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Fuel 115 (2014) 88–96

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Fuel
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Application of hydrotreated vegetable oil from triglyceride based biomass to CI engines – A review
Soo-Young No ⇑
Department of Biosystems Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Republic of Korea

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
This review will be concentrated on the application of hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) produced from the triglycerides based biomass such as vegetable oil, animal fat, waste cooking oil and algae to compression ignition (CI) engines. Main problem in the application of HVO to CI engines is the poor low-temperature properties. The upgrading technology of cold flow properties of HVO reported in the literature can be categorized with four ways as isomerization, addition of flow improver, reaction temperature control and co-processing with petroleum derived raw materials. The advantages of hydrotreating over transesterification are lower processing cost, compatibility with infrastructure, NOx emission reduction, and feedstock flexibility. Combustion and emission characteristics of neat HVO, blends of HVO with petrodiesel and HVO with additives were widely investigated by many researchers. The use of HVO enables appreciable reductions in NOx, PM, HC and CO emissions without any changes to the engine or its control in heavy-duty engines. HVO could play an important role in providing an sustainable source of transportation fuels during the coming decades. In addition, HVO obtained from inedible vegetable oil and application of it to CI engine will be the subjects of future research in the production and application of HVO. The technologies for the reduction of NOx and PM in CI engines fuelled with HVO can be categorized with engine optimization and fuel optimization. The engine optimization technology is more effective than the fuel optimization technology. Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 20 December 2012 Received in revised form 20 June 2013 Accepted 1 July 2013 Available online 13 July 2013 Keywords: Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) Compression ignition (CI) engine NOx Particulate matter Upgrading

Contents 1. 2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrotreated vegetable oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1. Fuel properties of HVO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2. Upgrading methods of low-temperature properties of HVO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Application of HVO to CI engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1. Spray characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2. Combustion and emission characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results and discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 89 90 91 92 92 92 94 95 95

3.

4. 5.

1. Introduction As crude oil prices currently continue to increase, it is likely that biofuels will play an important role in the future energy market of world. Generally, biomass-derived feedstocks for the production of
⇑ Tel.: +82 4312612583; fax: +82 4312714413.
E-mail addresses: sooyoung@chungbuk.ac.kr, sooyoung@cbnu.ac.kr 0016-2361/$ - see front matter Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.07.001

liquid biofuels can be classified into the following three categories according to the source, i.e. triglyceride-based biomass, starch- and sugar-derived biomass, and cellulosic biomass [1]. A variety of liquid biofuels can be produced from triglycerides based biomass such as vegetable oils, animal fats, waste cooking oils and microalgal oils as shown in Fig. 1. Currently, vegetable oils may be main resources for liquid fuels as petroleum alternatives. Straight vegetable oils (SVO) without any production process can be applied

an attempt has. In this work. Hartikka et al. Liquid biofuels can be applied to typically diesel engine for transportation [13] and agricultural machinery [14]. with HVO having an advantages in terms of NOx and HC emissions. BTL diesel which is coming into the commercial market during the next decade (2010s) belongs to 3rd generation biofuel. therefore. been made to review the researches done on the application of HVO as substitute fuel to CI engines. defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. animal fats. stationary diesel engine for power generation [15]. and therefore. HVO has been classified as the 2nd generation biofuel because commercial production began during this decade. The application of biodiesel produced from inedible vegetable oils is of significance because of the great need for edible vegetable oils as food [9]. They introduced the hydrotreating of biomass-derived feedstocks such as lignin and triglycerides. Thermal cracking (pyrolysis) can be used to convert edible or inedible oils into valuable liquid derivatives called pyrodiesel [4]. Although biodiesel is an environmentally attractive alternative to petrodiesel. the discussion for the application of liquid biofuels in this study will be mainly limited to HVO as petroleum alternatives. Biodiesel have the detrimental effect such as increase of NOx emissions. problem of storage stability. [22] as one of conversion processes for the production of second generation biofuels. However. HVO and BTL diesel belong to 1st. Overview of feedstocks and production process for liquid biofuels from triglycerides-based biomass. vegetable oil as a feedstock. [23] recently reviewed fuel properties of HVO. It is expected that in the USA only. using a vast variety of catalysts and a gasoline-like fuel called bio-gasoline is more likely to be formed than a diesel like fuel [12]. It is clear from the existing reviews discussed in the above that review related to the application of HVO for alternative fuel to CI engines could not be found except the review by Hartikka et al. algae) Production Process Direct use Dilution with hydrocarbon fuel or water Pyrolysis (thermal cracking) Transesterification Hydrotreating Catalytic cracking Biofuels Straight Vegetable oil Blended diesel or emulsion Pyrodiesel Biodiesel Butobiodiesel Hydro treated Vegetable oil Bio-gasoline Fig. As renewable or bio-jet . 