LITTLE

LENIN

LIBRARY

VOLUME

TWENTY-FIVE

V -4 p % V ._

A DICTIONARY
of

I t

TERMS AND QUOTATIONS
’ "% & u 9 ti

C o m p ile d

from the Works of

'^S X. ■ asfc

V. L LENIN
by 2% 'S c S«t fiN ta •-S siK

Thom as Bell

M N E PE N C E NET 1

A DICTIONARY
o f .

TEEMS AND QUOTATIONS

C o m p ile d

fro m

th e

W o rk s o f

V. L LENIN
by T hom as B e ll

LO N D O N

LAWRENCE &

WJSHART,

LTD

FIRST PUBLISHED TX 1942

Pubììshe.d by L<v ] ,ondon., W .C-lj Be

a r t L td ., 2 S o u th a m p to n Place,, :he F a rle ijïh P re ss L td . ( T J J . p

Viitford, Tiens.

Foreword
T h e re is no royal, roa d to le a rn in g , le a st of all to the teachings of th e g re a t rev o lu tio n a ry th i n k e r a n d le a d e r— L e n in , the c o n ti n u a to r o f th e w o rk of th e fo u n d e rs of scientific socialism Marx' a n d E n g els. T h e v o lu m in o u s w ritings of L e n in , of w h ich we have vet only a selection, form, a veritable tr ea su re house of k now ledge in the su b je c ts of historical materialism., history, economics, p olitics a n d re v o lu tio n a ry p a r t y lead e rsh ip . I n th ese w orks th e serious s t u d e n t an d worker, the p r o p a ­ g a n d is t an d organiser will fin d alm ost e v e ry th in g necessary to e q u ip th e m f o r th e tasks b e fo re them . R ead L en in , again, an d again; you will always find som eth in g sta rtlin g a n d new, g iv in g fresh in spira tion an d renew ed e n th u s ia s m for th e cause of la b o u r a n d C o m m u n ism . I ’ll is little D iction ary is n o t a su b s titu te for th e stu d y of L e n in ism ; n o r is it in te n d e d to e n co u ra g e th o se w ho have a w eakness f o r in d u lg in g in m ere phrases. i t is in ten d ed to sh ow h ow L e n in him self d efined a n u m b e r of the te r m s m o s t fr e q u e n tly used in political literatu re and ¡tied discussio n; and , by .......•'.......... 1 iteci q uo tatio ns, h o w an d developed th e u u i o 1 i die definitions. T h e references I ol n > mcl P ag e in th e S d u c te d W orks should, enab le th e L i, Ig stu d y in g the 'whole passage in question., to obtain a still m o re com plete e lu c id a tio n o f th e idea. O n e special rem ark, i t m u s t ' be rem em b e re d t h a t before O cto b er, 1917, th e nam e of th e Bolshevik P a rty was R ussian Social D e m o c ra tic L a b o u r .Party (Bolshevik), an d th a t therefore L e n in re fe rre d to th e m e m b e rs of this P a rty as Social. D e m o ­ crats. A lte r the revolution the n a m e of th e Russian P; c h a n g e d to C o m m u n ist an d C o m m u n ist P a rtie s w ere in all c o u n trie s; th e old p a rtie s rem ain in g Social Den Socialist or L a b o u r, T h i s selection, or term s an d q u o ta tio n s is limited io r reasons 3

of space, an d is confined to th ose most f r e q u e n t ’ ' d o u b t th e re a d e r w ill b e a b le to th in k of o ther d elnm . i q uo tatio ns, im p o rta n t a n d u se fu l, w h ich h e w on! 1 h i to see inclu ded . B u t th a t w o u ld h ave en tailed a » It book t h a n is practicable., fo r th e m o m e n t. T h e cor g ra te fu l f o r an y sug g estio n s, w h ic h m a y be sent dn u i p u b lish e rs; all. such, su g g estio ns will be carefully relation to f a r t h e r editions.
T ito > .

No and liked larger ill be H the ?d in

h i 1 ,1...

N O T E TO T H E READER T h e q u o ta tio n s (w ith o ne exception,, p. 17) are a 1 t a i i from th e tw elv e-v o lu m e e d itio n o f L e n i n ’s S e le c te d W oj > m b ished by L a w re n c e and. W is h a rt, L td . R eferen ces to th e il •. q aoted are given in th e fo llow ing a b b re v ia te d fo rm s:
S.1 ! 6, p. 56, s t a n d s f o r S e l e c t e d W o r its , V o l u m e 6, p a g e 56. i ../.. / . 9, p. 13, s t a n d s f o r .L ittle .Leni r, l À b r a r v , V o l u m e 9, p a g e 13,

W h e r e th e tw o references, “S .W .” a n d “ L . L . L at th e e n d of a q u o ta tio n th e y refer t o th e sam e p can b e f o u n d eith er in th e S e le c te d W o r k s or in tin L ib r a r y , th o u g h th e te x t used is alw ays t h a t of W orks. A full list of th e L ittle L e n i n L ib ra r y w il the end of this volume. (A li R ig h ts R eserved)

fi i : i i t

L . p. A llia n c es O nly th ose w ho have no self-reliance can fe a r to enter into t e m p o ra r y alliances even w ith u n reliab le p eop le. 40. 9. T h is is characteristic of all cap italist co un tries a n d is one of the m o s t im p o r t a n t causes of th e d is p ro p o rtio n in t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e d iffe re n t b ra n c h e s of n a tio n a l econom y. 21. p. but th e p re s e n t and even the past of t h a t th e d o m in a tio n of b lin d chance over the scattered... w hich is irresistibly bein g d riv en to w a rd s the socialisation of lab o u r. B u t an essential c o n d itio n fo r su c h an allian ce m u s t be co m ­ plete lib erty for Socialists to reveal to th e w o rk in g class th a t its interests are d iam etrically o pposed to th e in terests of th e bourgeoisie. a n d of th e high c o st o f living. p.TV..L . L .. 13.. T h e ir in d iv id u alist theories a n d th eir individualistic. n o t th e fu t u r e of bou rgeo is society. p. p. . 344. 274. 6. l .. p. T in .. serve to disunite th e pro let ind. because it is im possible f o r th e w o rk ers reallv to detach them selv es fr o m politics.p re ss. of crises. n o t a single political party cou ld exist w ith o u t e n te rin g in to su c h alliances. w h ic h a m o u n t to th e i ol th e political struggle. 56.IV .. to co n v e rt th e m into passive p a rtic ip a n ts of one o r a n o th e r set of bo urgeo is p o litics. 3. ideais are the ve ry antithesis of socialism. A narchism n differs fro m an a rc h ism in t h a t it recognises the n for the stale an d for state p o w er in a p erio d o f-revohiti nerat. 2. i sm all p ro du cers. in fact. L . 12. 40.. L . S. 21. 4. W . ih f p . an d in th e p eriod ol tra n sitio n from cap italism to so cialism in particular. L . 2. S . S. 4. L . T h e ir . . p. S . L . p.A g ric u ltu re T h e d e v e lo p m en t of a g ric u ltu re lags b e h in d th a t of in d u s try . philo so p h y ot ih e an archists is bo urgeo is p h ilo so p h y iside out.. T h e ir tactics.TV.

I T . Socialists are in fa v o u r of a b o lish in g fro n tie rs b etw een nations an d the fo rm a tio n of larg er s ta te s . p. 30. N. in to capita! p r o d u c in g a profit. 5. 15. o r to declaim. ih a t is. and instead of bein g m o d es t interm ed iaries they becom e p ow erfu l m on op olies h a v in g at th e i r c o m m a n d alm ost th e w hole of the m o n e y capital oi all th e capitalists a n d small business m en a n d also a large p a r t o f the m ean s of p ro d u c t io n and of th e sources.L. ' S . th e co n cep t a n n ex atio n is in se p a ra b ly b o u n d u p with the co n cep t self d e te rm in atio n of nations. it is n ot sufiicient tor th e socialists in every c o u n try to pav bp service to the eq u a lity of nations. generally speaking.l'i. 5. 6 . p. 236. p. T h e tra n s fo rm a tio n oi n u m e ro u s in term ed iaries into a h a n d fu l of m ono po lists rep resents one of the fu n d a m e n ta l processes in the tr a n s fo r m a tio n of capitalism in to capitalist im perialism.L. vow and solem n ly decla re t h a t they are opposed to a nnexations. fo r. T h e te rm a n n e x atio n m u s t b e ap p lied only to ro priatio n of te rrito ry a gainst the w ill of th e p o p u ­ latio n of th a t te rrito ry .Id . B aiA s T h e p rin cip al an d p rim a ry fu n ctio n of b ank s is to serve as an in te rm e d ia ry in th e m aking' o f p a y m e n ts. 237. in o th er w o rd s.” S . of ra w m aterials of th e g iv en c o u n try a n d of a n u m b e r oi c o u n trie s. L. 27.A n n e x a tio n N o t eve ry a p p ro p ria tio n oi foreign ■ ' te rrito ry m ay be describ e d as annexation. 'The socialists in every c o u n tr y m u s t d e m a n d im m e d iate a n d u n c o n ­ d itio n a l freed o m o f secession fo r the colonies an d natio ns th a t are o p p ressed b y their ow n “ f a th e rla n d . As h a n k in g develops a n d becom es c o n c e n tra te d in a sm all n u m b e r of estab lishm e nts. :> . p. I n do ing so thev tr a n s f o r m inactive m on ey capital into active capital. for S ocialists ca n n o t re p u d ia te violence an d w ars in th e interests of th e m a jo rity of tin: lion. no r m ay every m ilita ry ap prop ri territo ry b e called an nex ation . fo r this w o u ld be ex tre m ely re a c tio n a ry a n d a m o ckery of tlie fu n d a m e n ta l con-eef " ' e science of history. n o r m ay every d istu rb a n c e o f the statu s quo be d escrib ed as an nex ation . th e ban ks becom e tra n sfo rm e d . th e y collect all kinds of m o ne v re v en u es a n d place th e m at the d isposal of the c a p ita list class.

PF. The elecii a i i . p. i. * Al ¡he Second Congress of the Russia i i l l ) urn lie Labour P oi i i-)()3. 11.!! n a rtv exists since 1903A' A. . 254. serious differences arose on v . T h e bo urgeoisie has always and every w here op po sed the obsolete fra m ew o rk of th e estates and oth er medieval in s titu tio n s in the n am e of the w hole ‘‘ people ” within. p nil i i 0 as to the churaoler of Ihe Part i iti n a I the ccaopcv a a u its central institutions.. because the in stitu tio n s criticised w ere actual!)' hamocrin». w h ic h class co ntradic tio ns were still un d ev elo p e d . b o th in th e W est an d in Russia. p. n o t to r satisfy in g th e personal needs or w h im s oi th e capitalists.e. Hence the term ’liolshevik. 1.HA 10. p.'HA 7. . meaning in Russian one of ihe majorily. L . 26. b u t to r new p ro d u c tio n .. . S . 636. L .Bolshevism B olshevism as a tre n d of political tho ug ht an d a politic. A. p. p. T h e bourgeoisie has always an d everyw h ere risen against feu d alism in th e n a m e of the a b o litio n of social statu s.I i . A p etty b o u rg eo is is th e o w n e r o! sm all p ro o e r tw AHA 2. 419.e v e r y b o d y . . All of yon th e r e are n o t b etw een w o r k purpose of ra Capita! : (aeeijimiltinort of) T h e ac cu m u la tio n oj capital. A n d it was right. p. the tra n sfo rm a tio n or a p a rt of s u r p lu s valu e into capital. b u t also alliances alists in a p a rtic u la r in d u s try f o r the an d ot ro b b i n g e v ery b o d y else. T h e b o u rg eo isie are all th e o w n ers of p ro p e rty taken together. i < n> • a principle. 6 b B o u r g e o is ie B ourgeois m ean s an o w n er of prop erty. B rib e ry of W orkers ead t r a d e u n io n lite r a tu re know th a t inions in E n g la n d . 31. W . S.A b ig bou rg eois is th e o w ner of b ig p ro perty .enin’s followers. I I . i u Commit tec and I la editorial hoard of the paper (isk i i It u > >ujority for l. .

