-structural, machine design, aerospace, construction of dams etc. However with advances in science and technology orthotropic and composite materials are becoming increasingly popular. The most common orthotropic material (i.e. a material which has different mechanical properties in the directions of three mutually perpendicular axescalled the natural axes) is wood. Plywood can be considered to be orthotropic under certain conditions. Paper and paper laminates are also orthotropic. Resin laminates made of sheets of woven glass fiber, used in aircrafts, are also orthotropic, as are most of the core materials used in sandwich panels in the construction of highspeed aircraft. Peterson [1] studied the abrupt changes in geometry in components under static loading for the isotropic materials and reported its effect on design of machine component. The SCF for different composite materials are also presented by Shiau and Lee [2]. An analytical Stress concentration around irregular holes using complex variable methods are reported by Simha and Mahapatra [3]. The analytical solution of infinite elastic plate with an circular hole and elliptic hole subjected to arbitrary biaxial loading was obtained by Gao [4]. Zirka et al. [5] have analyzed stress concentration around circular hole in a rectangular plate for orthotropic and isotropic plates under dynamic and static loading by using photo elastic method. Tafreshi [6] presented work on stress analysis of a series of thick, wide flat plates with oblique holes subjected to uniaxial tension and out-of-plane bending has been carried

out using the finite element method (FEM), and in some cases the boundary element method (BEM). Kumar et al. [7] did a parametric study on different plate slenderness ratios and by varying the area ratio of opening to plate to determine the effect of ultimate strength on the size of rectangular opening. They found that increase in area ratio along the loading direction decreases the ultimate strength. Hasan [8] did stress analysis on steel plate having holes of various shapes, sizes and orientations using finite element method by the commercial software COMSOL.

which can be determined by satisfying Eq. (4) and (5). The displacement potential function (x, y) can be defined as: u = 2 /xy v =-[(1-v) 2 /y2 + 22 /x2]/ (1-v) (6.1) (6.2)

By the above definitions the displacement components u and v satisfies Eq. (4) and the only condition reduced from Eq. (5) that the function (x, y) has to satisfy is 4 /x4 + 2 4 /x2y2 + 4 /y4 =0 (7) So, now the problem is to evaluate a single function (x, y) from the bi-harmonic Eq. (7), satisfying the boundary conditions specified at the boundary.

2. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

Stress analysis of an elastic body is usually three dimensional problem. But, most of the practical problems appear in the state of plane stress or plane strain. Stress analysis of three-dimensional bodies under plane stress or plane strain can be treated as two-dimensional problems. The solution of two-dimensional problems require the integration of the different equations of equilibrium together with the compatibility equations and boundary conditions. If body force is neglected, the equations to be satisfied are x / x + xy / x = 0 y / y + xy / x = 0 (2 / x2 + 2 / y2))(x + y ) = 0 (1) (2) (3)

3.

DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM

A thin rectangular plate of 1500mm x 1000mm (A x B) is considered for study. Square cutouts of side b are provided at the center. The cutout width (b) is varied from 100 mm to 500 mm i.e. ratio b/B of 0.1 to 0.5.

Substitution of stress components by displacement components u and v into Eq. (1) to (3) makes Eq. (3) redundant and Eq. (1) and (2) transforms to 2u/x2 + (1-v)/2(2u/y2) + (1+)/2 (2v/xy) = 0 2v/y2 + (1-v)/2(2v/x2)+(1+v)/ 2(2u/xy) = 0 (5) (4)

For circular cutout study the radius (r) of the circular cutout at the center is varied from 50 mm to 250 mm thus varying the d/B ratio from 0.1 to 0.5.

Now we need to find u and v from a two dimensional field satisfying the two partial differential Eq. (4) and (5).Instead of determining the two functions u and v the problem can be reduced to solving a single function (x, y),

Static Analysis of Isotropic & Orthotropic Plates with Central Cutout under Transverse Loading 59

Two different materials are consideredan isotropic material (steel) with youngs modulus (E) 200GPa and Poissons ratio 0.3 and an orthotropic material (e-glass/epoxy) [9] with Ex, Ey, Ez, Gxy, Gyz, Gzx, xy, yz, zx 3 GPa, 8.6GPa, 8.6GPa, 3.8GPa, 3.8GPa, 3.8GPa, 0.28, 0.28, 0.28 respectively. Transverse load in form of uniformly distributed load of 1N is applied for all cases. Three Different boundary conditions are considered. Plate A: All sides are simply supported. Plate B: Left & right sides are fixed, other two are simply supported. Plate C: All sides are fixed.