1. inferior storage and oxidative stability. more rapid aging of engine oil or poor cold properties [20]. the biofuels such as HVO. the discussion in their review was only limited to one specific work related to HVO produced under a commercial trade name. Biodiesel. Moser [7] argued that high feedstock cost. engine performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines fuelled with HVO. A comparison of biodiesel and HVO in a general aspect such as fuel production and energy balance. 2nd and 3rd generation biobased diesel fuels. biodiesel and BTL (biomass-to-liquid) together will probably alternate around 4–10% diesel fuel used in 2020 [18]. They concluded that HVO can be used as a drop-in-fuel for both modern and aged diesel engines.11]. In addition. It has been stated in this study that biodiesel performs appreciably better than HVO in terms of PM and CO emissions. Hydrotreating of vegetable oils was classified by Naik et al. marine and aviation applications. No / Fuel 115 (2014) 88–96 89 Feedstocks Biomass based on tryglyceride (Vegetable oils. [23]. compatibility with infrastructure. inferior lowtemperature operability and in some cases. deposit formation. The review by Huber and Corma [1] provides a useful overview for the production of biofuels by catalytic cracking and hydrotreating of biomass-derived feedstocks. respectively.. Catalytic cracking has been used in an effort to control the types of products generated by triglyceride cracking. Finland. Considerable efforts have already been made to develop the vegetable oil derivatives through dilution or emulsion with petrodiesel [3]. In addition. Most data are for papers presented by researchers working for Nestle Oil Corp. The advantages of hydrotreating over transesterification include lower processing cost. According to Kuronen et al. The 1st generation means the commercial production from 1990s. fuel properties. and flexibility in terms of feedstock [21].S. and the diesel engine for transportation and agricultural machinery. lower calorific value. Hydrotreated vegetable oil HVO as an alternative fuel has received remarkable attention for ground. However. he had already predicted that biodiesel in the coming years may face competition from non-ester renewable diesel fuel such as HVO.-Y. hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) or renewable diesel which is mainly consisted of paraffinic hydrocarbons are obtained [10. hydrotreating or hydrogenation process instead of transesterification is introduced. directly to CI engines [2]. gas turbine for power generation [16] and boiler for heating or power generation [17]. classification [19]. 2. However. biodiesel. is usually obtained by transesterification from fatty acids based on triglyceride [5–8]. waste materials. environmental effects including exhaust emissions and co-products was conducted by Knothe [10]. higher NOx emissions are the disadvantages of biodiesel. existing engines and fuel standards.

Recently Krar et al. and carboxylic acids. Arvidsson et al.18. Therefore.52]. According to Koyama et al. compatibility with infrastructure. ‘‘paraffinic renewable diesel’’ [42. It is clear from Table 2 that HVO is not oxygenated fuel and density and kinematic viscosity for it are lower than that of petrodiesel and biodiesel. In particular. respectively). CoMo/c–Al2O3. The different names from the commercial trade name or name given in the literature are addressed in Table 2 for the differentiation of one from another. ‘‘hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA)’’. HVO has ultra-low sulfur content and high cetane number and heating value which is much beneficial in fuel for CI engines. In addition.44]. Conocophillips (United States. NiW/c–Al2O3. the effect of six different types of catalysts on the hydroprocessing of soybean oil to produce HVO were examined by Veriansyah et al. A number of manufacturers around the world. ‘‘green diesel’’ [18. ‘‘hydroprocessed vegetable oil’’ [21]. (2) excellent combustion quality. Out of Ni/ SiO2–Al2O3. and feedstock flexibility. according to the suggestion by Knothe [10]. Li et al. The HVO produced by UOP/Eni Ecofining process has the trade name ‘‘Green Diesel’’. with the chemical structure Cn H2n+2. Table 1 shows the difference of production process between biodiesel and HVO. higher oxygen removal capabilities and low cost. but showed poor low-temperature performance than that of petrodiesel. According to the papers presented in SAE conferences. [62]. Propane. Lehto et al. palm HVO had higher oxidation stability and cetane number than palm biodiesel.and iso-paraffins. the discussion will be focused on the application of HVO to CI engines for ground and marine application only. etc. ‘‘paraffinic diesel fuel’’ [41].40]. to avoid the misleading. Kopperoinen et al. the term ‘‘petrodiesel’’ will be used for the conventional diesel fuel which is derived from petroleum.e. that one term such as renewable diesel is applied to different types of fuels. the fuel properties of NExBTL is the summarized one from Rantanen et al. CoMo. engine and fuel standards. It should be pointed out that the fuel properties of isomerized NExBTL are also included in the data of NExBTL. [65]. mainly monoglycerides. The HVO is also a straight-chain paraffinic hydrocarbon in the diesel boiling range.39. No / Fuel 115 (2014) 88–96 fuels. [64]. Besides the aforementioned term. HVO does not contain unsaturated compounds because it basically a mixture of normal. Kann et al. [59].20. [30].56]. The terms ‘‘hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)’’ [19.