th e refo re . p. L . 628.t p ro le ta r ia n .m ir th e . a p ro p e rty le ss la b o u rer. w h ic h du lled th e m in d a n d p re v e n te d t h e p ro d u c e rs from tak in g th e ir destinies into th e ir ow n h a n d s.! odnction * T h e word cartel is usua lly applied to cembiivalioi . L . in te rn a tio n a l cartels are th e m o s t in te rn atio n alisa tio n of ij it t a n d the h ope of peace . o f paym ent. S . p. 8 .C a p ita l : ( g e n e s is o f ) T h e historical con dition s necessary for t i ' r capital were. exchange an d the c o n sta n t m igratio ns of vast masses o f th e population. w e a lth of social relations " w h ic h pi a vs so g re a t a role in th e m o d e r n histo ry of th e West.. prices and sales. sh a tte re d th e an cient fetters of th e tribe. I I . p. th a t “ v a rie g a tio n of tale n ts and. T h e y d iv id e th e profits a m o n g th e v a rio u s ent> S W . T h e y fix prices. W . firstly.' first in a few o r even in one single co u n try . 30. 15. 1.. i level of d e v e lo p m e n t of co m m o d ity p ro d u c t io n in gi econdiv th e existence o t a la b o u r e r w h o is “ fre e ” m a d u u o k . as distinct from those direeily e on ovasis).. 19. or restric tio n on th e sale of h is la b o u r pow er.. p. consists p recisely in the fa c t th a t it destroyed th e old. a n d of all m ean s o f p ro d u c tio n in general. p. give nation s u n d e r capitalism. a n d free fr o m th e la n d . . 5. sense: free from all c o n stra in t. the victory of socialism is possible.L . 25-26. S . a . C e rta in bo urg eois w rite rs . C ap italism . express th e opinion th a t strikin g expressions of the th a t they. S . lie n e e . T h e tre m e n d o u s d ev e lo p m e n t ol tra d e relations a n d world. 5. th e a c c u m u la tio n a n d a rela i J In . T h e y divide th e m a r k e ts am T h e y fix th e q u a n ti ty of goods to be p ro d u c e d . fam ily a n d te rritorial c o m ­ m u n ity an d created th a t variegation of dev elo p m en t. L . L .L . 22. T h e progressive fe a tu re ot capitalism.. etc. c ram p e d c o n d itio n s of h u m an life. 31.W . W .” w h o ca n n o t subsist except b y the sale of his la b o u r pow er. rntrolluy. U neven econom ic a n d po litical d e v elo p m e n t is an a b so lu te law ot capitalism. (c o m b in e s ) C a rte l s “ come to a g reem e n t on th e condition'' *•. p p . 14 i. . C a rie ss .

p. 27. by th e ir relation. 4"5. W . an d they revea l the object ol: th e struggle betw e en th e v a rio u s c a p ita list g ro u p s. 8 . th a t all th e w orkers rep resen t a single class. s m u s t striv e to influence th e affairs of state in th e sam e v a t as the lan d lo rd s a n d th e capitalists in flu en ce it. a g a in s t th e class o f capitalists a n d fac to ry o w ners th a t was created by th e big factories. G la s s C o n s c io u s n e s s C lass consciousness m ea ns th a t th e w o rk ers u n d e r s ta n d th a t the only w av to im prov e th eir c o nd ition s an d to secure th eir e m a n c ip a tio n is to fight. L . G lasses Classes are large gro u p s ol people w h ic h differ fro m each.T h e o re tic a lly this opinion is absu rd . p p. by the d im ensio ns an d m eth o d o f a c q u irin g th e sh are of social wealth. L .l. 432-433. class co n scio u sn ess m ea n s t h a t th e w orkers u n d e r s ta n d th a t in o rd e r to achieve th e ir aims. o th er b y th e p lace th e y o ccu p y in a his torically d efin ite system of social p ro d u c tio n . C lasses are g ro u p s of people one of 'which m a y a p p ro p r ia te the la b o u r of a n o th e r ow in g to the d ifferen t places th e y occupy in th e definite system of social econom y. T h e s t a te m e n t t h a t cartels can abolish crises is a fable sp read b y b o u rg e o is eco n o m ists w h o at all costs desire to place capitalism in a fa vo urab le light. t h a t they obtain.L . b y th e ir roie in th e social organisation of lab ou r. co nsequently. p. 25. Finally. 1. IS. 68. class consciousness m ea ns th a t the w o rk ers u n d e rs ta n d that the in terests of all the workers in the given c o u n tr y are identical. A n d fro m this error 9 . th e w o rt. S J 'V . C lass S tru g g le “ I t is o fte n said an d w ritten th a t th e core o f M a r x ’s theory is the class stru gg le. S J V .. p. 5. b u t it is n o t true. J 'u rih o rm o re. w h ile in practice i t is a s o p h ism a n d a dish on est d e fence o f the w o rs t o p p o rtu n ism . a n d strive to influence it still more. (in m o s t cases fixed an d fo r m u la te d in laws) to the m e a n s of p ro d u c tio n . ih lT . L . I n t e r n a t io n a l cartels show to w h a t p o in t c a p ita list m o n o p o lies have developed.L . an d. 5. 15. 57. 9. sep arate fr o m all o th e r classes. p. p.

a n d generally * > . S W . T h e m eans of p ro d u c tio n are n o longer the p rivate p ro p e r ty 10 .. Com m unism ¡(th e f i r s t p h a s e ) In th e C r itiq u e o f th e G o th a P ro g ra m m e. ’I'h o se w h o r& o_i o n ly the cl u iiu g g le are n o t y e t M a r x is ts . then . fo r the rep lace m en t of “ w o r n . an d so on... T h i s tran sitio n p e rio d c a n n o t b u t be a period of struggle betw een m o r i b u n d c ap italism a n d n ascen t com m unism -—in o th e r w ords. T h is is w h ere th e p ro f o u n d difference lies betw een a M a r x is t r o d :n> o rd in a ry petty (an d even big) b o u rg e o is. Communism : ( transition.. its falsificatio n to m ake it acceptable b y th e bo ut . p. .i.o u t ” m ach inery. T h e latter ca n n o t b u t com b in e th e featu res an d p ro p e rtie s of both these system s of social enterprise.” . . \ M a r x is t is one whcr exte n d s th e a cceptan ce of th e class 3lri’\. . fr o m the m eans of c o n s u m p tio n m u s t b e d e d u c te d a f u n d f o r th e expenses of th e m a n a g e m e n t / f o r schools. p.. .. b etw een capitalism w hic h has b een d efeated .. T o lim it M a r x i s m to th e them \ <u th e class stru gg le m e ans c u rta ilin g M a r x ism . 7... 3. .” M a r x show s th a t fr o m th e w hole of the social la b o u r of society it is n ece ssa ry to d e d u c t a reserve fu n d .le to th e acceptance of the d icta torship of th e proletariat... re du cin g it to so m eth in g w h ic h is accep tab le to th e b o u r g e o i s . also.. spring s th e o p p o rt u n is t distortion > ! M i -asm. to ) T h e o re tic a lly . oisie. t h a t M a r x term s the r‘ f i r s t / ’ or lower. The th e o ry of th e class strug gle w as n o t created b lai h u t by t l a i u r1 11 >eoisie before M a r x . Marx: goes into som e details to disprove L a ssa lle ’s id ea th a t u n d e r socialism th e w o rk e r will receive th e “ u n d irn in ish ed ” or “ w h o le proceeds of his la b o u r . h om es fo r th e aged an d so on. hospitals. distortin g it. p h ase of c o m m u n ist society. A n d it is this c o m m u n is t society .. th ere can be no d o u b t th a t betw een cap ita lism a n d c o m m u n ism th e r e lies a definite tran sitio n period. b u t n o t y e t destroyed an d com m u n ism w h ic h h as been b o rn b u t w hich is still very feeble.. 33.. . a f u n d fo r th e expansion of p ro d u c tio n . th ose may' 1 h i m to have go ne n o fu r th e r t h a n th e b o u n d a rie s of b o u r g e o n rea son ing a n d bourgeois politics. i' m g it is c k i ' i ' d ^ c to th e bourgeoisie.very often.

w e indeed h a v e h ere. C o m rm m is n i ( d ie h ig h e r p h a s e ) M a r x co ntin ues: I n a h i g h e r p h a s e o f C o m m u n i s t s o c i e t y aft er t h e ensUiviv)^ subordin ation ol: i n d i v i d u a l s u n d e r d iv i s io n ol la bou r. D e d u c tin g that. th e factories. W . a lt e r la b o u r h a s b e c o m e not: m e r e l y a. are n o t th e same an d arc not e q u a l to one an o th e r. a n o th e r is weak. means to live. / ' H ence.1 1:pur a nd h e n c e an e q u a l s h a r e in th e s o cia l c o n s u m p t i o n fu n d . lie receives irorn the i l It i houses. o n e wil l it I'u 1 r e c e iv e m o r e t h a n a n o t h e r . E v ery right is an ap p lica tio n ol th e sam e m easu re to d iffer en t peo ple w ho. .iri. 70-71. every worker. like ev ery right.o p e r a l i v e w e a l t h f l o w m o r e a b u n d n t h th e n c an th e na r r ow h o r iz o n o f hou ro 'e ois e m'ijhit I') in 1 1m . p p. w ith an e q u a l o 1.v.of indivi Inal 11ini m ea ns oi p ro d u ctio n belong to the whole o! .r o u n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e in d i Mu d tnd all th e s p r i n g s o f c o . . exist. w h ere articles of c o n su m p tio n are stored i m L% p< i dm q u a n ti ty of p ro d u cts. because it will be im possible to seize rlh ? > / i prodnct-ion. B u t people are not alike: one is strong. 8 . a n o th e r has less. h u t tin t > h s t a t i o n of m a n In m in will h i r x < n im possible. and u n ju s t chi t i i n e e s . pp. has v a n i s h e d . m achines. o n e will h e r ic he r t h a n an > i i m d so o n . et( property. 1.uia su c u au a m o u n t of work. th e effect t h a t he h as do ne s u c h .” says M a r x . . as h e has given it. 83-85. a n o th e r is n o t. m < ill i still. ditici iu ( s. p e rf o rm in g a certain part ol socially u r n “' u y labo ur.” w hich . M a r x d raw s is: £ : . certificate fro m society le. L . the first p h ^ t o f eom nm rrbih m n o t pioduM j t [it an d eq u a lity . I ' ■ ! ' m e m b e r of society. bu t has becom e it s e l f th e p r im a r y necessity ol iile. presuppose? ine qu ality. and t h e r e w i t h als o th e a n t i t h e s i s b e t w e e n m e n t a l a n d p h y s ic a l la bou r. L . o n e lias m o re children. A c c o rd in g to this certificate. b u t it is still a “ bou rg eois rig h t. m a n h a v in g p e rfo rm e d as m u c h social la b o u r as a n o th e r n: an equal sh are of the social p ro d u c t (less th e ab o v e-m en deductions). t h i n i i n i\ fr o m society as much.ioc. . a ft e r the produ ctive f o r c es have als o in c r e a s e d w ith th e a l l . . . t h a t is w h y “ eq ual r i g h t ” is really a violation of equality and an injustice. one is m arried . “ E q u a l rig h t. receives a. And the conclusion. land. p ro w hich goes to the pu blic fu n d . 14. As a m a t te r of fact. L . in fact. . an d so on.

It. are good fo r noth ing . . C ew iprom ises T o reject com prom ises “ on p rin c ip le.re are. . pp. S . I ) j nlm es it is n o t alw ays possible to do this so easily. . L. 10. W .-. W . rev o lu tio n ary spirit. no m a t te r of . t o e a c h a c c o r d i n g to b is n e e d s . p.. 7.. 76-77.iu e w ho w a n te d to in v e n t a recip e f o r th e w o rk e r t i n lotild p ro v id e re a d y -m a d e solutions of all cases th a t o c iu t i i h n . L . 16. w h e th e r a n d w h e n w e shall lig h t him . W . p p. p. T h e w ho le p o in t lies in ¡m o w in g ho w to ap p ly tl < laetics in such a w a y as to raise a n d n o t lo w er th e general level of p ro le taria n class consciousness. 8. S .. 1m c n . p. . . 56. 118-119.‘ ’. o r of each fo rm of co m p ro m ise. 16. pp. p. C o m m u n ism . W ..h d .r w h o p rom ised th a t th e p o litics of the rev oliitiom u \ t t tn iit w ould n ev er e n c o u n te r difficult o r in tric a te situ u m. . 77'.0.1. 1. 276.. w ho is a t p re s e n t b e tte r a rm e d th a n v. L . T h e re are com prom ises an d compromises. 239. S . p. . m id sim ply he a ch arlatan. i < o i i umisrn is th e Soviet pow er e co untry. o p e n ly to tell th e enemy. is s t u p id ity a n d n o t rev olutionariness. T o accept battle a t a tim e w h en it is o b v io u sly ad v a n ta g e o u s to th e en em y an d n o t to u s is a crim e. is th e n a m e ly to a system u n d er w h ich p eo p le becom e accu stom ed to ill p e rfo rm a n c e of p u b lic d u tie s w ith o u t an y specific m a c h in e ry of co m p u lsio n . L . ” S . to m ano euv re. L . W .7147 8.. 116. 5. a n d th ose p o litic a l leaders of th e rev o lu tio n a ry class w h o are u n a b le “ to tack. is ch ild ish n e ss w hich it is difficult even to take ser .” in o r d e r to avoid an o b v io u sly d isad van tag eou s b a ttle . . 87. . O ne m I able to a n a h 'se th e situ atio ns and.b e h in d a nd s o c i e t y i n s c r i b e on its b a n n e r s : f r o m each to h is ability . th e concrete conditio > each compromise. w h e n u n p a id w ork l o r th e com m o n pood becomes the genera! p h en o m en o n . plus the electrification oi S .L. 22. L .. and ab ility to tight an d to conquer. p. 10. . 58. I ' o tie o n e ’s h a n d s b e fo re h a n d .” to reject the a d m iss­ ib ility oi: co m p ro m ises in general. L . to com p ro m ise. 4.