Fig. 4: Typical Meshing Used in the Analysis

5.

4.

FORMULATION IN ANSYS

Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 show the variation of Uz / Uz* with respect to cutout ratio is maximum in plate A and least in Plate C in the isotropic material. In plate A the ratio Uz / Uz* increases from 1.05 to 1.2 for increase in d/B and b/B ratio from 0.1 to 0.3.as we further go on increasing the cutout ratio, the Uz / Uz* starts decreasing to finally arrive at around 1.07 for cutout ratio 0.5. Plate B and C shows similar pattern starting at about 1.05 and attains a value of 1.1 at d/B=0.3 but reduces to 0.9 for plate B and 0.75 in plate C. In the case of orthotropic material is seen that variation of Uz / Uz* with respect to d/B and b/B is maximum in plate B, significant in A and minimum in plate C (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8). In plate A Uz / Uz* increases from 1.02 to 1.3 at d/B= 0.1 to 0.4 after which it decreases to 1.15 at d/B=0.5. In plate B Uz / Uz* increases from 1.25 to 1.3 at d/B= 0.1 to 0.3 but then reduces to 0.9 at d/B= 0.5.

An 8 noded shell element, (specified as SHELL 281 in ANSYS) is used throughout the study (Fig. 3). The element has eight nodes with six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the x, y, and z axes, and rotations about the x, y, and z-axes (when using the membrane option, the element has translational degrees of freedom only). Thus each element has 48 degree of freedom in total. SHELL281 is well-suited for linear, large rotation, and large strain nonlinear applications.

5.2 Distribution of xy

Fig. 3: Shell Element Used in the Analysis

It is a good practice and efficient way to exploit symmetry in FEM analysis whenever possible. Hence in this case only one quadrant of the plate is modelled and meshed. Mapped meshing is used to get finer mesh near the cutout periphery (Fig. 4).

In isotropic material observation of variation of SCF for x with respect to cutout dimensions reveals that it is more prominent in plate A then in B and C as seen in Fig. 9 and Fig. 10. In all three plates reduction of SCF for x is observed with increase in cutout ratio. In plate A for both cutout geometries SCF for x is at around 2.2 for cutout ratio of 0.1 which reduces to around 0.8

and 1.45 at cutout ratio of 0.5 in circular cutout and square cutout plate respectively. In plate B and C SCF reduces from 1.01 to 0.9. Fig. 11 and Fig. 12 shows variation of SCF in orthotropic material for x which maximum in plate A for both cutout geometries. The variation of SCF for x is not so significant in case of plate B and plate C. In plate A with circular cutout SCF reduces from 1.77 at d/B=0.1 to 0.55 at d/B=0.5 whereas in plate A with square cutout the SCF reduces from 1.55 to 0.56.

5.3 Distribution of y

Variation of SCF for y in isotropic material is prominent in plate A in which it reduces from 1.85 at d/B=0.1 to 1.22 at d/B=0.5 for circular cutout (Fig. 13) and from 2.19 to 1.2 for square cutout (Fig. 14). The variation is maximum in plate B where it reduces from 1.85 to 0.9 in circular cutout and 2.16 to 1.1 in square cutout. In plate C the SCF for y decreases from 1 .to 0.76 in circular cutout and from 1 to 0.66 in square cutout. In orthotropic material variation of SCF for y is maximum in plate B prominent in plate A and least in plate C. In plate with circular hole (Fig. 15) SCF reduces from 4.49 to 1.38 in plate B, 3.33 to 1.6 in plate A and in plate C it increases slightly from 1.94 at d/B=0.1 to 2 at d/B=0.2 and then reduces to 1.24. In case of square cutout (Fig. 16) though the trend is, SCF is higher than in circular cutout. It reduces from 4.94

Fig. 8: Uz/ Uz* vs. b/B for Square Cutout (Orthotropic)

Static Analysis of Isotropic & Orthotropic Plates with Central Cutout under Transverse Loading 61

Fig. 10: SCF for x vs. b/B for Square Cutout (Isotropic)

Fig. 14: SCF for y vs. b/B for Square Cutout (Isotropic)

Fig. 11: SCF for x vs. d/B for Circular Cutout (Orthotropic)

Fig. 12: SCF for x vs. b/B for Square Cutout (Orthotropic)

Fig. 16: SCF for y vs. b/B for Square Cutout (Orthotropic)

Fig. 13: SCF for y vs. d/B for Circular Cutout (Isotropic)

Fig. 17: SCF for xy vs. d/B for Circular Cutout (Isotropic)

a peak SCF for xy of 1.45 and 2.6 at cutout ratio of 0.1 for circular cutouts and square cutout respectively which reduces to 1.04 and 1.48. Plate B shows maximum SCF of xy of 1.9 and 3.4 for circular and square cutout geometry which reduces to 1.09 and 1.7. Plate C has a maximum SCF of xy 4.3 for square and 2.5 for circular cutout which reduces to 1.46 and 1.17 at b/B and d/B=0.5.