-Y. NiMo and CoMo are suitable for use in hydroprocessing of soybean oil in terms of higher conversion. the triglyceride is hydrogenated in the first step and broken down into various intermediates. It is clear from Table 1 that HVO can be obtained from the widely different process. the oxidation stability of HVO is superior to that of biodiesel [62].29–35]. [63] and Imperato et al. [53] suggested that HVO with more advantaTable 1 Comparison of fuel production process between biodiesel and HVO. Aatola et al. NiMo/c–Al2O3. Knothe [10] emphasized that renewable diesel will be the most appropriate term for petrodiesel-like fuels derived from biological sources. etc. In this case. Pt/c–Al2O3. Accordingly. and hydrodeoxygenation (with no carbon removal) at the temperatures above 300–360 °C and pressure at least 3 MPa. as well as HVO [41. However. [20]. . Neste Oil (Finland). [60]. [44] and Arvidsson et al. Co-product Gylcerol Propane VOa VO VO: vegetable oil. To obtain the HVO. the advantages of hydrotreating over transesterification in the Canadian context include lower processing cost (50% that of transesterification). Process Transesterification (mainly methanol) Hydrotreating Co-reagent Alcohol Hydrogen Catalyst Sodium alkyate sodium or potassium hydroxide NiMo. [61]. [30]. [28] recently used the term ‘‘non-ester biofuels’’ for hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ). They pointed out that the benefits of non-ester fuels may include (1) higher energy content than ester-based fuels such as fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and alcohols. Kalnes et al. ‘‘Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel (BHD)’’ [45]. co-reagent.1. CTL or BTL. Sugiyama et al. Nippon Oil (Japan) and SK energy (Korea) have been developed HVO refining processes and tested them in commercial trials. i. [54]. ‘‘bio-SPK’’ and ‘‘green jet’’ [25. In addition. Murtonen et al. These intermediate are then converted into alkanes by three different pathways: decarboxylation. It is clear from the literature that the different terms are used to define the same kind of fuel produced from triglycerides. ‘‘hydrogenated (hydrogenating) vegetable oil’’ [1] ‘‘renewable diesel (fuel)’’ [7. Feedstock Biodiesel Hydrotreated vegetable oil a geous low-temperature properties from sunflower oil can be obtained by CoMo/Al2O3 catalyst.90 S. Universal Oil Products (UOP)-Eni (UK. (3) good low-temperature properties and superior thermal and storage stabilities. In addition. ‘‘non-esterified renewable diesel (NERD)’’ [28].36–38]. Pd/c–Al2O3.43]. water. [57] argued that by their calculations the hydroprocessing costs are higher than those of the transesterification process. [21]. [29]. similar to Fischer–Tropsch fuels.10. [58]. The NExBTL (an acronym for ‘‘next generation bio-to-liquid’’) is the trade name of the HVO produced by Neste Oil Corporation. originating from vegetable oil or animal fat [30]. Syntroleum (United States). Ireland). ‘‘second generation biodiesel’’ [22. they found that Ni.20. it should be noted that farnesane (an isoprenoid) and all biomass-derived alkanes/olefin mixtures through multiple fermentation technologies are also classified as renewable diesel [51]. catalyst and by-product with biodiesel. and conversely. It is known that the properties of HVO are very similar to GTL and BTL diesel fuel which is another paraffinic fuel and produced by Fischer–Tropsch synthesis [20]. Fuel properties of HVO The fuel properties of different HVOs are listed in Table 2 and compared to FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) and petrodiesel (EN 590) as given in Kalnes et al. The HVO produced by SK energy was referred to as HBD (hydrogen-treating biodiesel) [55]. ‘‘biocetano’’ [47] and ‘‘hydrogenationderived renewable diesel (HDRD)’’ [39] have been used interchangeably for bio-based alkanes (formerly called the paraffin)/olefin (recently called the alkene) mixtures. Italy). Neste Oil Co. ‘‘hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ)’’ [25–27]. It may be noted that ‘‘hydrotreated renewable diesel’’ (HRD) or ‘‘(hydrotreated) algae biofuel’’ are also used for biofuel from microalgae oil [48–50].42]. In addition. diglycerides. 2.26]. ‘‘hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)’’ will be mainly used in this review. aviation biofuels produced from triglycerides through hydroprocessing are termed as ‘‘hydrotreated renewable jet’’ (HRJ) [24]. In addition. It should be pointed out that paraffinic diesel fuel includes the diesel fuel produced on the basis of synthesis gas from natural gas. decarbonylation (both removing a carbon atom from the initial intermediate). In 2007. carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are produced as side-products [40. Hulkkonen et al. ‘‘hydro-treated biodiesel’’ [46] ‘‘super cetane’’ [21]. Ru/Al2O3. had initially used the term ‘‘NExBTLbiodiesel fuel for the second generation on 2005. According to Stumborg et al. they introduced the term ‘‘hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) for NExBTL [19] and the term renewable diesel (fuel)’’ after 2008 [20. the use of HVO for aviation application is mainly in gas turbine engines. coal or biomass (GTL. In this review.