sweet face.” which in ev ita b ly leads to n arro w circle diplomacy. As lo ng as we have n o t c o n q u e re d th e w h o le w o rld . D ifferen ces oi op inio n m u s t be h u sh e d up. a n d w hich will. ha i tl . n am ely. W .a. ai i m i b i i 11 1 by th e follow ing p ictu re . A n d m o destly d ro p p i n g his eyes an d raising his h a n d s. th a t 1 . we m u s t ad h ere to th e rule th a t we m o s t know 1 take ad v a n ta g e oi th e an tag on ism s a n d con tra diction s e. on the policy oi th a t work. if they do not agree upon th e ca rry in g o u t of a com m on policy.1 1. iroei the s t a n d p o in t of political consid eratio ns . h are an d let live.. 8.” T h e id entity oi th e ir views on p a rty work.one of these the direction of the Bolsheviks and M en she vik s. their objective con ditio ns should n o t be elucidated. .h v 1 ire pu llin g o ur P a r t y waggon up a steep slope.enral thing in IIk : m a tte r . Jrorn th e econom ic a n d 'm ilitary sta n d p o in t. C o n ciliatio n O n e view of u n ity m a y place in th e f o r e fro n t th e “ re c o n ­ ciliation ” ol “ given p erso n s. is th e ru le w hich we have n o t only m astere d theoretically b u t have also applied practically. ¡1 with. p. th e ( w o rld . th eir causes. T h is is p h ilistin e “ conciiiationisrn. H e looks th e very in c a rn a tio n of virtue. W ith ii i i .usun g a m o n g th e im perialists. . 279-280. we are w eak er than. 1. in citin g o n e a g a in st th e oilier. as long as. H e has such a sweet. i two system s ol' c a p italist state.C o ncessions T h e iundam. n o d in “ I t h a n k the L o rd . h e exclaims: . [hat we m u s t take a d v an ta g e ol th e ant . that. pp. In th e w ag go n sits a c o n c ilia to r. 41. g ro u p s a n d in s titu tio n s . un til socialism finally tr iu m p h s all o v er th e w orld. H a d we n o t ad h e re d to th is rule. . he is a pic tu re of tenderness. Th ioO if ti i "in on d u r i n g th e period of c o u n te r m i l . us. like th a t o f Jesus. to the satisfaction of th e cap italists. re m a in a f u n d a m e n t. policy m u s t he in te rp re te d in such a w ay a # t o be accep tab le to all. .m sm s and c o n tra ­ d ictio n s betw een two cap italism s. s : i r . T h e principle tiling is to “ reconcile ” p ersons a nd groups. is a m a t te r of secon dary im p ortan ce. th eir significance. .“ vicious ..> hvi . am n o t like . S . !’ concessions. every one of u s w o u ld h av e long ago been ha n g in g fro m an aspen tree. 4.

n i en i p rises. S . you c a n n o t avoid tu r n i n g back every again. b e n d in g every effort to co n ­ vince the b ack w ard an d u n tr a in e d khk 2 Si». an d the d ream of b eing d>l m u Uu i th e class enemies into class colleagues a n d th e class stru g g le into class peace (so -called civil peace). . 9.. . of the w orking <1 is. certain corrections. you cannot. U n d e r o u r system. U n d e r state capitalism. p. co-operative enterpi iw ) from state capitalist en terp rise s. W h y w ere the plans of th e old co -o p era i I m i i 1i i D w en on w ard s. avoid testing w hat you have done. fantastic r because they d r i* i I ol t i l 1 Im tr a n s fo r m in g p re s e n t-d a y so. i. co-operative enterp rises diife i te si -. because th e y art i enteriwprises. 4.ilists w h o h in d e r ail p rogress.w in n in g to hf i i overthrow ing.e. . p." Hut the waggon moves lorwarri and in she w aggon si is the roncHiatnr. m erely b y organ isin g the p o p u la tio n in co -operative societies. 407. as so m e th in g ro m a n tic and even banal. . S j r . firstly. C o-operatives T h e r e is no d o u b t th a t u n d e r the capitalist S ta t -operativ es are collective capitalist in stitu tio ns. and secondly because they are eolJeetk.I V . a d o p tin g new m e th o d s. h u t ca p ita list e n te rp rise s because th ey are collective em on th ey do n o t d iffer fro m Socialist en te rp rise s ir to w hich th ey are s itu ated a n d th e m ean s of produc th e S ta te. co-operative enterprises differ fro m > i prises as collective en terp rises differ from p. 110.. th e rule o f th e e x p lo itin g class are rig ht in re g a rd in g this “ co-o perativ e ” entirely fantastic. w private e n te r ­ capitalism. prises. th e w o rk in g class.. h e r ol repetitions. Constructive Work J n c o n stru c tiv e work you c a n n o t avoid a v. u l i mlo Social! to into ac c o u n t a f u n d a m e n ta l like tin sg i 1 1 class struggle.

p. th erefo re avoid recognising the necessity for a w hole historical oi' tra n sitio n fro m capitalism to c o m m u n is m or regard it as th eir d u ty to concoct plan s to r reconciling the two c o n te n d in g forces.P e E'BSáíigHCH D em a g o g u es are th e w o rst enem ies oí Ibc w o rk in g class. . S . u lerats are d istin g u ish e d by an aversion fr o m the i i tu > ■ * i! by th e hope of gettin g along w ith o u t th e class i u n J . p. a n d I t th e edge off sh arp corners. i». a class-conscious w o rk e r calls h i m ­ self a Social D em o crat precisely b ecau se he u n d e r s ta n d s th e in ter-relatio n between the tw o struggles. . D em ow aey C an a class-conscious w o rk e r ignore th e d e m o c ra tic stru gg le for th e sake of th e Socialist struggle. D em o cra ts : ( p etty b o u rg eo is) Petty b o u iw io ’1 d. p. 1 th e y arouse liad instin cts in th e crow d. th ro u g h political liberty. -He.-socialism. S . .v ir e n d e av o u r to sm o o th over a n d r e c o n ­ cile.. b e c a u se th e i w o rk er is u n a b le to recognise his enem ies in m e n w ho i : themselves.if. B cv ííü íh mi -. . to be his frie n d s .. 4. 123.By saying “ deviations ” we e m phasise die fa ct th a t we do not yet regard th e m as so m ethin g d efin itely form ed. instead o i leadin g th e struggle ol one of these forces ag ainst the o th e r. b u t m erely as th e b eg in n in g of e political tr e n d of w hich the Party m u s t give its appraisal. | M d. strives fo r th e c o m ­ plete a n d con sistent ach ie v e m en t of d em o cracy f o r the sake of a tta in in g th e u ltim a te eoal.W . 8. or ignore th e l a t te r for th e sake oi th e form er? N o .IV . i 53. W . S '. in this period of dis persion and vacillation. S . and som etim es sincerely re p r e se n t t h e m ­ selves. 3. n o th i n g is easier th a n to em plo y dem agogic m e th o d s to sid e ­ track the crow d. S u c h dem ocrats. w h ich can realise its m istakes o nly by b itter experience. 2. Me k now s th a t th ere is n o o th e r road to socialism b u t the ro ad th r o u g h democracy. w h en ovir m o v em e n t is ju s t b e g in n in g to take shape. 137. as s o m e th in " absolutely and fully defined. th erefore. 9.

p. 2. b u t they can still be p u t right. 19. L . 15.IV . in c lu d in g th e m ateria lisn i 1 iii ■In c h (and. 463. . inclu des w h a t is now called th e th eo ry of k n ow ledge. (2) That the old m a t e r i a l i s m i t u I i-a ) i . into tw o g reat camps. . p. 12(>D iale e cies T h e fu n d a m e n ta l thesis oi dialectics is: th e re is no such th in g as a b stra c t tr u th . ” fa i l i n g t o ta k e a c c o u n t o f t h e l a te s t d e v e lo p c o e x n s o f c h e m i s t r y an d b i o l o g y (in o u r d a y it w o u l d Ira a c c e s s a r y to acid: and o f th e e le c t r ic a l theory o f m a t te r ) .' too. or ep istem ology. belo ng to th e v ario u s schools of m a te ria lism .which is p rim a ry . spirit: o r natu re.L . . L .11. . n a tu r e as p rim ary . . .L. p. in t h e s e n s e o f t u t di I Oi il).Marx and E n gels co n sid e re d th e fu n d a m e n ta 1 inml t on oi th e “ o ld ” m aterialism . tr u th is alw ays concrete. . m u s t re g a rd its su b je c t matter histo rically . p.’S . p. co m p rise d th e carnp of idealism. assu m ed w o rld creation in som e fo r m o r o th e r . D ia le c tic s! M a terialism F re d e ric k Engels writes: “ T h e g re a t basic question of all p h ilosop hy . sp irit to n a tu r e . S J F . L . especially of m o d e rn p h ilo so p h y . as u n d e rs to o d by M a rx . 9. a n d in con fo rm ity w ith Hegel. th e tr an sitio n f r o m «(W -knovvledge to knowledge. . T o be: ( ! ) T hai' t h is mai:eria!isir! w a s “ p r e d o m i n a n t l y m e e h a n ic s 'i. . S J ¥ . T h o s e w h o asserted th e p rim acy of spirit to n a tu re and. P e o p le have j\ist w a n d ered so m ew h at fro m th e p ath . 17. 16 . .i w a n d e r fro m the p ath . stu d y in g a n d g e n e ra lisin g th e origin and dev elo p ­ m e n t of know ledge. is th a t concerning th e relatio n of th in k in g a n d bein g . th erefo re.L. S . I I . Dialectics.¡!. T h e answ ers w h ich the p h ilo so p h ers gave to this qu estio n sp lit them. . in th e last instance. T h e others. w h o regarded. .A deviation is so m eth in g th a t can be rectified. 1. w h ic h .. and did not: a d h e r e c o n s i s t e n t l y an d c o m p r e f u re st and no ire o f developm ent. non-diaiecticai ( m e t a p h y s i c a l . o r are b eg in n in g t.iV . 21. ¡i. . still m o re of the “ v u lg a r ” m aterialism of ogl an d iYlolescbott).

2. w hich takes in to its h and s tin: w h ale appai-aius oi th e n e w scare. because th. lau>-> also embraces' ¡w wO > • la b o u r politics). 22. Sec also Class Sint^xle.. S . in tactics co m p lete hast mu \ .. 53. iv 41. W . 19-20. 11.)r. 15. L . T h e fu n d a m e n ta l political tendenc ies or Ecosiomism. to estab lish a stron g a n d conn )h m <ranisation oi re . L . p.e S . it d id n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f ‘5 r e v o l u t i o n a r y / ' p r a c t i c a l .— is no t a d o gm a b u t a guide to action. ail c o n c r e t e l y d e h n e d racial r e l a t i o n s / 5 and th e r e f o r e o n ly “ in t e r p r e t e d ?l d ie world. W . w h e r e a s t h e p o i n t is to li c h n n g c ” it. K e o n o m is m T h e characteristic fe a tu re s of this ten d en c y are: in the m a iter of nrineirsles. D ieiaiorslssip of ih e P ro les'flria - L . in politics —a st :> restrict o r to fra g m e n tise political agitation and pc In i I struggle...(3) T h a t it reg arded ih e “ h u m a n e s s e n c e ” i no t as th e ‘‘ e n s e m b l e ” oi. . 51-52. D o ctrine O u r doctrine-—said E ngels.I Is take th ship of th e g im 1 < e loeratic m o v e ­ m e n t in th e ir o w n they will nte.\i.i i.. a n d let th e ]\!. 69. . viz.. p. o mi m aries capable oi le a d in g th e p u t i i < i \ stru g g le...: L e t th e w orkei. re fe rrin g to him self an d his fam o u s friend ( M a r x ) . a failu re to undersl u d tl u n les s social D u n ». i h n t is to say.th e failure to tvndt i i ■ t >u th e mass e lm a Oi of th e m o v em en t does n o t clinum h 'a n increases o ur o M i'a .. pp. intelligentsia m i i h d 1He liberals fo r th e political “ struggii ‘ S .. 10. th e p e a sa n try . th e lo w er m id d le class an d intelligentsia.‘T • on th e econom ic stra g g le (it w o u ld be rnore co rre ct to \ n > . p. 11. 4. L . L . T h e d icta to rsh ip of th e p ro le ta ria t is the rule oi tine class. p. in regard to o rg a n isa tio n -. 1.* S . u tde u n io n struggle.iV . W . pp.. .v u lg a ris a tio n of M a r x i s m .>i. all nut p i o u t b u r s t s a n d th e final deci^n c iuI L e n in : Collected 11 > 1i 2. o overthrow th e au to c ra c y . L .. w hich van qu ish es th e bourgeoisie a n d neu tralises th e w hole oi th e p e tty -b o u rg e o isie .

