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ARTICLE III

BILL OF RIGHTS Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. Section 2. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be deter ined personally by the !udge after exa ination under oath or affir ation of the co plainant and the witnesses he ay produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.
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Section ". #1$ The privacy of co unication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires otherwise, as prescribed by law.
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#2$ %ny evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inad issible for any purpose in any proceeding.
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Section &. No law shall be passed abridging the freedo of speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to asse ble and petition the govern ent for redress of grievances.
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Section '. No law shall be ade respecting an establish ent of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and en!oy ent of religious profession and worship, without discri ination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights.
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Section (. The liberty of abode and of changing the sa e within the li its prescribed by law shall not be i paired except upon lawful order of the court. Neither shall the right to travel be i paired except in the interest of national security, public safety, or public health, as ay be provided by law.
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Section ). The right of the people to infor ation on atters of public concern shall be recognized. %ccess to official records, and to docu ents and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to govern ent research data used as basis for policy develop ent, shall be afforded the citizen, sub!ect to such li itations as ay be provided by law.
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Section *. The right of the people, including those e ployed in the public and private sectors, to for unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged.
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Section +. ,rivate property shall not be ta-en for public use without !ust co pensation.
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Section 1.. No law i pairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed.

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Section 11. /ree access to the courts and quasi0!udicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty.
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Section 12. #1$ %ny person under investigation for the co ission of an offense shall have the right to be infor ed of his right to re ain silent and to have co petent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. 1f the person cannot afford the services of counsel, he ust be provided with one. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of counsel.
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#2$ No torture, force, violence, threat, inti idation, or any other eans which vitiate the free will shall be used against hi . Secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado, or other si ilar for s of detention are prohibited.
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#"$ %ny confession or ad ission obtained in violation of this or Section 1) hereof shall be inad issible in evidence against hi .
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#&$ The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section as well as co pensation to the rehabilitation of victi s of torture or si ilar practices, and their fa ilies.
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Section 1". %ll persons, except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong, shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, or be released on recognizance as ay be provided by law. The right to bail shall not be i paired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. 2xcessive bail shall not be required.
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Section 1&. #1$ No person shall be held to answer for a cri inal offense without due process of law.
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#2$ 1n all cri inal prosecutions, the accused shall be presu ed innocent until the contrary is proved, and shall en!oy the right to be heard by hi self and counsel, to be infor ed of the nature and cause of the accusation against hi , to have a speedy, i partial, and public trial, to eet the witnesses face

to face, and to have co pulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. 3owever, after arraign ent, trial ay proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused4 Provided, that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is un!ustifiable.
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Section 1'. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it.
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Section 1(. %ll persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all !udicial, quasi0!udicial, or ad inistrative bodies.
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Section 1). No person shall be co pelled to be a witness against hi self.

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Section 1*. #1$ No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and aspirations.
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#2$ No involuntary servitude in any for shall exist except as a punish ent for a cri e whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.
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Section 1+. #1$ 2xcessive fines shall not be i posed, nor cruel, degrading or inhu an punish ent inflicted. Neither shall death penalty be i posed, unless, for co pelling reasons involving heinous cri es, the 5ongress hereafter provides for it. %ny death penalty already i posed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua.
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#2$ The e ploy ent of physical, psychological, or degrading punish ent against any prisoner or detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under subhu an conditions shall be dealt with by law.
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Section 2.. No person shall be i prisoned for debt or non0pay ent of a poll tax.
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Section 21. No person shall be twice put in !eopardy of punish ent for the sa e offense. 1f an act is punished by a law and an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the sa e act.
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Section 22. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.