S. The fuel properties of both blends are summarized in Table 3.0–3.e. Hanscok et al. most HVO often yields n-alkanes with high concentration of n-heptadecane and n-octadecane. iso-BHD [45]. CFPP of the products ranges from À18 to À14 °C). b at 40 °C.5 43. low-temperature properties were worse. the effect of both flow improvers in the blends containing more than 10 wt% of HVO was negligible. In this study. b at 40 °C. The upgrading methods of cold flow properties of HVO will be discussed in the next section. Pt/ SAPO-41 catalysts were found to be very effective for the isomerization of HVO.1 4. (2) Addition of flow improver: to improve low-temperature properties. as displayed by cloud point. However. Petrodiesel Density (kg/m3)a Viscosity (mm2/s)b Cloud point (°C) Distillation (°C)c Heating value (MJ/kg) Cetane number Sulfur content (mg/kg) Oxygen content (wt%) 835 3. ‘‘iso-HVO’’ [45.5 À5 350 43 53 <10 0 Biodiesel 885 4.3 3.02862 Algae HRD/ F-76 blend 811. (1) Control of reaction temperature: hydroprocessing of neat sunflower oil was carried out by Simacek et al. A50: [48]. Pt/SAPO-11.e. According to Smiacek et al.9– 3. While these hydrocarbons have an excellent cetane rating. [66].6 3. In their subsequent work [37]. their low-temperature properties are poor and thus prevent their use as a diesel fuel blending component in concentrations higher than 5–10%. i.68].45].12 0.938 51 A50 804 2. biodiesel and renewable diesels. they obtained products having the high cetane number of from 81 to 84 and good cold flow properties. .30. i. reaction temperature control and co-processing with petroleum-derived raw materials as follows. They found that the addition of flow improvers to these blends was ineffective in lowering CFPP. [37] at 360–420 °C and 18 MPa to investigate the effect of reaction temperature on the cold flow properties of neat HVO and blends with petrodiesel.64 À5 293 47 86 <1 0 91 2. their low-temperature properties are poor and thus prevent their use as a diesel fuel blending component in concentrations higher than 5–10%. (1) Isomerization: this method is designated as two-stage upgrading by Simacek and Kubicka [67] because this process is composed of isomerization following the hydroprocessing. addition of flow improver.02771 ULSD. They found that the addition of flow improvers to these blends was ineffective in lowering CFPP. Infineum R288 and Infinneum R591 on CFPP for neat sunflower HVO and blends with petrodiesel was studied. a at 15 °C. The product showed also excellent low-temperature properties (cloud point À11 °C. 33–51). the physico-chemical properties of sunflower HVO obtained at 420 °C were very close to those of a standard neat petrodiesel.2. i. Pt/ZSM-23. Even though Pt/ZSM-22. NExBTL: next generation biomass-to-liquid [34]. The use of two different blends of algae-derived HRD had received considerable attention recently for marine application. Catalytic hydroisomerization may be applied to solve the problem of low-temperature properties. While these hydrocarbons have an excellent cetane rating.5 À5 to À30 295– 300 44 84–99 0 0 Green diesel 780 – À10 to 20 265– 320 44 70–90 <1 0 NExBTL 780– 785 3. To improve it. The terms ‘‘bio gas oil’’ [53.5 À15 295– 300 44 98–99 <10 0 IsoBHD 777 2. [68] concluded that Pt anchored to zeolite HZSM 22 at temperatures of 280–370 °C and under the pressure of 3. F-76. The sum of these two hydrocarbons typically reaches around 70–90%. Table 3 Fuel properties of different blends of HRD. The low-temperature properties of HVO can be upgraded by subsequent catalytic isomerization of n-alkanes [37]. The sum of these two hydrocarbons typically reaches around 70–90%. No / Fuel 115 (2014) 88–96 Table 2 Fuel properties of petrodiesel. They found that the neat HVO was less sensitive to the addition of flow improvers. a at 15 °C. In this case. One blend of HRD and NATO F-76 Millitray Distillate (F-76) was recently introduced in the study of spray characteristics in twinfluid airblast atomizer [49] and another blend of HRD and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) was also tested in the marine diesel engine [48]. ULSD Density (kg/m3)a Viscosity (mm2/s)b Surface tension (kg/s2) Heating value (MJ/kg) Cetane index 828.58]. (2010.59].-Y.e. CFPP À14 °C). c 90 vol%.5 À5 to 15 355 38 50–65 <1 11 HVO 775– 785 2.400 65 F-76 830. the performance of two different flow improvers (Keroflux 3566 and Infineum R288) was investigated by Simacek et al. While the original CFPP of sunflower HVO was +23 °C.02876 42. They found that the diesel fuel blends containing from 10 to 50 wt% of the sunflower HVO obtained at 420 °C met the diesel fuel specifications. most HVO often yields n-alkanes with high concentration of n-heptadecane and n-octadecane. The blends of HVO with petrodiesel can also applied to CI engines. the effect of content of flow improvers.56 0. the performance of two different flow improvers (Keroflux 3566 and Infineum R288) was investigated by Simacek et al. they emphasized that this excellent low-temperature properties were reached without any separate isomerization process without sacrificing the high octane index of 65. The most fuel properties of mixed fuels containing the rapeseed HVO in the range of 5–30 wt% and petrodiesel were similar to or better than those of neat petrodiesel.60] or ‘‘iso-BHD’’ [45] are used to refer to isomerized HVO. [37]. The main ways of upgrading technology of cold flow properties of HVO reported in the literature can be classified in four categories: isomerization. (2) Co-processing with petroleum-derived raw materials: Simacek and Kubicka [67] had classified vegetable oil co-processing with petrodiesel as one of several ways to Petrodiesel: ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel). pour point and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) in excess of 20 C (see Table 2). cloud point and CFPP values [40. Moreover. Algae HRD/F-76 blend: [49]. Green diesel: [44.5–8 MPa is suitable for the isomerization of sunflower HVO. HVO: hydrotreated vegetable oil [20.48 0. According to Smiacek et al. [66]. Upgrading methods of low-temperature properties of HVO It is well known that the major problem of HVO is generally poor low-temperature properties.