. an E n g lish one ix hili tin. w hile u n p rin c ip le d factions hide b e h in d .if7 4.... p. no m a tte r w h ere it takes place. exp lain s th e in justice of th e law s u e a ^ ..’' I t ca n n o t be too stro n g ly insisted t h a t this is not enough to c o n stitu te S oc ial-D em o cra cy. language.. etc. worker* to co n d u ct th e economic struggle.. .i ! c h o ru s o! satellites.. sometí: demoralises th e masses a n d im b u es th e m w ith bourgeois ees. a b o u t th e i r no n-faction alism . to w a rn all an d s u n d r y t h a t a strik e is trig at a certain factory) explains th e partiality of arb iira 1: ju d g e s who b elon g to the bourgeois classes.. A 4. every tr a d e union secretary con du cts an d helps to co nd uct Un­ economic stru g g le again st the em p lo y ers an d the g o v e rn m e n t. . E v e ry faction is convinced t h a t its plait» ■in i m p !i are th e best m e a n s of a b o lish in g factions. p. 77. T h e re is an objective logic in factio nal struggles w h ich in evitably leads even the best of p eo p le— if th e y persist in . Only the stru g g le educates the ex p lo ited class. T h e only d factions w ith clear c on sistent p la tfo rm s openly ui !• 'd .A ny tra d e un ion secretary.... stru gg le of th e masses themselves. / .n w h ic h h a m p e r the fre e d o m to strike an d th e i: :o picuei (i. th e social refo rm ists. p. S J f 7 3... 100..Í not In' A faction is an org an isatio n w ith in its place o f w ork.. p e d an tic ... a n d p articu la rly from th e re v o lu ­ tio n a ry . A).. T h e real edu catio n of th e masses can nevei uu sep arated fro m th e in d e p e n d e n t. A .. lo r no i n .. A . / . talk p u • i 1 1 a b o u t the “ e d u c a t i o n ” o f th e masses. .* . ¡ n .... F a c tio n s . u q 1 u I uit their virtue.. . 2. 6.. no m a tte r w h a t st ra tu m or class of th e people it affects.. T h e Social D e m o c r a t’s ideal sh ould n o t be a trade u nio n secretary.e.. > . p. able to react to every m a n ifestatio n of ty ra n n y and o p p ressio n . etc. la tfo rm . R elo catio n W h e n th e bourgeois g e n try an d th eir u n c r 't r . by education suailv m ean so m e th in g schoolmasterly..... b u t a tr ib u n e o f the p e o p le .. . th e political.lb. o facto ry abuses. .... or o th e r ob/i ' ” s. i f i u i le ex ist­ ence of factions as ideal. . A..

the m o no p o ly arising t h e r e ­ f r o m . .e. i.. L . etc. so u l t nl c u ltu ra l cond ition s oi il stru g g le w ith in d ifh h in e or cqui. . cu ltu ra l an d social en n niKiit. S . exacts e n o rm o u s and ev er increasing.. S . 47. be ru led by a b o u rge ois g o ve rn m e nt.. issue of stocks.. p.. pp. L .uuily.prolit fro m th e floating of companies. . 9. 4.occupy ing a w ro n g p osition. See also ImperiaUi/in. S . T h e “ m eth o d oi socialist revolution u n d e r th e slogan o! “ dow n w ith fro ntiers ” is a h o d re nodrre. . o:i course. 49. state loans. th e m e r g in g or coalescing of b a n k in g w ith in d u s try . L .Finance capital.. tig h te n s th e g rip of the financial oligarchies. p. p. 36.I-'I .. L . . . is th e m o st j. T h e state may. w hile we w a n t Soviets.i. consequently. . p. u i t u l fac to r in th e cLr-i 1j uggle oi m i». W . F atherland T h e fa th e rla n d . i iietariat. F in a n c e C apital * T h e con ce n tratio n of p r o d u c t io n .. B u t even Soviets are c o n fro n te d w ith th e q uestio n of frontiers.i p o sitio n w hich diiTers in no w ay fro m u n p rin c ip le d dem agogy. W . IS.-to .. 44. Frcmriers T h e m e th o d of acco m p lish in g a socialist rev olutio n u n d e r the slogan “ d ow n w ith fro ntiers ” is utterly ab su rd .W . the political. p. 327-328. L . p. co nce ntrated in a few h a n d s a n d exercising a v ir tu a l monopoly'. 42. this is th e histo ry of finance capital and w h a t gives th e te rm “ finance capital ” its content. S. a n d not. B u t it is in terested in th e destin y of its c o u n tr y only in so far as it affects its class stru g g le. .T h e pi nli i iriat c a n n o t tr e a t tin p «liticai. S . actu allv S.. W . W e m a in ta in th a t th e state is necessary an d th e existence of a state p re -su p p o se s frontiers. by v irtu e of som e b ourgeois “ p atrio tism ” w h ich so u n d s altogether in d e c e n t on th e lips of a S o c ia l-D em o c ra t.. S. a n d levies trib u te u p o n the w ho le of society fo r the benefit of th e m onopolists. 5. i . 309.. it c a n n o t rem a in in d ifferen t to the destiny of its cou ntry . . L .. .

w h a t h e t h in k s oi: h i m s e l f . th is co n scio u sn ess m u st b e explained n n th e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f m a t e r ia l life. th e fe u d al. IB. s t a g e oli th e ir d e v e l o p m e n t .r s o cia l i ■ oìutiom W i t h t h è c h a n g e o f thè oi u it n i d a t i o n t h e u ir e i$ m o r e <j k i i h y t. he sum. in g e n e ra l. to tal o f t h e s e r e l a t io n s o f ¡juhHh imi c o m 1 rie rai s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y . j u s t as o u r o p i n i o n o f an in d i v i d u a l is n o i b a s e d or?.. fig ht it o u t . Thou b e g i n s a n e n o c h o.j u s a b l e 1 I of th e ir will. A . th eir s o c ia l b e i n g th at consciou sn ess.ÏV ... In b r o a d o u t l i n e s w e c an d e s i g n a t e t h e A s i a tic . id e o lo g ic a ! to. t h e a n c ie n t ...th e r ea l f o u n d a t i o n . p. ¡od t. on i ite a n d p oli ti c al s u p e r s t r u c t u r e a n d to whie. 22-23. f r o m t h e e x i s t i n g l u ' i l l m b e t w e e n th e so cial f o r c e s o f p r o d u c t i o n a nd t h e r e l a tio n s o t p r o d u c t i o n . h u t. . s o c a n w e m.I l i s t o r i cîi! M o i c r lx H t m i (U a! Is In th e preface tu lus C otiinh iU ion :lo the L E c o n o m y ..1 fo r m u la tio n < i ■principles of m a terialism u u n d e d to h u rr history. I ti i sts— h av e ass o me centrateci b a n k in g capital ha L . L .Spdper i a l i s m Im perialism . t h e s e r e l a t io n s o f pi o h m o i c o rr i I t ite s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f th eir m i t ¡ u l fo r c e s [ i . w h i c h can h e d e t e r m i n e d iv it h t h e pre. M a r x gives an ur'. L pp. i n t o fett er s. r e l ig io u s .h f o r m s o f s o c ia l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e m o d e o f pl if e d e t e r m i n e s t h e s ocial . r:h in .mas in w h i c h m e n b e c o m e c o n s c i o u s o f t h is c o n f li c t and. L . ae sth e ti oli­ t. o n th e c o n tr a r y . p oli ti c al a nd intel.. . o d thè legn i p o li tic a l. I t is n o t t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f m e n th a t i i b e i n g .” S . or th e epoch ( f d ev elo p m en t of iio nopolis t assoc.. . . of capiti :isive iiripr : fused wii L . 11. a n d t h e m o d e r n b o u r g e o i s m o d e s o f p r o d u c t i o n as so m a n y e p o c h s in t h e p r o g r es s o f t h e e c o n o m i c f o r m a t i o n of societv. thè m a t e r ia l f o r c e s o f n s o c i e t y c o m e in con file t w i t h th è e x i s t i n g rei a tio n s 0 or — w h a t is b u t a lega! e x p r e s s io n fo r t h e s a m e h e p r o p e r i y r e l a tio n s w ir hin w h i c h t h e y h a v e b e e n a' k r o m fo rm a o f d e v e ì o p m e n l o f Hie f o r c e s o f _pn> 1 r e l a tio n s turn.. .-Is nihe ash . o f s u c h a p e r io d o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n by its o w n c o n s c io ' n t h e c on tr ar y.> ! finance < capitalist i . in 1 :1 1e follow ing \ v u "‘ I n t h e s o cia l p r o d u c t i o n \ bn h m e n c :er in t o d e fin ite r e l a t io n s th a t arc tndi-..ransformech s fo rm a L'inns i d o n io \ s h o u l d always ■ erm i tr a n s h i hi i o i t h e e c o n o m ic c II I 1 ) :i.

(4) T h e fo rm a tio n of in te rn a tio n a l c a p ita list rnon. V I L . w h ic h b \ beco m e extremely im p o rta n t. T h a t is th e second point. S J V . (2) T h e m e r g in g of b a n k capital w ith in d u s tria l capital. Cartels becom e one of th e fo u n d a tio n s of th e w hole of econom ic life. m ous riiiliy if the p . T h e y are still a tr a n s ito ry p h e n o m e n o n . Insurrection. L . m o no p o ly is in th e barely discernible. IS. (3) T h e ex p o rt ol capital. m u s t rely upon th e re v o lu tio n a n spirit o f th e people. an d th e creation. L . 5. S . b u t u p o n th e ad v a n c e d class. th e ap ex o f d e v e lo p m en t of free c o m p etitio n . a p arty. must rely u po n th e crucial m o m e n t in th e h isto ry of the growing L . th e w hole w o rld has b een d iv id ed u: a m o n g th e ric h e r co u n tries. as distin gu ish ed fr o m the i . (2) A fte r th e crisis o f 1873. crisis of 1900-3. C ap ita lism has been t r a n s fo r m e d into im perialism. S t a g e s i n D ev elo pm ent .-—T h e p rin c ip a l stages in the histo ry of m o n o p o lies are th e follow ing: (1) 1860-70.. p. 8 b In s u rre c tio n T o be successful. 114.ies w h ich sh are th e w o rld am o ng them selves. L . . 6. T h e y are n o t yet du rab le. p.L . b u t th e y are still th e exception.. W . . on th e basis of “ finance capital. 22. Insurrection. _______ ___ . T h a t is th e first po in t. in s u rre c tio n m u s t rely n o t u p o n co n sp iracy and n o t upon. „sonom ic life. th e h ig h e st stage. IS. 81. P .opol.ex p o rt of capital to foreign co un tries h a s assum ' dim ensio ns.c u of comm odities. p. (5) T h e te rrito ria l division of th e w hole w orld a m o n g the g reat capitalist pow ers is completed. a w ide z o n e of d ev elo p m en t of cartels.” of a financial oligarch}'. and the eco n o m ic parti w orld a m o n g 'in te rn a tio n a l tr u s ts has begun. S W .. S. T h e c on cen tration of p ro d u c tio n an d 1 It ¡ill l a stage th a t it creates m o nopolies w hich . e m h ry o n ic stag e. (3) T h e b o o m a t th e end of the n in e te e n th cen tu ry an d the.

.a b ly d oom ed if th e peasants do no t th ro w off the d o m in a tio n o f ihe kulaks. a nd has begun to effecl th e d ic tato rsh ip ol th i( n u n s ol econd the soil i t in a il 'it i d >i is In ii i it. 31.revolution. the. iave raked ir... . 7 il . 137. they a re once m ore e nslaving th i t r peasants. . same. T h e experience o f every re v o lu tio n th a t h a s h ith e rto o ccu rred m . E x p lo ite rs and profiteers. 162. i i'iiia fc s R ich peasants. 8.I F '18.. w id esp rea d m ii . A nd th es e th r e e fa c to rs in th e a ttitu d e to w a rd s in su rre c tio n d istin g u ish e d M a r x is m from liSlanquism.number of countries. h a lf-h e a rte d . T h e T h i r d (C o m m u n ist) I n t e rn a t io n a l (Mar> ii j l< i th e fru its ot the w o rk of the S econ d Intenvati t i i its o p p o rtu n ist. often he does n o t w a n t that. bourgeois and jv dross.. W . w h en the activ ity ol the ad v a n c e d ran ks ni th e people is at its height. w h o used th e ir su rp iu lain. . m ass. L eader A political le a d e r is n o t only responsible fo r the b u t also for w h a t is d o n e b y th ose h e leads. i. social-chauvinist. . .S' P a> f e leads m e i e does to |> insihle •' i 19.. in te rn a tio n a l strug gle f o r Socialisn I n te rn a tio n a l (1..889-191.. p ro fiteers in grain .. i 30. an d w hen vacillations in th e ranks of th e enemies an d in th e ra n k s of th e weak. p. I n te r n a tio n a l T h e h i r s t in t e r n a t io n a l (1864-1872) laid the foi m th e prole taria n.iiurope offers strik in g c o rro b o ratio n o f the fact th a t re v o lu ­ tio n . th o u s a n d s an d h u n d re d s of roubles by sere 3 th e price of g ra in a n d o th er p ro d u c ts • . .. S o n s I n ot know that.4) m a r k e d th e epoch in \ u w as p rep ared fo r a bro ad. S . g a th e rin g th I ded estates into th e i r h a n d s. S . a n d irresolute fr ie n d s o f the re vo lu tio n are strongest? T h a t is th e th ird point. bill h i ail. to e n ric h th em selv es a t the exp en se o f th e sta rv in g noi a> t n n'lturai p arts of Russia. SW .

