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VOL. S A C J , NO. 4, MAY 1987

An Adaptive Multiple Beam SystemConcept
Abstract-An adaptive multiple beam system, which bas flexibility Furthermore, in order to assure all beam operations, each to adapt beam power to varying beam traffic, is proposed. The multiple beam must be highly reliable. beam transmitter, which is called “hybrid transponder’’ in this paper, In order to cope with these problems, we proposed the consists of a pair of multiport hybrids and a of set amplifying elements. Power combining, isolation, and intermodulation characteristics of thisuse of an active array multiple beam antenna [l]. Also, multiport network are analyzed. Also, a new interbeam exchange and Kawai proposed a new type of beam switching network feeder link connection concept, which serves as the basis for an adap- which consists of hybrids, l-bit phase shifters, and amtive multiple beam system, is proposed. Finally, characteristics of an plifiers [2], [3]. experimental 8-amplifier 8-port hybrid transponder are described.

I. INTRODUCTION N satellite communications, demand assigned multiple access intended for a large number of customer terminals enables an efficient use of a small number of satellite channels. This type of service, based on a multicarrier system using inexpensivelow power terminals,is expected to find extensive use in many areas of communications. Recently, in the fixed and mobile satellite communications, multiple beam systems have been under consideration as advanced satellite communication systems. Multiple beam systems can increase transmission capacity with an increase of satellite antenna gain and reuse of allocated frequency band. However, implementation of the multiple beam systems, especially in contiguous domestic communications, yields problems for an appropriate system design. In the case of single beam systems, all the transponders are connected to a single beam, and every Earth station has access to all the transponders.. Therefore, traffic variations in a local area do not yield any problem, provided they .do not exceed the total transmission capacity. Furthermore, single beam systems inherently have high reliability because failure of some transponders does not result in total system breakdown. On the other hand,in the case of multiple beam systems, the area subtended by each beam is a part of the total service area, and the transmission capacity of each beam is also a part of the total transmission capacity. Thus, the fixed allocation of transponder capacity to each beam degrades .the flexibility of the. system which has varying traffic distribution. Also, it will become difficult to provide a beam to a sparsely populated area with minimal traffic because such a beam requires a transponder with transmitting power corresponding to the estimated maximum traffic.


In this paper, these concepts are extended yielding a new multiple beam transmitter which consists of multiport hybrids and a set of amplifiers. A similar concept using a Butler matrix was proposed by Sandrin as a Butler matrix transponder [4]. The system described in this paper consists of multiple hybrids and multiple amplifiers, which, inherently realize a wide-band transmission and easy,implementation. Multiple fixed phase shifters, which are necessary in the Butler matrix transponder, are not necessary in the proposed configuration.

11. THE “HYBRID TRANSPONDER” CONCEPT A. The “Multiport Hybrid” Concept It is well known that a 90” hybrid divides input power equally into twoports in precise phase conditions.A welldesigned hybrid maintains these characteristics under a broad bandwidth. Fig. 1 shows the 90” hybrid and the multiport hybrids derived from it. Input and output signals are represented by complex amplitude variables pi and qi, respectively. Referring to Fig. l(a), the input and output relation of this hybrid is represented by matrix T I .

As an extension of the 2-port hybrid, a 4-port hybrid which divides incident power equally into 4 output ports can be derived as shown in Fig. l(b). In order to simplify matrix representations, the output port numbers are paired to the input port by the path which does not accompany 90” phase shift. Using this notation, the 4-port hybrid is represented by matrix T2.

Manuscript received August 2, 1985; revised October 21, 1986.

S. Egami is with Kamakura Works, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation,
Kamimachiya, Kamakura-shi, 247, Japan. M. Kawai is with the Electrical Communication Laboratories, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, Yokosuka-shi, 238, Japan. IEEE Log Number 8613620.