[59].1. unregulated emissions such as VOC and aldehydes were remarkably reduced in the case of DF with biocomponents. co-processing triglycerides with conventional petroleum fractions on an industrial scale has been developed by Petrobas under the name of H-Bio [67].e. This is maybe due to the selection of measurement location of spray angle. In addition. spray angle of HVO increases appreciably with increase in orifice diameter and diminishes with increase in liquid viscosity and injection pressure. and this trend was more pronounced for HVO and jet fuel. viscosity and surface tension to the conventional petrodiesel. They found that algae HRD/F-76 blend is similar in properties such as density. 20% biodiesel blended diesel fuel (B20). In addition. HVO. Murtonen et al. ‘‘renewable diesel’’ [36]. [38] recently investigated the macroscopic and microscopic spray characteristics of diesel fuel and several alternative fuels including HVO from a single hole nozzle using a common rail injection system. The influence of neat HVO (NExBTL) on spray characteristics in a direct injection diesel engine with CRDi were investigated by Sugiyama et al. and DF blended with rapeseed methyl ester (RME 5 vol%) and biocomponent (1 vol%) were tested in a vehicle with 5 cylinders DI diesel engine equipped with unit injector system [40]. petrodiesel. [62]. Therefore. spray angle and SMD were virtually the same for HVO and petrodiesel sprays. HC. 100 and 198 MPa. 3. 3. They also found that spray angle of HVO is slightly higher than that of petrodiesel. Their results reveal that spray penetration. HVO produced from canola oil and jet fuel (Jet-A). in this review. They found that HVO in petrodiesel blends decreased both regulated and unregulated exhaust emission components. F-T diesel (GTL) and petrodiesel in three engines and five city buses. 15.2. No / Fuel 115 (2014) 88–96 improve low-temperature properties of HVO discussed in the above. neat HVO and HVO with additives in order. In addition. a study on the spray characteristics of HRD blend fuel was conducted by Legg et al. Application of HVO to CI engine HVO can be used neat as a diesel fuel. Spray tip penetration at injection pressure of 100 MPa were about 40% longer than those at 30 MPa. ‘‘hybrid biofuel’’ [33]. petrodiesel mixed with biocomponent. The terms ‘‘renewable liquid alkanes’’ [69]. Spray characteristics Very limited number of papers related to the spray characteristics of HVO in CI engine conditions has been found in the literature. i. it is interesting to note that no considerable difference in spray penetration for different orifice diameters is found. [29] reported the emission results with biodiesel. no major differences in spray structures from ten nozzle holes at 1 ms after spray start were found. CO and HC decreased with HVO and GTL fuel compared to petrodiesel. In addition. spray characteristics will be discussed at first and then combustion and emission characteristics will be followed for blended HVO. Recently. They found that effect of injection pressure on spray angle was not evident for all the fuels considered. A comprehensive review of co-processing vegetable oils with petroleum feedstocks was recently reported by Al-Sabawi and Chen [70]. This results are not coincident with the literature [71.5 vol%). PM.92 S. ‘‘green diesel’’ [67]. Spray angle generally increases considerably with increase in orifice diameter and decreases with increase in density of ambient air. [60]. However. [60] for two nozzle orifice diameters of 0. 3. and PM emissions was dependent on the proportion of HVO.12 mm in common rail injector and three injection pressures of 45. fuel viscosity and injection pressure of fuel [72. NOx emissions were higher compared to petrodiesel. It was found that CO. Combustion and emission characteristics Exhaust emissions of three cars using HVO called NExBTL blends (5..73]. [49]. biocomponents refer to the products from co-processing of petrodiesel and rapeseed oil (6. Performance and emission characteristics of three different fuels. Here. The comparison of macroscopic spay characteristics such as spray penetration and spray angle between isomerized HVO and petrodiesel was conducted by Hulkkonen et al. This will be due to the lower viscosity of HVO. The alternative fuels studied include biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil (B100). it should be pointed out that clear NOx emission reduction was not seen with cars in this study. They emphasized that the macroscopic spray characteristics of HVO is very similar with those of GTL because of same paraffinic hydrocarbons. HC and NOx emissions of DF with biocomponent were observed to be similar in comparison with petrodiesel. the researches on microscopic spray characteristics of HVO in CI engine conditions are required. The HVO stands out among the biofuels by showing smaller SMD than petrodiesel.72]. In this investigation of atomization performance of several alternative fuels in a twin-fluid airblast atomizer. Chen et al.-Y. combustion and emission characteristics. Droplet size decreased around 50% from 30 MPa to 100 MPa injection pressure increase for all the fuels considered. This specifically designed fuel is the military diesel fuel typically used by the Navy for ship propulsion [48]. but other emissions were reduced. No remarkable and consistent difference in spray penetration was found between petrodiesel and isomerized NExBTL. as a blending agent for petrodiesel or as a blended fuel with additives in CI engines. The comparison of their experimental results and empirical or theoretical correlations are not included. According to the investigation of breakup process and measurement of droplet size. algae-derived HRD was included for a blend with NATO F-76 Military Distillate (F-76).e. As an indicator of soot emission.08 and 0. opacities of tested fuels with biocomponents compared with petrodiesel decreased. palm or cottonseed oils with petrodiesel. As same as the general results for petrodiesel. sunflower. i. The tendency for spray penetration and spray angle is in agreement with the results of Hulkkonen et al. rapeseed methyl ester. The research on the application of HVO to diesel engines is normally related to spray. it can be assumed with 50:50 blend by volume of HRD with F-76 from the other study [48]. with minor difference in viscosity and density as shown in Table 3. In addition. . the renewable diesel produced from algae for the application of marine engine will be differentiate with HVO by using the term HRD. in particular for the blended HVO with petrodiesel. Even though the blending ratio was not clearly explained in their study. 