. . o f la b o u r has ta ken place d e te r ­ m ines th e h e ig h t of its d ev elo p m en t. . . th o u s a n d n o n . is not 23 . revolution. . . pp. “ masses ” changes in accordance w ith th e ch an g es in th e c h a ra c te r of t h e stru g g le . 1. . several th o u s a n d w o rk e rs can no lo n g er lie called masses. . W h e n the revolution has been sufficiently p re p a re d . 286-287. .n ial. . “ masses ” acquires a. n o t m erely th e m a jo rity of th e workers. . it g ra d u a lly grow s into a real. B a t in o rd e r to achieve victory you m u s t hav ‘ m p ath y of th e m asses. revoke tio n a ry m a n n e r. but in -order to achieve v icto ry . n arro w limits of previrfns econom ic units. W . b u t th e m a jo rity of all th e ex p lo ited . A n a b so lu te m a jo rity is n o t alw aj « •i ■ . P. . 376. 224-225. of a foreign m a rk e t is e x p la in ed .M arket : (hom e) 'The home m a rk et appears when com m o dity j¡rodi/etion app ears: it is crea ted by th e d ev elo p m e n t of c o m m o d ity p r o d u c tio n : a n d the degree to w h ic h social division. . in o rd e r to retain j . . pp.1 th e P a r t y succeeds in en listin g o th e rs besides its ow n m em b ers fo r th e stru g g le. about. .) 'The fa ct t h a t capitalism sta n d s in need. the sam e process of p ro d u c t io n in th e sam e m a g n i tu d e in u n c h a n g e d cond ition s (as was th e case u n d e r the pre-cap italist system).Pari' \ > \ >J u su a lly have a h u m d ru m life an d eke o u t a m isei tl>l tin w h o h a v e n e v er heard. T h e n . 1 .” S . n o t b y th e im p o ssib ility of realisin g th e p r o d u c t on th e h o m e m ark et. a n d t h a t it inevitably leads to the u n lim ite d g ro w th of p ro d u c tio n w h ich overflows th e old. i f the m o v em en t sp re a d s a n d becom es stron ger. it is th e b eg in n in g of th e process of '. M a r k e t : (fo reig n . b u t b y th e fact th a t cap ita lism is u n a b le to re p e a t one and. 1.iutiiin_ 1 1 m asses. 10. S J F . th e term. d iffe re n t meaning. M asses “ 'I'he m e a n in g ot the term. T h e degree of d ev e lo p m en t in th e home m a r k e t is th e degree of developm ent: ril capitalism in th e country. if it succeeds in ro u s in g n o n -P a r ty w o rk ers as w ell. politics. . begin to act m a. T h e term masses th e n m ean s th e m a jo rity . y ou have masses b e t ore y e n . W h en several.

L . 98. p...W .. S .. to h av e th e m a jo rity o f the w o rk in g class. exploit th e la b o u r of o th ers. 10. I t was irona the R i g h t w in g of th e P a rty t h a t the m in o rity (the M en sh ev ik s) was fo rm ed.. m e a n in g th e in d u s trial p ro letariat— b u t also th e m ajo rity or the ex p lo ited an d th e to iling rural p o p u la tio n . w h o does n o t in an y the fru its of th e la b o u r of lives by his own la b o u r ..L . 40. T h e d a n g e r is w h e n one persists in o n e ’s mistake. t h e p a p e r e d it e d b y L e n i n to o r g a n is e a r e v o l u t i o n a r y P a r t y of t h e w o r k i n g class..o n ly necessary. 1903) fri. to analyse the cond itio ns w h ic h gave rise to it. -these are the signs of a serious part)''.. to disclose its reasons. T h e figh ting p a rty of th e ad v a n c e d class is n ot afraid of mistakes. M en sliev ssm M en sh ev ism w as fo r m e d a t th e .. pp.' S .at the m in o rity w as c o m p o sed o f tho se m e m b e r s of our P a rty w h o are th e m o s t in clin ed to w a rd s o p p o rtu n ism . 2. b u t w h o him self w orks a n d M istak es T o a d m it a m istake openly.. ' I / h r n ( t h e S p n r k ) ... this m eans e ducation a n d tr a in in g th e class. w hen false p rid e p rev en ts recognition of o n e ’s mistake a n d its correction. T ise M id d le P e a s a n t . p. W . 16. an d th en the masses. o th ers. this m e a n s th e p e rf o rm a n c e of its duties. 230. 188. p. linorhy of the Isk ra -ists (h en ce th e n a m e M e n sh e v ism ) a n d fro m all th e o p p o rtu n is t o p p o n e n ts of lskra/"‘ I t is the u n q u e s tio n a b le an d u n co ntro vertibli '. Is a p e a s a n t w h o does n o t w h o do es n o t live o n th e la b o u r of shape. p. 10. L . S .E uropean sense. W . o r fo r m take ad v a n ta g e of others.. T h e ts t h a t co m p rised th e m in o rity w ere th ose t h a t w ere a d y in theory. 424. to stu d y a tte n tiv e ly th e m ea n s of co rrectin g it-. . .-i use th e te r m “ w o rk in g c l a s s ” h ere in th e W e s t .Second Cc o f the R u ssia n Social D em o c ra tic P a r t y (A ugust.. least stable in m a tters of principle. 8.. 287-288. s tr iv in g 24 . S . W .

21. to m in o r questio ns of local g o v e rn m en t. T h e economic basis . i.” it will p re v e n t us Irom re p e a tin g th ese m istakes in th e future.W h a t is said of individuals is applicable ---wi. p. petty activities. th e m o st categorical fashion b y th e central g o v e rn m e n t of th e bo u rg eo is state.L . T h e r e are n o sucli men. S'. W h o ­ ev e r is aira id of talk in g o penly a b o u t mistakes is n o t a revo lu ­ tionary. w h ich are inevitable at first.say to th e workers. p. separate “ t r e n d ” precisely because it d rea m s o f social peace a n d class conciliation. L . A n y a tte m p t on th e p a r t of socialist m u n ic i­ p alities to go a little b ey on d th e b o u n d a rie s of th e ir n o rm a l. p. no r can th e r e be. however.IV. If. " Yes.of these m o v em en ts is t h a t in o rder to achieve com plete v icto ry fo r c o m m o d ity p ro d u c tio n the 25 . W e m u s t n o t conceal o u r mistakes fr o m th e enem y. 74.L . . S . 16. . has co n v erted m u n icip al socialism into a. N a tio n a l M ov em en ts T h ro u g h o u t th e w orld. w h e re th e re p re se n ta tiv e s of th e b o u rg eo isie exercise influence over th e w o rk e rs. modifications— to politics and parties? It is n o t th e one w ho m akes n o mistakes w ho is wise.IV . C o m m u n is ts m u s t n o t stew in th e ir o w n juice. p. M u n ic ip a 1i s a t i on “ T h e bourgeois intelligentsia of th e W e st. R W . a n y a tt e m p t to touch.th n ecessar. 3. 288. capital. b u t iearn how to p e n e tr a te in to p ro h ib ite d prem ises. p. 10. w e openly. th e perio d o f th e final victor)' of c ap ita lism over fe u d a lism w as linked rip w ith natio n al m o v e ­ ments. 10. an d wishes to deflect th e atte ntio n of th e people from th e fu n d a m e n ta l q u estio ns o f the economic system as a w hole a n d o f t h e w h o le state system. 10. like th e E n g lish F ab ians. we hav e m a d e mistakes. 27. a n d in this the}’ m u s t n o t h esitate to m ake certain sacrifices and n o t be a fra id to m a k e mistakes.. I f ’. H e is wise w h o m ake s n o t v e ry im p o rta n t m istakes an d know s how to rectify th em early an d quickly. in every new and difficult 'undertaking. S. w h ic h give no su bstan tial relief to th e workers.e. is inv ariab ly a n d ab so lu tely v eto ed in. 304.

. ' . n S .. as is well k n o w n . S J r . com m on w ith so cialism . m “ T o the e x te n t t h a t th e bourgeoisie.'-i"ini'>ge a n d u n im p e d e d dt i 'opi th e m o st im p o rt m i i ' m ons of a ‘ g enuinely 11>< m ve co m m ercial tu u im .isie m u s t cap tu re th e ho m e m arket. free co m petition in agriculture . I. L a n g u a g e is the m ost im p o r t a n t -tic'i n 1 . u n d e r which. s ol o ppios-ion. 208.. of a free and hi m i agiing of th e p o p u la tio n in ail th e ir s ep arate classes. Socialism. W . T J 7 ’. to th at extent. nn ¡t ine abolition o f co m m od ity p r o d u c t i on . I i u er. 1» c. to r n o d n i i g . h i . self i i .of h u m an in terc o u rse. ire a c ondition for the close co nnection betw een thi n i ^ an d each a n d every p ro p r ie to r an d p e tt y p ro p rieto r. N atio n a lis a tio n of th e land .11 obstacles to the d ev elo pm en t ol this lang uag e and !6 its consolidation in lite ra tu re are rem oved. n. hn ill th. as it were. or even w ith th e i.1k o p m t ^ I n ition n u iu is loi its own bou rgeo is na tion alism we a n ig m . la n d lo rd ism w ith o u t th e lan dlord . :quirem en ts of m o d e r n c a p italism are b e st satisfied is -e. T h e possibilities of free in v e s tm en t of capital in land. i a c spondirig. obstacle to the in v es tm en t of capital on lan d.. and m o re resolutely th a n am inr for it. P riv a te p r o p e r ty in la n d is an. of the op nation struggles again st th e o p p res sin g one. is. T h e r e is n o th in g m o re e rron eou s th a n the opinion t h a t th e n ationalisation of the laud i som eth ing in. always in t • i rv case. . T h e abolition of priv ate p ro p e r ty in lan d does n o t b y any m ean s c h a n g e th e b o u rg e o is f o u n d a tio n s of co m m ercial a n d capitalist a g ric u ltu re . T h e form a tion of N a tio n a l states. u n u " < > .SYH 250. rn iicaliv it i territories with a p o p u la tio n speaking guage. 1. p. . In so fa r as the b ourgeoisie of 1.reater u n d e r th e sy stem of fre e re n tin g t h a n u n d e r th irivate p ro p e r ty in land. . 211. . 4. . 266. N a tio n a lis a tio n of L and p . | l 1 lig h t to the use of th e land. th e te n d e n c v of every natio nal movem ent.i’i'-e wc are the s t a u n c h e st an d m o s t copm'-u it „ i mi.

S. 203. 2/ . or in oilier w o rds the alliance of a sectio n of the w orkers w ith the bourgeoisie against th e mass of the p ro letariat. 39. i fully study. . O p p o rtu n is ts alw ays and ev ery w h ere passively a b a n d o n th e m ­ selves to th e stream . It is also a collective o rg an iser. . 'O p p o r t u n i s m in th e u pp er rank s of the w orking-class m o v e ­ m e n t is n o t p ro letarian socialism . p. w hich un ites millions of toilers in the a rm y of thi g class. T h e role of a p a p e r is n ot confined solely to th e s p r e a d in g of ideas. IF. S. oirw th an the bourgeoisie itself. ‘ ' S. A p a p e r is n o t m erely a collective p ro p a g a n d ist and collective agitator. to political ed u catio n . 74. and to a ttra c tin g political allies.L . p. 4. n i k o s . p. 2.L . IV. L . P arty M em b ers O n ly th ose w ho • . S. 466. the p ro le ta r ia t can become.IV . 4. O p p o r tu n i s m m eans sacrificing 1u m lam en tal interests in o rder to g ain tem p o rary and partial advantages. 8. .ff'. an d will in e v ita b ly becom e ■ in ineible force only w hen its ideological u n ity ro u n d th e p m iks of M a rx ism is consolidated b y the m aterial u n ity of in i iisation. the bourgeoisie could no t have rem ain ed in power. 1%. -. p. p. b u t b ourgeois socialism .281. 21. p o n d e r over an d i n d e ­ p e n d en tly solve the | a o n 1 -rns an d d e s t in y o f th e ir Party d eserve to he called P a rty u „ ». 5. S J V .O p p o rtu n ism O p p o rtu n is m is th e sacrijice of the f u n d a m e n ta l interests ol th e masses to the tem p ora ry interests oi an insignificent m ino rity of the w orkers. p. p. S J f . p.S'. 2. 10. O rg a n iz a tio n in th e stru g g le lo r p o w er th e p ro le ta ria t has no o th e r w eap o n b u t organisation. ■ > rs an d bu ild ers o f th e w o rk e rs’ P arty . 2. Practice h a s show n th a t the active people in th e w orking -class m o v e m e n t w ho a d h e ic to the o p p o rtu n is t t r e n d are b e tte r d efen d ers of th e bourg. IF. . 134. W ith o u t th eir le a d e rsh ip of the \ .