9 4

= T2(”)

P 4


O 1987 IEEE

Authorized licensed use limited to: Alcatel Space Industries. Downloaded on January 23, 2009 at 04:43 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

io 93 97 + i121 + i22’ + + in42n-l k O + k12I + k22’ + . ih and kh( =O or 1) are derived from the following binary representation of i and k : 91 95 i k = =. l(d) shows a l6-port hybrid derived from the 8port hybrid. For N ( =2”)-port hybrid. As stated above. Restrictions apply. a 4-port transponder can be derived as shown in Fig. element ti. 2(c).as follows: Similarly. Input p 1 is amplified by two amps and comes out as r2. the relationship between the input p i and output ri is represented using matrix Tl as follows (suffix of the input p i and output ri are numbered from the top. the %port hybrid is represented by matrix T3. an N-port power combining network can be derived. .We call this multiport power combining network ‘‘hybrid transponder” after ‘‘Butler matrix transponder” proposed by Sandrin [4]. an 8-port transponder can be derived from the 4-pOrt transponder as shown in Fig. can be derived from the following equation which is induced Authorized licensed use limited to: Alcatel Space Industries. 2(a). elements of the the matrix T. The “Hybrid Transponder”Concept Using a pair of N ( =2”)-port hybrid and N amplifying elements. l(c).1 2 n . However. As an extension of the balanced amplifier. Downloaded on January 23. should be explicitly represented. P1 p2 p3 p4 q1 99 9 3 : 9 9 4 1 p7 P8 (a P9 plo 92 97 ‘ 1 5 qlo 96 ‘14 p11 P12 ?2 ‘15 ‘ 1 6 ‘8 ql6 Fig. the output ports numbers are paired to the input port by the path without 90” phase shift.” As an extension of the 4-port hybrid. ... in Fig. * * * (6) 92 ‘6 94 98 B. If the complex amplitude gain of the amplifying elements (hereafter abbreviated as amps) is represented by a . 2009 at 04:43 from IEEE Xplore. an N(=2”)-port hybrid consists of n 2” hybrids. and its matrix T.EGAMI AND KAWAI: ADAPTIVE MULTIPLE BEAM SYSTEM CONCEPT 63 1 from the above procedure [ 2 ] : n-1 t. In general. Outputs rl r8 are represented by matrix T3 and inputs p 1 p8.k = ( I / @ ) eXp ( j T / 2 h=O ih @ kh) - (5) - where @ indicates exclusive OR ( a @ b = a * b + a * b ) . 2 and hereafter. outputs rl r4 are represented by matrix T2 and inputs P1 P4. 2(b). In this case.kof the matrix T. an %port hybrid can be derived as shown in Fig.’ . - - In order to facilitate further analysis.+ k n . 1 . Configurations of the “rnultiport hybrid. the corresponding input and output ports are denoted by the same port number). Then. The most simple 2-port transponder is the well-known balanced amplifier [5] shown in Fig. - - (::) = aT2T2 (7) P4 Fig. can be represented by Tn.

Since it is not difficult to prescribe mean gain deviations within 1 dB and mean phase-shift deviations within 10” for 20 dB gain amps.2 dB and Thus. In case of 16 amps transhift nonuniformity are analyzed.T. and phase-shift characteristics over a broad band.l ) / N ) Z . 4. MAY 1987 If the amps gain and phase shift are denoted by ai and 1 2 4 3 Bi. the number of ports. = (. sponder. Fig. the power combining efficiency and isolation are Piso. B. and one hybrjds as shown later in Fig. . then output vector r is related to the input vector p by the following equation: r = T. the combining efficiency lower than 0 . Configurations of the “hybrid transponder. and their deviations Ai. as follows: (b) 3 4 2 1 1 2 8 7 where N i=l N (c) 3 4 6 5 4 3 2 CAi=O 5 6 7 8 1 i=l c 6i = 0. Downloaded on January 23.I 1 . CHARACTERISTICS OF THE “HYBRID TRANSPONDER” PO”t/PO = ( ( N . gain matrix for the N ( =2”)-port transponder are defined by An. in the case of the 8 amps transponder. In this section. 3 shows the combining efficiency and the isolation as functions of mean deviations. It is also possible two amps is not included since its effect is not uniform on to decrease the number of ports by deleting unnecessary all output ports. If the sum of each amps output power is represented by Po. di...( ( N . amps gain For example. and the output at the isolated port by Piso. NO. Effects of the Amplifying Element Failure Failure of one or several amps decreases the combined In practice. . effects of the amps gain and phasedegrades the isolation to 18. if amps (+. the and phase-shift uniformity become the most important.1 dB.. Similarly. If the combined output is Po. amp failure decreases it to Po.then the combining efficiency is obtained from (5) and (11) as follows: Pou.A. 2 . For general expression. the isolation at the isolated port is obtained as follows: piso/p0 = (I/N)(A’ + 6”.p. which are defined by the following equations : \ I/’ Fig. Restrictions apply. PisoIPo = ( 1 (18) Since the 90” hybrid has excellent coupling. 5 . in this section. Bo. respectively. isolation. the failure of 1 amp decreases output power by (11) /NY- Authorized licensed use limited to: Alcatel Space Industries..16-port transponder as an extention of the 8-port transponder. Failure of more than terminated with matching impedances. respectively. when the number of beams is less than the output power and degrades isolation. Effect of Amplifying Element Nonuniformity If the phase shift and gain of the N ( =2”) amps are the If the output power of the isolated port is denoted by same. 2009 at 04:43 from IEEE Xplore. 3 dB and isolation over 20 dB can be expected.l ) / N ) ( A z + 6’) (15) where A and 6 are mean value of gain and phase-shift deviation. (17) A. (17) A./Po= 1 . then the rate of power decrease is obtained by using (5) and ( 1 1) as follows: 111. the combined output by Po. the unused input and output ports are effect of one amp failure is analyzed.632 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS. 6?/N)”’.” 6 = Fig. SAC-5. VOL. they can be represented by their mean values ao.then the degraded isolation is given as follows: determined by the characteristics of the multiport hybrid. O a N ) . failure of 1 amp decreases output power by 1. 2(d) shows a..