20 and 85 vol%) were tested and compared two different petrodiesels by Rantanen et al. With biodiesel from rapeseed oil. The brake specific fuel consumption for petrodiesel with biocomponent is slightly higher because of having lower heating value compared to petrodiesel. However. Biofuels such as biodiesel and HVO were studied as neat and restrictedly as a 30% blend with petrodiesel. It is clear from the literature review that more researches are required for the effect of HVO on spray characteristics in diesel engines. They found that in most cases all regulated emissions such as NOx. H-Bio is produced from hydroprocessing of the blends of vegetable oils (10 vol%) such as soybean. they concluded that algae HRD/F-76 blend exhibited very similar atomization characteristics with petrodiesels (ULSD and F-76). Decrease in CO. ‘‘second generation diesel fuel’’ and ‘‘diesel fuel with biocomponent’’ [40] have been used interchangeably for the products from co-processing of vegetable oil and petrodiesel mixtures.

With the default injection timing settings of the test engine. To compromise between lubricity and cetane number. In this study. sulfur free EN 590 diesel fuel.e. post-injection system of fuel into cylinders was introduced for the regeneration of DPF. In order to reduce NOx emissions. For in-line fuel injection systems of eight buses. They concluded that this has led to the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by about 1. Their results reveal that HVO can reduce HC and PM emissions due to high cetane number and zero aromatics. Pflaum et al. four-cylinder diesel engine using an engine test rig as well as chassis dynamometer test bench were also performed in their study. Emission characteristics of palm B5. the proper operation of aftertreatment system for exhaust gas with these fuels should be guaranteed. The effect of isomerized HVO on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in 17 city buses were investigated by Erkkila et al. Aatola et al. with the constant SFC of the engine for all fuels. PM emissions of 36% in average can be achieved. too high cetane number for requiring adjustments in the electronic control of the engine.3%.e. emission data on consuming 30% blend of HVO and 100% HVO were compared to conventional petrodiesel (EN590) on 300 city buses. the use of neat HVO led to 6% lower NOx and to 35% lower smoke compared with diesel fuel. the application of neat HVO led to 16% lower NOx and to 23% lower smoke than the use of diesel fuel. the regeneration frequency would have been about 600 km with neat HVO instead of about 400 km with other fuels. NOx emission did not show any significant variations on the chassis dynamometer test.20. This leads to the reduction of CO2 emissions by around 5%. They emphasized that in case of the application of neat HVO. It is known that biodiesel have a strong effect on the lubricant oil dilution during DPF (diesel particulate filter) regeneration due to deeper spray penetration resulting from larger droplet diameters and can lead to a significant disadvantages compared to petrodiesel. However. NOx and PM emissions were decreased with increase in HVO content in regular EN 590 diesel fuel. neat HVO and a 30% HVO + 70% diesel fuel blend (EN590-30 fuel) in a heavy duty DI diesel engine. For the introduction of new fuels in CI engines. after-treatment system and sophistication of the engine. usage of HVO100 in the field test resulted in average 10% reduction in NOx and 30% reduction in PM. In addition. These result is very similar with the effect of neat HVO on exhaust emissions obtained by Kuronen et al. It should be noted that in CRDi engines. etc. startability and cold flow field trial. etc. They also found that volumetric fuel consumption and CO2 emission are decreased with increase in the concentration of iso-HVO in the blends. In this experiment. In this study. The measurement of regulated emissions in two-liter. Their results showed that neat HVO can reduce PM emissions up to 50% compared to petrodiesel due to its free of aromatic compounds. Two other common-rail buses revealed no effect of HVO content. In addition. In a study of bus fleet operation on HVO (NExBTL) conducted by Makinen et al. hereafter isoHVO5. Miller timing is achieved by early intake . [20] concluded that the use of HVO enables reductions in CO. different blends of HVO and petrodiesel in CI engine with CRDi. Of four buses. HVO has potential advantages with respect to both petrodiesel and biodiesel in terms of production costs. for neat HVO.) were measured in the vehicle with four cylinder diesel engines equipped with in line injection system [45].6% compared to petrodiesel on an average. HC. Therefore. When NOx emission of the engine was kept equal with all test fuels. [42]. The comparison of DPF regeneration frequency with neat HVO. In the test of three fuels. Lapuerta et al. the problem of storage stability. They also conducted the experiments on driveability. four B5 blends with isomerized palm HVO (5%. [62]. They found that with increasing of HVO contents in the mixed fuel with petrodiesel. [20] argued that HVO do not have the detrimental effects of biodiesel such as the increase of NOx emission. i. the effect of HVO content in the blended diesel fuel on NOx emission varied remarkably by bus type and even by bus individual. a reduction of up to 50% in both HC and CO emissions can be achieved compared to petrodiesel. the test of Miller cycle and EGR using HVO in high speed diesel engine was performed by Lehto et al. one of method to avoid the low-temperature properties of HVO is the introduction of catalytic isomerization process.S. In comparison with petrodiesel. PM of 30%. However. 