121. 3. W o rk in g -c la ss consciousness c a n n o t be g e n u in ely p o litical consciousness un less the w orkers are tra in e d to re s p o n d to all cases o f ty r a n n y . Class political consciousness can be brought to th e w ork ers o n ly from w ith o u t . t h a t is only outside of th e eeo Tuggle.1 ¡plovers. L .. 4. outside of the sphere of relations betw een workers m ‘ .. 2. W . 5 .L. p. P o litical C o n scio u sn ess L. T o b r i n g poli. L . * < /■ . 68.” n o t in o r d e r th a t th e ad v an ce d class m a y b ecom e >i II u u re d . . / . bin i <id e r th a t th e advanced class. B u t it d iv id es th e “ p eo p le ” asses.i 124. . .o f the people. S . 88. 2.. b u t will earnestly „ J a i d nnd the tr u th . cause of the w h o le . m u s t disp atch u n its o f the in all directions. l 1 ! I 1 ¡wledge to the w orkers th e Social D e m o c ra ts m u s t go an w < I classes of th e -population.” Jt d e m a n d s th a t this w o rd sh all not: be u sed to cov fa ilu re to u n d e r s ta n d tiie significance of class an tag o n ism s I ib o lutely insists on th e n eed f o r complete class i n d e p e n d e n t' I i 11 e part}' of th e p ro le ta ria t. c o n t r o v e r s y ) A w o rk er w h o w ishes to decide i n d e p e n d e i i l tin destinies of his P a rty will n o t waive polem ics even if ihi'. w h ic h does n o t suffer fr o m tin lull I. a t t h e h e a d of th e v :>ple. 98. . p. .. vacillation a n d indecision of th e . p. 76. shall w ith all th e g re a te r en erg y a n d e n th u siasm ' fight t it. „1 imt qu ite intelligible at first sight. no m a tte r •what class is affected. P .cartedness.. S . .e. p. violence and ab u se.L . W . L 1 .P o l e m i c s {i. 5.'t I „ 94. o r confine itse lf to n a rro w aim s a n d re stric t its acti j » s as n o t to frig h te n th e economic m a sters of th e w o rld . o p p re ssio n .intermedia! t ^ t. .The P eo p le ” S o cial D em o cracy lias ju stly fo u g h t a n d c o n * '" ” -'" ‘ i fig h t again st th e b o u rg e o is-d e m o c ra tic abuse of th e w o t le.IT . T h e sp h ere fro m w hich alone it is possibli tin this know ledge is the sp h e re of relationships betw in ill classes a n d the state a n d th e governm ent— th e sphere ¡ 1 in : in t e r ­ re lations betw een all classes.

. W . .aim ... T h e re is n o o ther m eans an d th ere c a n he no o th er m e a n s oi: fighting po verty excep t th e unification of th e w o rk ers.. p.. P ro d u c tiv e F o rc e s : ( th e G o ld e n A g e ) T h e sto ry t h a t p rim itiv e m a n o b ta in e d all his re q u ire m e n ts as a free gift of n a tu r e is a silly fa b le t h a t w o u ld call fo r th jeers and ridicule even fr o m first y ear stud en ts..o f state.. 250. 2. p. S u ch are th e principles oi C o m m u n ism ... 280. 10.” S J F . il '. o call anv m e etin g s th e \ pli . and th e p ro d u c tio n o' mi .. b u t n ot its . to influence th e a d m in is tra tio n oi the state. _ P o litie s ! S tru g g le W h a t do we m ean w h en we say th a t th e struggle of the w o rk in g class is a political s tru g g le ? W e m e an th a t th e w o rk ers ca n n o t w age th e stru g g le fo r th eir e m a n c ip a tio n w ith o u t striving to in flu en ce affairs o f state. a n d p rim itiv e m a n w as ab so lu tely cru sh ed by th e b u r d e n o f existence... . b y th e difficulties o f fighting arei. 246. p. i ' o b u il lib erty m e an s th e rig h t of th e people to choose their n n ( i m i . 2. p. 1.IV .. . 1 1 m a n ’s fig 1st 111 1 generally.” S J F . B u t millions of people cann ot unite unless th e re is political liberty..inst n a tu re .. S . T h e principles of C o m m u n is m are th e estab lish­ m e n t of th e d ictato rsh ip o f th e p ro le ta ria t an d th e em p lo y m e n t of s ta te coercion in th e tra n s itio n p e rio d . n o t tactics and n ot theory... to th e s ta te . 490.. the passing of laws.1 for the d iscussion n ill ( k ui'. O u r age w as not preced ed by a G o ld en A ge.! in p a rt I it hi ! i become m o re difficult to p i t d m t io o d. S . P rin cip les “ P rincip les are n o t an aim. n o t a p ro g ra m m e . it h i ne m ore difficult for the w orkers to obtain it because capitalist . to p u b lis h v b a t * ' 1 p ap ers a n d books they [i1 ! i itliont h a v in g to ask p u m ^ i • i.P o litic a l L ib e riy :al liberty' m eans th e free d o m oi th e people to settle 1 ji ie la tin g ' to th e p eo p le as a w hole. T h e in tro d u c tio n of m a c h in e ry a n d im p ro v e d n i l 's of pro duction im m easurably .

m o d e r n society. n. have so u n d e d an d r e s o u n d e d all over th e w o rld . d ealing w ith. 55. . the o th er sections of the “ toiling and exploited m ass ” (i. th e y are rev o lu tio n a ry “ only in view of their im p e n d ­ ing tr a n s f e r in to th e p ro le ta ria t . are called -proletarians. 250. i: P ro leta rian s of all countries. w ho w o rk fo r o th e r people. th ey desert their own s t a n d p o in t to place th em selves a t th a t o f th e proletariat. . S .” so m a m indeed t h a t they will be u n d e rs to o d as a w hole . m u s t describ e how p re s e n t society m u s t inevitab ly beco m e tr a n sfo r m e d into socialist society. P r o le t a r ia t T h ro u g h o u t th e w h o le o f E u ro p e . .. 12." the first call was s o u n d e d for th e w o rk in g people to unite." (C om m unist.only by a (co m ­ parativ ely ) few persons. iS'J-f . .e. . etc. he m u s t p re s e n t “ m a n y id eas. m u s t explain t h e capitalistic n a tu r e of crises. we accuse capitalism of b e in g th e cause o f the po verty of th e masses fand no t of the w ork ing class alone). 2. u n ite ! ” D u rin g the p a s t 50 y ears th ese words. M a n ife sto ). A or. . for wages all th e ir lives. mainly the sm all p ro du cers) are only partly re v o lu tio n a ry in th e ir stra g g le against the bou rg o isic. p. the reasons w hy crises are inevitable in. . .inflated g r o u n d . P r o p a g a n d a a n d A g it a t i o n A p ro p a g a n d ist.in the hands capitalists. p. and. however. the qu estion of u n em p lo y m en t.d ev elo p m e n t has . T h e p ro le ta r ia t re p re se n ts the whole at the toiling a n d exploited m ass . T o explain th e fa c t th a t th w o rk ers h ave b ecom e w orse by the arg n n ceased to sho w er her g ifts implies th a t one has becom c a. b o u r geo ise apo 1 o s ist . co n c en tra ted m ach in crv . . w ith o u t w h ic h successful p ro d u c tio n is impossible. . ' A p a r t fr o m the pro leta riat. 232. say. im plem en ts a n d m oney. i t '. to a still la rg e r extent. S i l ' . w orkers w h o ow n n o land and n o w o rk sh o p s.r e n t anc co n cen trated a g ricu ltu re . O ver 50 years a g o .2. sp eak in g on the sam e su b ject will take as Btration a fact th a t is m o st . I n a w o rd . Tobe precise.

changes th a t are. m e a n s t h a t people confine t h e m ­ selves to agitation fo r chan ges w h ic h d o n o t req u ire th e rem oval of th e m ain fo u n d a tio n s of th e old ru lin g class.” i. T n t of th e state. p > I L . 11. E v e ry b o d y m u s t b e ab so lu tely free to profess an y religion lie pleases o r n ot to believe in any religion at all. R e fo rm ism R efo rm ism .fF. Halo. w h ic h m u s t become associations ab solu tely free an d i n d r p r r . p ri v a te affair so lar as o ur o n b aity is concerned. w hy do we n o t d e cla re in ou r p r o g r a m m e th a t we arc atheists? W h y do we not refuse C h ris tia n s a n d th ose w ho believe in C o d .n g word. i i idea of ih m a less con trad iction betw een th e increase t l \ i a h h and im n t ol’ n o v i. say.tlaii is far as th e state is ooj. the scientific sense o! the w ord. 31 . If | sentin g a sin gle idea to t h e “ masses. /w ild 5. 65. p. adm ission to o u r P a r t y i . . 4.|Mf. com p atib le w ith the presc.d.L . and ulih u . ami has aroused no sy m p ath y a m o n g the masses. T h e re m u s t be absolute!)' no su b sid ies to a state c h u rc h . . an d leave a more oni] 1 ti c [i| m m on I I ms co n trad ictio n to die p ro p a g a n d is e 1 i i viqui. 86.i w cl: th e a. L . 4.cl. im poverishm ent. n dist operates <L i ¡1 by m ean s o' the i n i . no g ra n ts of g o v e rn ­ m e n t f u n d s to ch u rch and religious societies. 5 2. p. L . w ill d irect 1 In eflo.r . the death from starvation o) th e fam ily ol an u nem p lo y ed worker. which is k n o w n to all a n d sundry. . 7. b u t u n d e r n o circn n v i on i > can we regard religion as a.. .i fie. .nii'v. p. ¡his fael. as every socialist usually is.r-valimi of these fo u nd atio ns. 2. may he em plo yed only w h e n th e a tte m p t at insurrection has revealed n o th in g b u t a circle of c on sp ira to rs or stu p id m aniacs. associations of citizen s h o ld in g the sum. operates w ith die l. I f t h a t is so. . the growing. S M . in general. etc. a m o ng his audience. p. H r pi . th a t is to be an atheist.r iv he will strive to rouse discontent and in d ig natio n im j 11 iiu in i i ijainsl: this crying injustice. K> !> i it P li m i sh o u ld be a p riv a te . i h s s i r . P u ts c h T h e term ‘L pu tsch ” in. .S.it. 145. . 303.e.widely know n a n d outstanding. L . . . p.

n. S . Proletariat. . they a re rev o lu tio n a ry “ only m v iew o upend­ ing tr a n s fe r in to th e p ro le ta r ia t . the o th e r sections toiling an d exploited m ass ” (i. 2. co n cen trated ag ric u ltu re in th e h a n d s of large an d sm all capitalists. dealin g w ith. s sam e su b je ct will take as an illustration a fact rh n i o. . J r . . and . how ev er. 250. th ey de ir ow n sta n d p o in t to place th em selv es at th a t of if: tarial.ist Wriiten by Lenin in 1903. .I P ropaganda a n d A g ita tion A p ro p a g a n d ist. c o n c e n tra te d m achinery. ’ i merit. W . p re s e n t “ m a n y ideas in d eed th a t th ey will b e u n d e rs to o d as a w h o le onb > i >’> i p arativ ely ) few persons. w ith o u t w h ic h successful p ro d u c tio n is im possible. 55. etc. v.* th e first call w as s o u n d e d fo r th e w o rk in g people to u n ite . . T o he precise. T o exp lain th e fa c t t h a t the c on ditions oi th e w o rk ers have become w orse b y the a rg u m e n t th a t n a tu re h ceased to sh o w er her gifts im p lies th a t one has becom e a b o u r £re o is e a p o 1o t?is t:. .r e n t and the price oi land." ( C o m m u n i s t M a n ife s to ). T h e p ro le ta r ia t rep re se nts the w hole o f th e toilin g a n d exploited m ass .dev elo pm en t bus inflated g r o u n d . I n a w o rd .e. . a re called proletarians. T h r o u g h o u t th e w h o le of E u ro p e . O v e r SO y e a rs ago. im p lem en ts an d money. A p a r t fro m th e proletariat. say. m ain ly th e sm all p ro d re onlv partly re v o lu tio n a ry in th e i r stru gg le again st th e bourgoisie. f w hy crises are in ev itab le in m o d e rn society. referring to the C ou w mnis -i M<i> 4$. “ P ro letarian s of all countries. to a still larg er extent. accuse capitalism of bein g the cause of the po v erty of t > s ('and not o f th e w o rk in g class alone). m u s t de p re se n t society m u s t in e v itab ly becom e tr a n s fo r m e d ir society. A n agitator. 12. S . .. . ■ ' S . the q u estio n of e i t i. w h o w o rk fo r o th e r peo ple for wages all their lives. h e must. m u s t explain th e capitalistic n a tu re of crises. 30 . unite! ” D u rin g th e p a st 50 years these w o rd s have so u n d ed and res o u n d e d all over th e w orld . w o rk ers w ho ow n no lan d and no w o rk sh op s.