which are allois applied from another port. 4 shows an 8-beam system using the 8-amps 8-port pacity. The 8-amps 8-port hybrid transponder implemented to an 8-beam system... However. the mitting power is 100 W. more than 16 amps 2-port and a ‘%-port block as shown by the dotted line in will be necessary. 2(c) i s rearranged so as to become allows cochannel frequency reuse.. 3. Decrease of output power and degradation of isolation as functions of mean phase-shift deviation and mean gain deviation. In the cated for each beam.__. these characteristics on the intermodulation products may Fig. 4.and another carrier lower transmitting power of the LPT’s.) 0 0. The configuration of the 8-port tran. . By making the configuration symmetrical. transmit whole power to the corresponding beam. which still sponder shown in Fig. systems.r ~ t. However.f .8 dB and degrades the isolation to 24 dB. appears at port m with the output of f .enables flexible assignment of beam case of the third-order intermodulation products.~. .~. The flexibility or adaptability will Therefore. Thus.. 2009 at 04:43 from IEEE Xplore.5 2 Mean Gain Variation (dB) Fig. .ametime. 4. a larger number of amps minimizes the effect of 1 amp failure. product 2 f carriers from 0 to the maximum value limited by the total and 2fn .At the s.. intermodulation product dispersion cannot be liquidate the stated problems in the ordinary multibeam expected as the Butler matrix transponder [4]. the low power transponder (LPT) provides input to the hybrid transponder. Thiswill facilitate hardware materialization as an onboard transmitter.__. If the total transIf more than one carrier is applied to only one port. 5 shows a 16-amps 10-port transponder. the intermodulation characteristics of the hybrid transponder necessary transmitting power of LPT is 1 W in order to are similar to those of the single port amplifier.fn appears at port n with the output of fn. The allocation of a common broad is denoted as fn and f . as shown in the figure. it can be power and adding beams to sparsely populated areas.. 55 2 m 2 1 Band H y b r i dT r a n s p o n d e r Fig. it does not bring about any specific beam failure. IntermodulationCharacteristics As shown in Fig...~::::~::~~ ~~~~. RF exists. . . Also.. and the amps gain is 20 dB.. This if one carrier is applied from one port. Unnecease the actual system design.o . channel assignment will be carried out considering interIf the carrier frequency applied from port n and port rn beam interference.. the hybrid transponder can be made by the assembly of a the isolation over 20 dB is necessary. Although 1 amp failure among 16 amps decreases 12 percent of the total transmission caFig. the theoretical estimate of the intermodulation output ports will be necessary. -.B~ock. respectively. symmetrical. ~ . isolation degrades to 24 dB. Low Power Transponder 2 Port Block Multibeam 8 7 ~ . it is assumed that all eleverified from (5) and (9) that the following simple rule ments and LPT’s share a common broad bandwidth.40 H 0 2 4 6 1 8 41 21 0 16 Mean Phase Variation (Deq. Downloaded on January 23. the Fig. 4. essary ports and hybrids are eliminated from the original IV. IMPLEMENTATION IN MULTIPLE BEAMSYSTEMS 16-port configuration. If Authorized licensed use limited to: Alcatel Space Industries.~ ~ ~ ~ Antenna a 6 . hybrid transponder. the intermodulation band to each beam enables variations of the number of .5 1 1. transmitting power. . i n U 0 . Restrictions apply. C. .EGAMI AND KAWAI: ADAPTIVE MULTIPLEBEAMSYSTEMCONCEPT 633 2 U m : -0 a 2 -0 p -0 K . If the number of amps 0.

