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Metals Testing Solutions Brochure Metals Testing Solutions Bar Metal formed into round or rectangular bar is subsequently transformed into a number of products through a variety of manufacturing processes. Bar is often machined and converted into other forms to meet industry requirements and end product applications. The nature of the end product application from bridge components to steering columns - requires high strength, elastic metal that bends when a load is applied but does not break. Mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, hardness, and fatigue are important measures of bar and its suitability for a particular application. Tension The Challenge Tensile testing provides a relatively easy and inexpensive technique for developing or evaluating mechanical properties, and provides basic information concerning the response of metals and alloys to mechanical loading. In some cases, manufacturers can test specimens that closely resemble the final product. In other instances, a specimen must be cut or turned down from the original material. Both types of testing are valuable in comparing materials, checking quality control, and developing alloys. There are a number of important factors to consider when conducting tensile tests on bar samples, including frame stiffness, proper gripping, specimen alignment, extensometry, machine control, data collection, and result reporting. Frame stiffness and grip selection are particularly important when testing heavy bar stock that is subject to extreme mechanical loading conditions. Our Solution To meet these challenges, Instron offers rigid load frames for breaking specimens at capacities up to 3,500 kN (800,000 lbf) which can accommodate bar specimens up to 120 mm (4.75 in) in diameter and flat specimens up to 150 mm (6 in) thick. For larger specimens or unique testing considerations, Instron has designed tensile testing systems with capacities up to 10 MN (2,000,000 lbf). ® To meet the gripping challenges of testing bar stock, Instron offers a wide range of in-crosshead, mechanical, pneumatic, and hydraulic wedge grips with a vast array of flat, V-cut, or special coated jaw faces. Most wedge-action grips feature an open front design, which facilitates easy-loading of large specimens. Specially-suited for industrial environments where dust and metal chips may be present, these grips contain protective dust covers that fit easily over the faces to shield the moving surfaces. Additionally, Instron offers shoulder-end and threaded-end specimen holders for testing machined samples. The split-sleeve design of the shoulder-end holders expedites production floor testing. 14 d 1500 kN (337,500 lbf) hydraulic wedge-action grips and M300 automatic extensometer for testing high capacity bar samples. d Model 300DX with shoulder-end specimen holders for testing machined samples. Hardness The Challenge The most common type of hardness testing for bars is a Rockwell test. Benchtop testing of very long or heavy bar specimens requires a special fixture to support the sample while it is being tested. Another common type of hardness test performed on smaller, round bar is a Jominy end-quench test used to determine the hardenability of steel. ® Our Solution For testing elongated parts in a hardness tester, a Vari-Rest or Jack-Rest test fixture is the most likely choice for providing the necessary support. Wilson Instruments' Equitron fixture is recommended for the Jominy end-quench test. The Equitron fixture supports the specimen and ensures accurate positioning of the sample for successive Rockwell hardness testing at 1.6 mm (1/16 in) intervals. ® A hardness test is typically required as part of the incoming inspection process for raw or unfinished stock. In the case of extremely large stock, the test equipment must be brought to the part as opposed to bench or lab-type testing. Portable hardness testers are ideal when the size of the test specimen prohibits moving the sample to the tester. Wilson Instruments mobile hardness testers are lightweight, easy-to-operate, and highly accurate. A variety of models have been developed to provide a convenient means for determining Rockwell hardness readings in situations that do not lend themselves to bench testing. A clamping mechanism holds the tester to the workpiece. Calibrated, preloaded spring mechanisms apply minor and major loads, and results are read on a dial gauge. d C-clamp type mobile tester model M-2 performing Rockwell test on bar. Bend/ Flex The Challenge A bend test provides important information on a material's ductility and toughness. The range of requirements, from I-beams in bridges to common stair railings, dictates the need for a bend test to prove a material's suitability for the task at hand. The infinite variety of materials, specimens, and applications together with the continual advance of materials science puts an even greater demand on the need to develop specialized test fixtures. Our Solution Instron bend fixtures come in a wide variety of configurations designed for three or fourpoint bend testing on specimens of different spans, capable of testing round steel bars up to a full 180° bend. The span for a given diameter is determined based on specimen diameter and bending pin diameter according to various ASTM specifications including ASTM A 615, ASTM A 616, and ASTM A 617. ® Instron bend fixtures feature an adjustable support span and interchangeable nose pins to accommodate a wide range of bar sizes with one fixture. d Four-point bend test fixture and deflectometer. 