p. th e agitator operates will m g w o rd. . 303. . T h e r e m u s t be absolutely no subsidies.widely know n a nd o u ts ta n d in g a m o n g is is a u d ien c e.. m eans th a t p e o p le confine th e m ­ selves to ag itation fo r changes w h ich do' n o t re q u ire t h e removal of the m ain fo u n d a tio n s of t h e old ru lin g class. 4. 80. P u ts c h T h e term “ p u ts c h ” in th e scientific sense of th e w o rd . . . R efo rm ism R eform ism . S.W . . to a state ch u rch . S J V . as every socialist usually' is. p. may he em p loy ed on ly w h e n th e a tte m p t at. le pro p ag an d ist. 65. p. i f t h a t is so. . p. s ik 11. the death from sta rv a tio n o! th e lavnily o( an u n em p lo y e d worker.L . 659. insu rre ctio n has revealed nothing. say. w h y do we n o t d ecla re in ou r p ro g ra m m e th a t we are atheists? W h y do w e not. 4. he will strive to rouse d isc on tent and in d ign ation a m o n g th e masses against this crying injustice. p. Consequently'. t h e p ro p a g a n d ist operates i i b y m ea ns of the p rin ted w o rd . in general. 5. w hich is k n o w n to all a n d s u n d ry . L . L . 7. a n d leave a more complete ex plan atio n of this contradict. a n d u tilisin g this fact.” i. S . b u t u n d e r no circum stances a m we regard religion as a private aifair so Ja r as our own . L .e. L . ch an g es th a t are com p a tib le w ith the preservation of these fo u n d a tio n s. 145. adm issio n to o u r P arty ? . E v e ry b o d y m u s t be ab so lu te ly free to profess any religion he pleases o r n o t to believe in any religion ai: all. . 2. etc. b u t a circle of co n sp ira to rs or stu p id maniacs. . refu se C h ris tia n s an d th o se w ho believe in C o d .. the idea of the sen se­ less co n tra d ic tio n b etw een th e in crease of w ealth and increase ol po verty . p.Party is concerned. the g ro w in g im p o v erish m en t. will d ir e c t all his efforts to p r e ­ s e n tin g a single idea to th e “ m asses. and lias aroused n o sym pathy' a m o n g the masses. 12. . th a t is to be an a th e ist.L . no g ran ts of g o v e rn ­ m e n t f u n d s to ch u rc h an d relig io n s societies..FF. w h ich m u s t becom e associations absolutely free an d i n d e p e n d e n t of th e state. R elig io n R eligion sh o u ld be a p riv a te affa ir as fa r as th e state is concerned. associations of citizens h o ld in g the sam e ideas.

pp. etc. P riv a te p ro p rnd does n o t create differential re n t. 926.. Til. . W . Capital.). . th e soil ow ned by h im in . 229. an d w orks d u r i n g the r e m a in in g days upon the estate o f th e feudal lord. R ent A b s o lu t e R e n t . w ith o u t a n y com pensation fro m the feudal lord. 14-15. 660-1. G round R e n t is t h a t p a r t of s u rp lu s v alu e w h ich re m ain s after th e average rate of profit on invested capital is deducted. 11. T h a t is w h y w e do n o t an d m u s t n o t p ro c la im o u r a th eism in o u r p ro g ra m m e : th a t is w h y w e d o n o t a n d must: n o t fo rb id p ro le ta ria n s w h o still c h e rish relics of the old su p e rstitio n s to ap p ro ach o u r Party. . L. . cattle. n of a paradise on earth is m o re im p o r t a n t to u s th a n u m iy of opinion am ong the p ro leta rian s about a paradise in heaven. S .Jr. S .Labour R e n t. 1 Is th e s u rp lu s profit over an the D i f p e r h n t ia l K e n t . U nity m b revolutionary stru gg le of the opp ressed class lor me i uii. n w o u ld be bo urgeois narrow -m indedness to forget that th e yoke of religion on m a n k i n d is on ly a product and u fl. — H a s n o c onnection w hatever with the d iffer­ ence in p ro d u c tiv ity o f different inv estm en ts o f • end . p. <tion o f th e econom ic yoke in society. W . pp.St w o u ld be absurd to th in k th a t in a society w hich is based on the endless o ppression a n d stultification of the work in/i class n 'eligious p re ju d ic es can h e dispelled me rely fry preaching. 7.fact.T h e d irect producer cultivates d u rin g a p a rt o f th e week..L.— norm al average profit o n capital. has its genesis in ik e fr iv a le o w n ersh ip o f lane. 12. w ith in s tr u m e n ts of la b o u r (plough. it m erely tran sfers it from th e hands of the farm er to the h a n d s of th e landow ner. 1. actually o r legally b elonging to him . 12. . s. . th e d a r k forces of capitalism . . S. p. p. p. S W . N o books o r serm ons t i l l »lig h ten th e proletariat if it is n o t e nligh tene d by LintsJe against.ir. . 68.* * Quoted 'by Lenin from 'Marx.L.. 38.

(the bourgeois form ) the form of S tate o rganisation in w h ich class relatio ns a p p e ar in th e ir m o s t 1 1n eo n ee a 1 ed for m . to th e land lo rd. 33 .e. Vol. 229. . 1. T h e re has n o t been and c a n n o t be a sin g le p reat revolution o therw ise. R e v o lu tio n T h e w o rk in g class is n o t severed by a C h in ese w all Irom the old b o urgeo is society. R en t i n K i n d . iSY/F. 11.— T h e d irect p ro d u c e r p ro d u c e s th e whole p r o d u c t on land w hich he h im self exploits a n d gives the l a n d ­ o w n er th e w hole of the su rp lu s in kind.11?. S u c h a person.M o n k y RoNT. W h e n th e old socie ies. it does not: h a p p e n as in th e case of th e death of an in d iv id u a l w h en th e deceased pe rs o n is sim ply rem oved. m e corpse rots a n d poisons us.— T h e d irec t p ro d u c e r no lo n g e r tu rn s o v er the p ro d u c t. th r o u g h w h ich th e d i s ­ co n ten t and in d ign ation of th e oppressed classes b u rs t fo rth. i. p.IV . w h ic h can culm inate only in the exp ro p riatio n of th e bourgeoisie. n o t one single battle on a single front. S. S . yo u ca n n o t nail the corpse of bourgeois society in to and low er it into the grave.IV. R evolu tio n a ry S itu ation (1) W hen. a m o n g the “ u p p e r classes. Axid w h e n a revolution takes place.e. It disintegrates in o u r m id st. T h e socialist revolution is n o t o ne single act. 8. S . iir one fo rm o r an oth er.. b u t a w h ole epoch of intensified class conflicts. 268. 303. 229. battles a ro u n d all th e p ro b lem s of econom ics a n d politics. a lo ng series of b a ttle s on all fronts.W . R e p u b lic T h e R epublic.” a crisis in the policy of the ru lin g class w h ic h causes fissures. 5.IV . . p. b u t its price.1. p. p. i. p ays lip service to rev o lu tio n w ith o u t u n d e rs ta n d in g what: revolution is. 50. B . p. 5. it is im possible fo r th e classes to m a in tain their ru le in a n u n c h a n g e d fo rm : w h en th e r e is a crisis. W h o ev er expects a 1 1 p u re ” social revolution will 'never live to see it. p.

this is exactly w h at th e struggle for th e riu lu < i selfd e term in a tio n m eans.L . I . a n d p arti wen of sep arate classes. sep aratio n of th ese natio ns fr o m o th er natio nal bodies.IV . 251. 8. it is n ecessary also th a t th e “ u p p e r classes sh o u ld be u n a b le ” to live in the old w ay. ■ul> u an d overcom e that. W i t h o u t these objective changes. 1 ? .iV. th e fo rm ation of an in d e p e n d e n t natio nal state. T h e p ro le ta ria t ca n n o t b u t lig ht against th e Io n . T h a t is an u n a v o id a b le evil. i. Ihey c on tinu ed to rep eat the slogans that: w ere io r n u iii hut 34 .L . evil. a i i*‘ th a t ‘‘ its ow n ” nation oppresses. a rev o lu tio n . 174. w h ich a inly in d e p e n d e n t of th e w ill of sep arate groups. p. (2) W h e n the w a n t an d suffering ol th e o ppressed classes have becom e m o re acute th a n usual. S e lf-d e te rm in a tio n of natio ns m eans th e political. . S e i f .of th e op pressed natio ns w ith in the b o u n d a rie s o] a < T e n state. S'. is » j s >ble. and.::i:b!. to retain its validity for i even w h e n th e con ditio ns w h ic h re nd ered t h a t slogi v u ■ > -u have changed. 5. b u t w ho in tnrbule.IV . . s:w. ( T V > hen. sh arp t u r n t h a t even th e m o s t ad v a n ce d of p arties has l h t > m ab le for a lo ng tim e to adapt. p. p.U sually . S .c r e t e n ­ tion .'’ quietly allow them selves to be rob b ed . as a general rule. as a co n seq u en ce of th e above causes. Slogans E v e ry slogan issu ed b y the P a rty to the mass: become fro zen an d lifeless. th ere is a e<m-dnc’'abie increase in th e activity of the masses. w h o . in “ p e a c e -tim e .i. 4. and it j n ii > >»]< to give the P arty a correct policy unless we learr . 149. T h e p ro le ta ria t m u s t d em an d h ig’ ht o: political secession for th e colonies a n d for th e .l i e t e r its i n a 11o n 5. S . them selves to th e new vt> jtu . T o o often h as it h a p p e n e d w h e n histo ry has I i) .n1: times are d raw n b o th by th e circu m stan ces of th e c 1 by die " u p p e r c la s se s” them selves into ind ep end e r "ical action. L . fo r a revolution to b reak o u t it is n o t en o u g h fo r the “ lo w er classes to re fu se ” to live in t h e old w ay. n > .

2.w h ic h now had n r m e a n i n g having ]o i that “ su dd enly ” . it becomes th e tail of other p arties a n d r u n s co u n ter to th e g reat slogan: “ T h e em ancipation of the w o rk in g class m u s t be th e task o( the w orkers them selves-” S J F . in c o n du ctin g on ly th e econ om ic stru g g le. 63. 1 6 / . of th e s tu d e n t an d of th e tra m p . he m u s t u n d e r s ta n d all th e catc h w o rd s an d sop hism s by w h ich each class and each s t ra tu m camouflage. he m u s t know th e ir s tro n g an d w eak sides. S ocisii D e m o c r a c y Social D e m o c ra c y * is a c o m b in a tio n o f th e lab ou r m o v em en t w ith socialism. th e w o rk in g class loses its political in d ep e n d e n c e . in whispers p erh a p s . p. 6. 6. of w h a t is being discussed.)y the turn in history w as “ sod 1 n m ean in g. following ho t after th e ir occurrence. 11. Boeial C hau vinists Socialists in w o rd and chauvinists in action. p.? its selfish striv in g s a n d its real “ n a tu re lie m u s t u n d e rs ta n d w h a t interests certain institu tion s an d certain laws reflect a nd h o w th e y reflect th em . of th e m e a n in g of such a n d such events. to p o in t o u t to this. of th e priest. Its task is n o t passively to serve th e la b o u r m o v e m e n t at each of its separate stages. . 3. a w orking m a n m u s t have a clear pic tu re in his m in d of the econom ic n a tu r e an d th e social a n d political fe a tu re s o f th e 'landlord. by each o ne m his ow n w ay. 35 . as p. th e lab o u r m o v e m e n t becomes p e tty a n d inevitably becom es bo urgeo is. of -n> li and such statistics.S ’J r . iso la ted fro m Social dem ocracy. m i j . of su c h a n d such c o u rt * Sec e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e u s e o f t hi s w o r d in t h e ' F o r e w o r d . S ocia 1 D eni o e r ai T o becom e a social dem ocrat. of w h a t goes on a r o u n d us a t a given m o m en t. p. people who arc in fav o u r of 1 1 national defence ” in an im perialist war. It can be obtained on ly fro m living examples an d from exposures. m o v e m e n t its u ltim a te aims a n d its political tasks an d to pro tec t its political a n d ideological in d e p e n d e n c e. b u t to re p re se n t the interests of the m o v e m e n t as a whole. o f th e h ig h state official an d of the peasant. T h is “ clear pictu re ” ca n n o t be ob tained from books.