If interbeam traffic exists.634 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS Low Power Transponder IN COMMUNICATIONS. converted to the same transmitting frequency band Fd by 7 X 8 . MAY 1987 4.. ..~. If all the traffic i s Fig..the channel units are used in common. Restrictions apply. transmitted from each beam is con. the . and changes itsfrerier from the 1st IF bands By employing the hybrid transponder.transmitting which corresponds to the allocated bandwidth. . fu Fd n 2 Fd E x 1 lommon D/L Band. the number of quency to the appropriate frequency slot of the transmitcarriers transmitted from each beam can be changed from ting 1st IF bands F1 F8.the number of verted by receivers RXI RX. The transmitting 1st IF bands F1 F8 are then ment. . . NO.slot of F . . ... . Mixer Rx . 6 shows the proposed adaptive multibeam system the transmitting converter 7 X 1 1st IF configuration.rt.If it must be connected to beam 0 to the maximum value limited by the total transmitting 1. All beams share the same frequency band originated from the feeder link. 5.o.2 .” existing terrestrial network by a feeder link. which are then combined by the resistive to the former SS-FDMA system concept which provides combining network. a new onboard system configuration is proposed. - - - - - - Authorized licensed use limited to: Alcatel Space Industries. Downloaded on January 23.: : : : Er:.. . 4. . Fd Receiving IF Transmitting 1st 1st IF SYN. . Since frequency band f .Bl~ck. To Terrestrial Network Fig. VOL. The same signals are directly supplied from the feeder link. Adaptive multibeam system concept using the “hybrid transponder. Frequency Synthesizer M I X . . is small and high isolation is required. . A channel unit selects a carUNITS f8.?:k Hybrid Transponder Fig. _ .!!!. 2009 at 04:43 from IEEE Xplore.. to different contiguous 1st channel units can be conspicuously decreased compared IF bands5 fs.~. In order to facilitate an adaptive carrier assign. 6.. INTERBEAM EXCHANGE USING COMMON CHANNEL the combined 1st IF signals.. . the channel unit changes its frequency to any frequency power. . Transmitting Up Converter Converter fl f2 f3. providing spares to each elements will become necessaly. . SAC-5. If all the traffic is connected to the channel units to each beam [ 6 ] . Receiving Down T K . The 16-amps 10-port hybrid transponder implemented Multibeam Antenna to a 10-beam system Multibeam Antenna Common Channel Unit n Fd 8 Fd n 7 Band. f4 f 5 f8 f6 f7 Feeder Link. channel units are connected to V . these 1st IF signals are directly sent to the feeder link Earth station.