Fig. 18: SCF for xy vs. b/B for Square Cutout (Isotropic)

In orthotropic material (Fig. 19 and Fig. 20) the variation of SCF for xy is maximum in plate B and significant for plate A and C. Maximum SCF for xy is 4.8 and 6.4 for plate B with circular and square cutout respectively.

6. CONCLUSION

Variation of deflection is maximum in plate A and is minimal in plate C for steel and maximum in plate B and minimum i plate C for e-glass/epoxy. Max stress concentration is seen at hole periphery for plate A and B (both for circular and square cutout) and at supports in case of plate C. In general, as compared to plate A stress is 55%-60% less in plate C and 35%-40% less in plate B. Any circular cutout replacing a square cutout shows a reduction in stress of about 15% in case of plate C to as much as 40% in plate A. SCF for x and y varies most in plate A and least in plate C whereas variation of SCF for shear stresses is prominent in plate C as compared to A and B for isotropic material. The SCF in general in more in orthotropic plate as compared to isotropic plate. It is observed that SCF depends on elastic constants and hence differ from material to material. Hence we can conclude that SCF for x and y plays a critical role in design of plate A and B, whereas for plate C the designer should be more concerned about shear stress.

Fig. 19: SCF for xy vs. d/B for Circular Cutout (Orthotropic)

Fig. 20: SCF for xy vs. b/B for Square Cutout (Orthotropic)

to 1.9 in plate A and 6.1 to 2.3 in plate B. In plate C with square cutout SCF increases from 1.98 at d/B=0.1 to 2.01 at d/B=0.2 and then reduces to 1.13 at d/B=0.5.

5.4 Distribution of xy

Fig. 17 and Fig. 18 shows variation of SCF for xy for both types of cutouts is similar in isotropic material. Shear stresses are more prominently present in plates with square cutouts. Plate A has

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the various kinds of support received from friends and colleagues at Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, WB.

Static Analysis of Isotropic & Orthotropic Plates with Central Cutout under Transverse Loading 63

REFERENCES

[1] [2] R.E. Peterson, Stress concentration design factors. New York: John Wiley and sons, 1966. Le-Chung Shiau : George C. Lee. (1993): Stress concentration around holes in composite laminates with variable fiber spacing, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp. 107-115. K.R.Y. Simha, S.S. Mohapatra, Stress concentration around irregular holes using complex variable, Sadhana, Vol. 23, Part 4, pp. 393-412, 1998. X.L. Gao, A general solution of an infinite elastic plate with an elliptic hole under biaxial loading, Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Vol. 67, pp. 95-104, 1996. A.I. Zirka, M.P. Malezhik and I.S. Chernyshenko, Stress distribution in an orthotropic plate with circular holes under impulsive loading, International Applied Mechanics, vol. 40, no. 2, 2004. Tafreshi, Numerical analysis of stresses at oblique holes in plates subjected to tension and bending, Journal of strain analysis, vol. 30 no4, 1995, pp. 317323. M. Suneelkumar, P. Alagusundaramoorthy and R. Sundaravadivelu, Ultimate strength of square plate with rectangular opening under axial compression Journal of naval architecture and marine engineering, June 2007.

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T. Hasan, A. Das, T. Rahman, S. C. Chowdhury, and M. T. Alam, Stress analysis of steel plate having holes of various shapes, sizes and orientations using finite element method, Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechanical Engineering 2009 (ICME2009) Dhaka, Bangladesh, December 2009. M. Daniel, and O. Ishai, Engineering mechanics of composite materials. Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 1994. D.Y. Kim, D.H. Shim, and M.J. Choi, A Stress Concentration Analysis Model for a Plate in the Aircraft Surface using Energy Method, Spring Conference of Korean Society for Precision Engineering, (2007), 553-554. S. Timoshenko and J.N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1988. J.W. Dally and W.F. Riley, Experimental Stress Analysis, McGraw Hill Book Co., 1987. G.N. Savin, Stress Concentration around Holes, Pergamon Press, New York (1961).

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