15 Bar Bar Shear The Challenge Many applications and product designs use bars that are subjected to shear stresses. These applications vary from simple pin and clevis adapters to shear pins that function as mechanical fuses to protect expensive machinery. In such cases, it is imperative to understand how the bar will perform under in-service shear conditions. Our Solution Instron provides both single and doubleshear test fixtures to meet these challenges. For a full explanation of fixtures for shear testing please refer to the Fastener section on page 22. ® d Double-shear test on a bar sample. Impact The Challenge From handrails to high-speed train rails, many products made from bar material are subjected to impact. Thus, impact testing is necessary to understand how bar products will perform under live conditions. Impact testing is commonly used to determine material properties such as yield strength. These properties can be used to discover unforeseen changes that may take place during manufacturing. Our Solution Instron provides both pendulums and drop towers to simulate any number of real-life impact conditions that bar products may see. Instron pendulums are designed for testing Charpy bars, while Instron drop towers can accommodate a completely finished product. Instron can also develop strikers of any geometry to impact the finished product to duplicate its real-life impact scenario. 1 16 6 d Dynatup® pipe and bar support fixture. Torsion The Challenge Torsion or twist testing can characterize material properties such as shear modulus, ultimate shear strength, modulus of rupture in shear, and ductility. To determine these properties, accurate measurement of torque and angle of twist over a fixed gauge is required. Although seemingly straightforward, torsion testing can be difficult because bar stock is often difficult to grip, and measuring the angle of twist is challenging. Specimens often need to be machined with a reduced area in the middle and double, triple, or hex flats at the grip ends. Our Solution Maintaining proper alignment of the specimen in the grips is critical to obtaining accurate test results. Round specimens can be difficult to grip without slippage during testing. In response, Instron provides chuck-style torsion grips that can accommodate round, hex, or triangular specimens up to 9.5 mm (0.375 in) in diameter. Keyless operation allows rapid gripping and release of specimens. Instron also provides tight-fitting plugs to prevent tubular specimens from being deformed deformation in the grips. ® For accurate torque and angle measurements on stiff specimens, Instron provides a twist gauge (sometimes called a troptometer or torsional extensometer) to measure the relative difference in twist over a defined length of the specimen. When attachment of the troptometer to the specimen is not feasible, the angle of position can be determined from the rotation of the grips, and captured by the software and electronics. d Model 55MT10 with bar grips and troptometer for measuring torsional rotation. d Three-face collet design securely clamps bar for torsional testing while troptometer measures angular rotation. Fatigue Bar manufacturers or end-user companies often need to know how their products will perform when subjected to conditions such as in-service loading, high and low-cycle fatigue, fracture mechanics, high strain rate, and thermo-mechanic fatigue. These tests are typically ASTM E 647 for fatigue crack growth and ASTM 1820 for fracture toughness. For more information on Instron's fatigue testing solutions see page 41. Creep and Stress-Rupture Occasionally, bar manufacturers or end-user companies need to determine how their products will perform when subjected to constant loads at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These tests are typically conducted for an extended time in accordance with standards such as ASTM E 139 and ASTM E 292. For more information on Instron's creep and stress-rupture testing solutions see page 41. d Split tube furnace with optional side entry extensometer port (M3-SF16, W-8711B). 1 7 17 Bar For information on Instron® products and services call your local worldwide sales, service and technical support offices: Corporate Headquarters Instron Corporation 100 Royall Street Canton, MA 02021-1089 USA Tel: +1 800 564 8378 +1 781 575 5000 Fax: +1 781 575 5751 USA North America IMT Sales and Service Center Sales Tel: +1 800 564 8378 Service and Technical Support Tel: +1 800 473 7838 North America IST Sales and Service Center Sales and Service Tel: +1 248 553 4630 ASIA China Beijing Shanghai India Chennai Japan Tokyo Osaka Nagoya Korea Seoul Singapore Taiwan Hsinchu Thailand Bangkok Tel: +86 10 6849 8102 Tel: +86 21 6215 8568 Tel: +91 44 2 829 3888 Tel: +81 44 853 8520 Tel: +81 6 6380 0306 Tel: +81 52 201 4541 Tel: +82 2 552 2311/5 Tel: +65 6774 3188 Tel: +886 35 722 155/6 Tel: +66 2 513 8751 Tel: +61 3 9720 3477 CANADA European Headquarters Instron Limited Coronation Road High Wycombe, Bucks HP12 3SY United Kingdom Tel: +44 1494 464646 Fax: +44 1494 456814 Toronto Tel: +1 905 333 9123 +1 800 461 9123 SOUTH AMERICA, CENTRAL AMERICA, MEXICO AND CARIBBEAN Brazil Sao Paulo Tel: +55 11 4195 8160 Caribbean, Mexico, South America and Central America Canton Tel: +1 781 821 2770 Industrial Products Group 900 Liberty Street Grove City, PA 16127-9005 USA Tel: +1 800 726 8378 +1 724 458 9610 Fax: +1 724 458 9614 AUSTRALIA Melbourne EUROPE United Kingdom, Ireland, Sweden, Norway and Finland High Wycombe Benelux and Denmark Edegem France Paris Germany and Austria Darmstadt Italy Milan Spain and Portugal Barcelona Tel: +44 1494 456815 Tel: +32 3 454 0304 Tel: +33 1 39 30 66 30 Tel: +49 6151 3917 444 Tel: +39 02 390 9101 Tel: +34 93 594 7560 IST GmbH Landwehrstrasse 65 Darmstadt, D-64293 Germany Tel: +49 6151 3917-0 Fax: +49 6151 3917-500 www.instron.com Instron is a registered trademark of Instron Corporation. Other names, logos, icons and marks identifying Instron products and services referenced herein are trademarks of Instron Corporation and may not be used without the prior written permission of Instron. Other product and company names listed are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies. Copyright © 2005 Instron Corporation. All rights reserved. All of the specifications shown in this brochure are subject to change without notice. WB1212