the combining .” 36 i I I I I / 4 5 I ! I 1 Combining I I I L O S S 3 1 2 3 4 Port 5 6 7 6 h m E 30 Fig. tandem : -. At output port 4. “ -20 $ + Fig. In the figure. Since this value includes the 8-port hybrid loss of 0.8 W ) . 10 shows the output power spectrum at the corresponding output port. .20 -417 2.which is estimated to be 18.p o r t . . Branch line-type hybrids made by an air suspended triplate were used. Restrictions apply. the output level is distributed from 31. 7. .7 W. 8 shows a typical unit amp output and the combined output as functions of amps input power. the isolation without amps (tandem connection of %port hybrid) is shown by the dotted line.9 to 32.5 W).8 dB.6 dBm ( 11.1 dB theoretically. The isolation at the isolated port at the stated operating These experimental results verify the estimation stated in condition is shown in Fig.H y b r i d ?. m 3 40 u u 2 20 0 VI:8-AMPS8-PORT HYBRID TRANSPONDER EXPERIMENT The 8-amps 8-port hybrid transponder is experimented at 2. Downloaded on January 23. and intermodulation product 2f4 . Since its scale is shifted 9 dB for combined output. Outside view of the 2. the ‘iso. gain and phase-shift deviation of 8-amps are also shown. ‘ * Authorized licensed use limited to: Alcatel Space Industries. Excluding port 3. 40 U a a a 0 a 5 20 4J 2 rl Fa E 20 0 0 10 20 U n i t amp i n p u t (dBm) . At output port 1 . The amps have 20 dB small signal gain and 1. 0 . Fig.loss was 0.5-1. in order to simulate single element failure. This decreases isolation to 17 dB.49 GH z Fi. carrierf. In other B.39 GH z 10 MHz/div. Isolation ports. lation was well over 30 dB. the gain and phase-shift deviations of 8 amps are shown. m C Fig. In this operating condition. one of the elements is turned off.g. . The input level of each carrier is about 6 dBm at the input of the.fl appear. As a reference. Since the sum of each amps output power was 13. amps. A. A typical amp output and the combined output as functions of amps input power. 8. and the phase shift within 6”. when equalpow two carriers are applied from input ports 1 and 4 simultaneously. For an input level of 14 dBm. CombiningEficiency Fig.3 dB. combined output power was 40. 9. In the same figure. Intermodulation Two equal power carriers with slightly different frequencies fl and f4 are applied to ports 1 and 4. the difference between the two curves represents combining loss. Output power spectrumof output ports 1 and 4. carrier f4 and 2 f .5 W output power. C.Section 111-C. .5 dB.f4 appear. 7 shows an outside view of the experimental transponder. Also. 3rd-order intermodulation products do not appear. This level of uniformity can be attained by a slight adjustment on the devices.5 GHz 8-amps 8-port experimental “hybrid transponder.5 GHz band to confirm the stated electrical characteristics. 2009 at 04:43 from IEEE Xplore. the net combining loss can be estimated to be around 0. 2.5 dBm (1. respectively. Isolation characteristics of the experimental 8-amps 8-port hybrid transponder. 9.Fig. 10.EGAMI ANDKAWAI: ADAPTIVE MULTIPLE BEAM SYSTEM CONCEPT 635 8 . .

Egami and M. Japan. “Multiport coupling beam switching network for satellite use. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation. vol. [4] W. D. Mar. 1983. Mar. NO. and i s presently a Senior Research Engineer of the Satellite Communications Department. no. [6] J. pp. Conf. [5] R. Space Technol. Japan. . 23. respectively. Kawai. Restrictions apply. 4.. These concepts will facilitate implementation of multibeam multicarrier satellite communications in future mobile or customer premises services. Satellite Syst. Kanagawa. pp.5 GHz by 8-amps 8-port configuration. pp. Kawai. Engelbrecht and K. Lett. in 1974. [3] M. pp. 4. By the experiments.. SAC-5. Kawai. Tokyo. “Concept of multiport coupling beam switching network and its basic performance in K-band. vol. Sandrin. .” Electron. “Adaptive multibeam satellite communications using active array. Kyoto. no.S... Suzuki. 1983 (in Japanese). Nov. Fall 1974. Egami. 19. K.” in AIAA 9th Commun. Downloaded on January 23. and S. He is currently involved in systems engineering studies related to future satellite communications systems. 793-798. theoretical characteristics are confirmed. Japan. He joined the Electrical Communications Laboratories. Radio Communication Networks Laboratories.. no. 53. Makoto Kawai (”77) received the B. 10. 2.” Proc. 627633. Kurokawa. A. Rev. VOL. 2009 at 04:43 from IEEE Xplore. IEEE. 1965. “A wide-band low noise L-band balanced transister amplifier. 3.990-991. carried out at 2.14thInt. 237-247. CONCLUSION An adaptive multiple beam system using a new “hybrid transponder” concept is described. [2] M. vol. “The Butler matrix transponder.636 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS. and M. 1982. vol. IECEJapan. REFERENCES [ l ] S.S. J66-D. 1984. in 1972 and 1974. pp. Sci. Kiesling.” COMSAT Tech.” in Proc. 329-336. “Direct access satellite communications using SS‘FDMA. degrees from Kyoto University. 319-345. Authorized licensed use limited to: Alcatel Space Industries. Symp.” Trans. pp. S. MAY 1987 VII.