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FISIKA ELEKTRO

Current and resistance o I= o Average current: I = nqvdA, where n = density of charge, q =charge on each carrier, vd = drift speed, and A = cross-sectional area of conductor. o Current density: J = I A = nqvd o J = !", where ! is conductivity o Inverse of conductivity is resistivity: $ = o %esistivity of conductor varies appro&i'ately linear with te'peratures: $ = $()#*+,---(./ 0irect Current o 1irchoff %ules: • 2 Iin = 2 Iout • 23 * 2I% = ( o 4ith capacitor • • Charging: q,t. = Q,# 5 e-t %C. and I,t.= charge ,C63. 0ischarging: q,t. = Qe-t %C and I,t.= − charge on capacitor
3 −t %C e , where Q is 'a&i'u' % # ! dQ dt

Q −t %C e , where Q is initial %C

7agnetic 8ield o 8 = 96I6: = q6v69 q6v696sin ;, where ; is s'aller angle <etween v and 9 o In the s'all parts of wire: d8 = 9.I.ds o :oop carrying current: • 7agnetic dipole 'o'ent: = = I.A • -orque: > = =.9 • ?otential energy: @ = - =.9 o 7oving of particle in 'agnetic field • 4ill 'aAe circular path • • %adius: r = q9
'v

Angular speed: B =

q9 '

Cource of 'agnetic field o 9iot-Cavart :aw: ˆ = I ⋅ ds⋅ r • Dn a point: d9= ( E FG r =I • Dn straight wire: 9 = ( EG a

• • • Colenoid: 9 = =(.dA o A'pere-7a&well :aw: • A'pere law: the line integral of around any closed path equals =(.#− e−t >.n. : 'agnetic fields are produced <oth <y conduction currents and <y changing electric fields: ∫9ds= =(. where : is inductance dt dL dt dL .Bt*I.A'pere-7a&well.I • Keneral for' . where I is the total steady current passing through any surface <ounded <y the closed path: ∫9ds= =(.I * =(. Inductance o Celf-inductance: 3 = −: o := • • HL I dI . % • > = -i'e constant = : % o "nergy: @ = :IE E o "nergy density: u = 9E E=( o 7utual inductance: 7 = H#L#E HEL#E = I# IE o :C Circuit: • Q = Q'a&6cos.Id. where Id = 3( o Classification of 7agnetic Cu<stances • 8erro'agnetic: strong 'agnetic effects • ?ara'agnetic: s'all <ut positive 'agnetic suscepti<ility • 0ia'agnetic: weaA 'agnetic 'o'ent :aw of Induction o 8aradayMs :aw: "'f induced in a circuit is directly proportional to the ti'e rate of change of 'agnetic flu& through the circuit: 3 = − o :enNM :aw: induced current and induced e'f in a conductor are in such a direction as to oppose the change that produced the'.: I = 0ischarging: I = 3 −t > e % 3 .. 3( is per'itivity dt o %: Circuit: Charging .I.connected with a <attery.I = HI -oroid: 9 = ( EG r 8orce per length <etween two parallel straight wire: 8 =(I#IE = d EG a o 7agnetic 8lu&: I = J9. where I is phase constant • B= # :C .

• -otal energyO @ = @c * @: .