10%. They pointed out that the engine efficiency can be held constant for diesel 80%: HVO 20% and diesel 50%: HVO 50% blends. Aatola et al. NOx emissions increased with increase in HVO content for one bus with EGR technology and decreased for one bus with SCR technology.59]. i. [74] investigated the effect of such factors on the lubricant oil dilution in the regeneration of DPF. As mentioned above. HVO was referred to Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel (BHD) and isomerized HVO to iso-BHD.5%. In this study. more rapid aging of engine oil and poor low-temperature properties. [61]. They found that PM is remarkably decreased by more than 24% for all iso-HVO blends. [74] reported the experimental results obtained with neat HVO. as well as to raise the lubricity of the HVO enough so that it can be used with no engine modifications. In addition. the use of neat HVO led to 37% lower smoke and to 6% lower SFC that the use of diesel fuel. However. They concluded that average emission reduction for neat HVO compared to petrodiesel were NOx of 10%. and NOx is also reduced for all iso-HVO blends and by approximately 14% for the iso-HVO 20. It is likely that reduction in NOx emission is related to the increase of cetane number with increase in iso-HVO concentration. In the case of renewable diesel. CO of 29% and HC of 39%. deposit formation. although there was a slight reduction of NOx emissions on the engine test rig. [52] suggested the blending strategies that low or medium HVO concentrations in blends is preferable and blends more than HVO 50 would not be recommended. there are some properties of HVO that may limit its capability to replace petrodiesel.-Y. low lubricity and cold flow property. there was no significant difference in NOx emissions between HVO and petrodiesel when the measurement carried out in a passenger car without aftertreatment system. not because of a reduction in particulate number. the amount of large droplets is increased as similar with the case of biodiesel. weight based fuel consumption was decreased by 2. iso-HVO20. For buses equipped with common-rail injection systems. The test in the city buses is meaningful because the effects of the changes in fuel chemistry and physical properties depend on the technology. all regulated emissions as well as fuel consumption can be reduced [19. while the volume based consumption increased 4. NOx and smoke emissions without any changes to the engine or its control. No / Fuel 115 (2014) 88–96 93 Pflaum et al. PM emission decreased significantly with increase in the HVO content in the blended diesel fuel. However. the lowest soot accumulation rate was found with neat HVO. the reduction in soot emissions is a outcome of particles with smaller diameter. The influence of HVO (NExBTL) on combustion and emission characteristics in a direct injection diesel engine with CRDi were investigated by Sugiyama et al. exhaust emissions and adaptability to current engine designs. 20% and 30%. etc. Due to the different fuel properties of HVO compared to petrodiesel. HVO 30 (30/70 vol% blend of HVO and petrodiesel) and B10 was conducted in a passenger car by Kopperoinen et al. In addition. [19]. while no significant difference in NOx between neat HVO and petrodiesel. [75] with different fuel injection and after-treatment system of exhaust emissions. Blending HVO with petrodiesel will be expected to depress the cetane number and cold flow temperatures. This study has demonstrated that increase of HVO contents in blends results in decrease in both NOx and PM. [63].

two city buses. In addition to the adjusted engine parameters. but NOx emission was increased by 5%. 4. Furthermore. they concluded that the oxidative aftertreatment devices designed for petrodiesel should operate well also with the studied HVO. The introduction of optimized engine settings with HVO produced 41–61% and 31–54% reduction of PM and NOx emissions. this is the contradict result for NOx emission with Murtonen et al. It is noted that they had measured the unregulated emissions and other fuel properties such as injector fouling. In two studies performed by Khan et al. Two truck engines.94 S. injection pressure and EGR percentage. Murtonen et al. However. without modification of CI engines. the HVO was a NExBTL produced from palm oil. Happonen et al. respectively. one was Euro 4 research truck engine with common rail injection system and EGR and another was Euro prototype with EGR. . They summarized that NOx emission had been reduced nearly by 50% operating with HVO and proper valve timing without increasing the fuel consumption and soot emission.5% reduction in overall weighted fuel consumption was obtained when switching from ULSD to A50. To investigate the effect of oxygenate addition to HVO on NOx and PM emissions as one of fuel optimization study. they suggested that the introduction of EGR is essential. engine condition and technology affect the surface fine structure and oxidation characteristics of soot particles. Even though they mentioned that no studies were found in which oxygenates were blended to HVO. NOx emission was reduced with HVO about 7% for bus A and 9% for bus B compared to EN 590 fuel.-Y. with the chemical structure Cn H2n+2. neat HVO has ultra-low sulfur content and high cetane number and heating value which is much beneficial in fuel for CI engines [79]. [43].9–18. In addition. [78] conducted the experiment with single-cylinder research engine running with the same fuel blend of Murtonen et al. it is expected that HVO will substitute directly for or blend in any proportion with petrodiesel. The most fuel properties of mixed fuels containing the rapeseed HVO in the range of 5–30 wt% and petrodiesel were similar to or better than those of neat petrodiesel. The impacts of two biodiesels i. They explained this better fuel economy is due to the higher heating value and higher cetane index of A50 as shown in Table 3.9%. CO2–5% and CO–18%). designated in this study as A50. [56]. Main problem in the fuel properties of neat HVO and blends of HVO with petrodiesel is the cold flow properties. [77] reported the experimental results of PM and NOx emissions for 50%. The results show that will all the loads considered in this study both particulate mass and NOx can be reduced over 25% by adjusting engine parameters. because of too long ignition delay and the occurrence of irregular combustion. Around 25–30% reduction in particulate mass were observed with HVO + DNPE blend compared to HVO. HVO and GTL on NOx emissions from heavy duty engines was studied using a California Air Resources Board (CARB) certified diesel fuel by Hajbabaei et al. HVO is a paraffinic bio-based liquid. one with no exhaust aftertreatment and another with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were tested on an engine dynamometer over four different test cycles. they concluded that HRD has the potential to substantially reduce pollutant emission without modifying the engine or infrastructure in the vessel. Results and discussion Density and kinematic viscosity of neat HVO are lower than that of petrodiesel and biodiesel. Accordingly. Ghosh and Risley [50]. performance and emission data from burning 50:50 blend of ULSD/HRD. The beneficial effect of HVO on CO and HC emissions was seen from 10% of blending ratio. pure or blended with petrodiesel. one with common rail and SCR (bus A) and another with unit injector and EGR + DOC (bus B). the combined use of Miller cycle and internal exhaust gas recirculation (IEGR) using HVO in medium-speed CI engine at low engine load was conducted. Happonen et al. HVO can be used in conventional diesel engines. the use of a blend of 80 wt% HVO and 20 wt% DNPE (Di-n-pentyl ether) resulted in the decrease of PM emission without increasing NOx emissions.1%) were observed over all the cycles. PM–25%. No / Fuel 115 (2014) 88–96 valve closing angle. Significant reduction in NOx emissions with the HVO (R20: 2. In addition. but it is likely to become fully commercialized in the near future. Two heavy duty diesel engines. Even though the previous studies on the application of Miller cycle and IEGR was performed at low load. As another study of engine optimization trial. The operation of engine on A50 resulted in significant reduction in pollutant emissions (NOx–10%. They pointed out that the slightly increased aldehyde emission was a minor demerit for optimized engine setting and oxygenated HVO. Although largely unproven. Combustion and emission characteristics of neat HVO and blends of HVO with petrodiesel were widely investigated by many researchers. In this study. The engine parameters adjusted in this study include intake valve closing. [48]. Accordingly. They found that even though there are differences in chemical composition for two fuels. In order to achieve PM and NOx reduction simultaneously. [35]. showed clear reduction of NOx and PM emissions with HVO compared to petrodiesel [19]. NOx was linearly reduced with the increase of HVO blending ratio and PM reduction was remarkable at more than 50% blending ratio. The upgrading methods of low-temperature properties of HVO can be divided into isomerization. reaction temperature control and co-processing with petroleumderived raw materials. few studies have been conducted about the spray characteristics of neat HVO and blends of HVO with petrodiesel in CI engine conditions. were compared to ULSD on four-stroke marine diesel engine from a Stalwart class vessel. the comparison of oxidation characteristics and surface structure of soot particles between petrodiesel and HVO was conducted by Happonen et al. advanced injection timing used together with sufficient Miller timing leads to considerable reduction in both NOx and PM emissions simultaneously. the analysis of the performance and the combustion of a large-bore single-cylinder medium speed engine running with HVO at high load was recently reported by the same research group [76]. They found that around 4. In their continued test.2% and R100: 9. originating from vegetable oil or animal fat. Therefore. etc. Reduction of CO was seen on both buses fuelled with HVO. the surface structure of soot particles and their oxidation characteristics remain unaffected. It is worth noting that the effects of the fuel blend on the hygroscopic properties of produced exhaust particles were studied. They summarized that the use of mere Miller cycle at low engine load is not so beneficial with HVO. A small increase in the hygroscopicity of exhaust particles was observed compared to particles from HVO. They found that use of Miller timing and EGR with HVO reduces NOx emissions. injection timing. HVO is not widely available at present.9–4. R50: 5.e. 70% and 100% engine loads with adjustments of engine parameters in single-cylinder research engine fuelled with HVO. [43] presented the results of a study on emission reduction with HVO by optimizing engine settings or adding oxygenate in single cylinder research diesel engine. The blends of HVO with petrodiesel can also applied to CI engines. addition of flow improver. meanwhile differences in HC emission were not significant.4–10. were introduced to test the neat HVO. In their subsequent work [64]. It is known that the utilized fuel. PM emission was remarkably decreased 30% for bus A and 46% for bus B compared to EN 590 fuel. lubricity and oxidation stability. [43]. a soy-biodiesel and a animal fat biodiesel.

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