W . the old of th e small p ro du cer. L . W . L . p. p. S fiiie T h e S tate is a m a ch in e for th e op pression of one class by another. S p o t t it s i s c il y 'The s p o n ta n e o u s d ev elo p m e n t of the la b o u r m o v em en t lead« to its b e co m in g su b o r d in a te d to b ourgeois ideology . p.. trad e u n io n ist . S.. L ... is a h ig h er fo rm o f society. p. 11. 2. an d tr a d e u n io n ism m e ans the ideological e n sla v e m en t o f th e w o rkers to th e bourgeoisie. to d iver t th e la b o u r m o v e m e n t fro m its sp o n ta n e o u s. . 66. th e h rs t torn) of th e new society. S o c i a I P a c aii s i A social p acifist is a Socialist in w o rd s a n d a b o u rg eo is pacifist in deeds. the task of Social .." 2... . T h e y m u s t be d e te r m in e d bee m . p. etc.. ¡7. W . 4. is to co m b a t s p o n ta n eity .IF. p. Socialism implies th e p e rfo rm a n c e of work w ith o u t th e aid of capitalists.Democracy. eve. control an d s u p e r ­ vision on the p a r t of the org anised v an g u ard . L . 62.L. w h ic h can develo p only w hen S ocialism h as taken a iirm hold. . 89. b o u rg eo is pacifists d ream of an everlasting peace w it h o u t the o v e rth ro w o f th e yoke an d d o m in a tio n of capital. S o cialism Socialism is the society w hic h g ro w s d irectly ou t of capitalism . .. S . S .L . C o m m u n is m . . L2L. . 23. S . 68. . 41. o u r task. w h ich p revail in all p ea sa n t con S . ipitalist society has left u s such relics a n d h a b its as u n c o -i i la b o u r. p. 8. M o reo v e r. T iiese universal political exposures art' nil essential an d f u n d a m e n t a l co ndition fo r train ing the masse* in re v o lu tio n a ry activity. 6.sentences. it im plies th a t s t a n d a r d s of la b o u r and the a m o u n t o f c o m p e n sa tio n fo r la b o u r m u s t be de term ine d.. 4. 649. 239. an d to bring it u n d er th e w in g of re v o lu tio n ary Social D em ocracy. lack ol confidence in social eco n o m y . H ence. th e m o s t advanced section of th e toilers. W . it implies social la b o u r acco m p anied by the strictest acco u ntin g.. etc.striving to go u n d e r th e w in g of th e bourgeoisie. for the sp o n ta n e o u s lab o u r m o v e m e n t is p u re and sim p le trad e u n io n is m . L . p.

p. 1 1.. 35-36.c< i> i ^ . an in s tr u m e n t of th e political r u F >1 ij b of th e d ic ta to rsh ip of th e b o u rg eo isie.. pp.nt serfs---were teiy su b je c te d to an msignificani m* i t' -th e land lo rd I ow ned th e land.l.. .gan. 23. pp. ll . 37. L . p.. S . I n fact the 1 < nw of g o v e rn m e n t varied extreme!)'. 6>. n o r could it be anything. / . an aristocratic republic. .u.-W h e n th e state w as a m o n a rc h y th e rule of one perso n w as recognised. t h e slaves enjoyed no rig hts an d ci i n u u 1 in * ppressccl class. F eudal society i t | u tnU 1 a division of I u n d e r w h ic h the vast m a jo rity . 650-51. 5 J F . F eudal S t a t e .H is to ry sh ow s t h a t the state as a s p e c i i u m l <i .i„t.>. else th a n a. th e p artic i­ pation. w h e n it w a s a republic. or even a dem ocratic rep ub lic. m ac h in e w ith w h ic h c a p ital s u p ­ pressed th e toilers. The bourgeoisie re p u b lic prom ised th e rule ol th e maji claimed th e ru le o f th e m a jo rity . . 1 1 of ( pi som e of w h om arc p--rrrsnent. .S M i I p. 18-19.. w m c U . tli. L . L . class sta te . 649.o w n i n g s t a te w e hail a m o n arch y . 23. I I .. b u t it could n ev er p u i m is inio effect as lo ng as the private o w n ersh ip of th e land and oth er m eans of p ro d u c tio n existed.IV . it e x p r e s s e s th e will ol th e w h o l e p e o p le a n d d e n ie s t h a t it is a.. they w ere not re gard ed as him u i m. „ .l\ i i m -at u i > •. 19. 651. '" i T A i J S T S j 1 1 l he I s t a te w a s s u p e r s e d e d by the capit ili*l sta te jii 1 p : I i i l i b e r t y fo r t h e w h o l e p e o p le as iib nli. that. L . . L .. 12.IF. 2. ( . n n i people arose only w herever and wlien m n ipj ii< 1 rib 1 i f society !rivo classes. b u t th e i r esse th e sam e. i pij iu la b o u r of others ^ Imi some {a > > 1 iiluii c U i> c . L-. S.. p. is I > m f. p. T h e most. ]■ ).. 23.L. 10... 644. U . i . Si a i e : ( d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f ) S l a v ii-OWNiNG S t a t k . in th e s l a v e . T h e m o s t d em o cratic bo urg eois re p u b lic w as never. in one degree or a n o th e r of th e elected rep resen tativ es of la n d lo rd society w as reco g n ised — th is w as in fe u d al society.. pp.nu-. p erfect a nd ad v an ced ty pe of b o u rg eo is state is the pa rliam en tary dem ocratic r e p u b l ic : pow er is vested in 37 .

by w orkers of various trades. supported by other railwaymen. 1 It t u n m u n ist s u b b o t n i k s ” are so im p o rta n t because th ey m i >i m a te d by workers w h o do no t in the least en joy exeeptioi !l\ t i od c o n ­ ditions. O n ly w h e n th is v ic to ry is c 11 < 1 u d will the n e w social discipline. I t is th e b e g in n in g of a revo lution th a t is m u c h im o difficult. smnumist working i ui i on the Colehak : at t followed i . 55. . S . 6.L . L .” (SuhboKi. S. were first n\i uaied by s o m e r M o sc o w -K a z a n railway. the actual rule of the m ajority. . m o re m aterial. . . ' e. m o re radical and m o re decisive M i >n he o ve r­ th ro w of th e bourgeoisie.L .” voluntary labour performed gratis after hours or on rest days. Socialist discipline. “ C o m m u n is t su b b o tn ik s ” are of su c h e n o rm o u s historical significance p r e ­ cisely because th ey d isp la y the class conscious and v o lu n ta ry in itia tiv e of th e w o rkers in d eveloping th e j >du ivity of labour. . tin u | u a t u s and organ of acinu i 1 i 11 m i is of the cu sto m ary 1 m l ivnsy. Satin Su bbotn ik s.. 12. for it is a victory o v a j u o u al c o n ­ servativeness. S o v i e t S ta tk . . h inly t h e n will a reversion to capitalism 'become i p d l and C o m m u n ism become really invincible. 1919. 9. on May 10.>e t " the w orker a n d peasant. 36. N ev er before in history has there been a state rep re se n tin g the m a jo rity of th e p o pu latio n. a n d some n i i i tra d e at * M eaning literally : ''Saturday work. such as is th e Soviet state. . .pm b n m u t I]ie state machine. indiscipline. was s o n elsewhere. 10.. for the toilers. p. p.TV. o rg a n ise d by th e workers on th e ir ow n initiative. p.F o r th e first time in history Soviet o r p ro ­ le taria n d em o cracy created d em ocra cy for th e masses. . are p ositively of e n o rm o u s si. S u b b o tn ik s * T h e C o m m u n is t s u b b o tn ik s . in ad o p tin g th e n ew la b o u r discipli: creating S o cia list cond itio ns of eco no m y and life. . a pol l ii (1 i b u re a u c r a c y w hich in j n n e is p e rm a n e n t and privileged a n d stan d s a b o v e t h e people. during the wa ties example. f o r the workers an d small peasants. p e tty bourgeois egot» rn i v icto ry over the habits th a t accursed capitalism left as a r e r r . W .

th em selv es b elo n g ed to th e bourgeois intelligentsia. 3. S . w ho arc living u n d e r ordinary. p. L . L . 437. of th e philosophic.. p. 27. 2. p. M a r x a n d lingels. T h e th e o ry ol' socialism. 48. 45. th e m a n a g e m e n t ol b ra n c h e s o f in d u s try (th e “ C h ie f C om m ittees an d C e n tral B o ard s th u s destro yin g th e n eed fo r th e p arty . 'P h is ca n n o t be insisted u p o n . historical an d econom ic th eories th a t were elab o rated b y the e d u cate d re p re se n ta tiv e s of th e p ro p e rtie d classes.28.H'7 <).P a t t y workers. S . S. 2. and w ith o u t c a rry in g on p ro lo n g e d w o rk either in tr a in in g th e tnasses or in actually c o n c e n tra tin g in their h a n d s th e m a n a g e m e n t oj the w ho le of national econom y. L . th e f o u n d e r s of m o d ern scientific socialism. L . 47. or ¡n regard to a new political situation. p. T h e o ry W ith o u t a revolutionär}. i. W . to o stron gly at a time w hen th e fa s h io n ab le p reach in g o f o p p o r t u n is m is co m bined w ith a b so rp tio n in th e n a rr o w e st form s o f practical activity. ten d en c y or m e th o d s o f its political activ ity . or th e character. p.all. 35.% g u id e d b y an advan ced th e o r y . g re w out.W . p. L . 9. v e ry hard. pp.Party tactics we mean th e political b e h a v io u r oi th e Part)'. 435. L . T h e role of van gu ard can be f u l ß l e d only by a pa rly that i.th e o ry th ere can be n o rev olu tio nary m o v em en t. 423.L . in R ussia. n. W . how ever.’5 S . th e in te l­ lectuals. 39 . S im ilarly . S y n d ic a lis m S y n d ic a lism tra n sfe rs to th e m asses of n o n .e. T a ctics By . 4. .W . c o n d itio n s . 17. S . A cco rd in g to th e ir social status.L . un sk iü e d la bourers. 4. T a c tic a l re so lu tio n s are a d o p te d b y P a r t y C o n g resses f o r th e p u rp o s e o f d e te r m in in g exactly w h a t th e political b e h av io u r oi th e P a rty as a w hole sh o u ld be in reg a rd to new tasks. L . 14. w ho are d iv id ed acco rd in g to in d u s try .

th e highest fo rm ot p ro le ta r ia n class o rg a n isa tio n b egan to rise. W . dt e nam e until it learns to b in d th e leaders w ith the clas i t h the masses into o n e single in d isso lu b le whole). L . S . p e tty bourgeois co n d itio n s. T o re fu se to w ork in th e re a c tio n a ry tr a d e m eans leavin g th e h rm ffa'ie n t1 )7 d e v e lo w d r~ b ack w ard m T . a certain inertness. o r th. rs. a. it arose as a n a tu r a l a n d in ev itab le o utcom e of th e d ev e lo p m en t of id eas a m o n g the re v o lu tio n a ry socialist intelligentsia. :it o th em selv es to care and co n cern fo r im p ro v ir ffn . a n d could n o t. h th e ir inter-a ctio n w ith th e p a rty of th e w o rk in g class. 218. L . 93. ' s . L . 33. When. 33. d o c trin e of Social D e m o crac y arose q u ite i n d e ­ p en d e n tly of th e sp o n ta n e o u s g ro w th of th e lab ou i movem ent. 10. but 40 . p. 9 0 -9 l " L . T h e in d u s tria l workers can n o t fulfil th eir w o rld historic m issio n o f em an c ip a tin g m a n k i n d fr o m th e voke capital a n d f r o m w a rs if these w o rk ers co n ce rn thernsch . p. certain te n d e n c y to w a rd s g no nof th e political. class at. W . 36. th e b eg in n in g of th e d ev e lo p m e n t o f ca as the tr an sitio n f r o m th e d isu nity an d help lessn ess i vorkers to th e r u d i m e n t s of class org anisatio n.6.■ <. p r o ­ ceed o th erw ise th a n th ro u g h the tr a d e unions. L . a n y w h ere in d. W . 'T ra d e U n io n s : ( u n d e r p T ra d e U n io n s are not h isto ric a lly necessary. P .IF . p. som etimes tolerable. L . B u t th e deve p ro le ta r ia t d id not. L . P . 10. pp. n a rr o w tr a d e in te re sts.the theoretic.L -L . 16.ively w ith :'ly confine th e ir n a rr o w craft. T rade U n io n s T r a d e u n io n s re p re se n te d e n o rm o u s progress f corkin'. i i tj K m ' bo urg eois \\ i I > S . pp. 10. 16. 10. 90-91. J i a^ n of the b o m i iv t 1I1 lab ou r n i to its.nf p-r w o rkers u n d ih mil lence of tl t u Isonarv |i ad.!'!. 1. etc. v re v o lu ­ tio n a ry p a rty o f t h e proletariat (w hich does not. th u n io n s in e v ita b ly beg an to reveal certain reaction ary 1 certain c ra f t narro w n ess.5 '’ S .

n atio n a l econom y and the broad masses of th e to ilers. p. 9. U n ity is an a dv an ta g e w h en it raises all those w mi ted to the level of the intelligent an d resolute p r o g r t m n if tile th in g th a t unites. . u n til th e com p lete victo ry of c o m ­ m u n i s m b rin g s about th e total d is ap p eara n c e ol th e state. 219. 9 . because it m ay b e w ron gly in te rp re te d to m e a n th a t th e v ictory of socialism in a single country is im possible. d em o cratic state.IV . how ever. a school or m a n a g e m e n t. 5. U n ity . it m a y also create m isconceptions as to th e relations oi su c h a country to the others. p. i n this sphere. p. socialism. I S h i r e s o f t h e Work! In k ed S tates of th e W o rld ( not ol Europe alone) is a state form o f national federati on and national f r e e d o m which we co n n ect with. T h e tr a d e un ion s are reservoirs of state ¡tower.historically inevitable o rg anisations of th e in d u s trial p ro le ta ria t w hich under the c on ditions of the d icta torsh ip of th e p ro le tariat em b ra c e nearly the w hole of that class.v a n g u a r d of th e proletariat. S . . .ilV 2. in clu d in g the. because it m erges w ith socialism. '¡’he P arty is th e directly ruling.. 14. 70. a school of Com m unism . S . by p o in tin g to th e su p e rio rity ol a system u n d e r w h ich . th e specific a n d m a in thing-.to the o p p ressio n ol: the masses u n d e r th e existing regime. Vol. As a sep arate slogan... W . b u t '\c o n la c is “ “ b e tw e e n the c e n t r a l ’1 (a n d local ol course) “ state adm in istratio n . is -not ad m in istra tio n . th e slogan of a U nited States of the W o rld w ould h a r d l y he a correct one. first. p.” S . U nity is a dis a d v an tag e whei racies th o s e w ho are u n ited to th e level of th e p te ju d h of the masses.. it is th e leader. 3. second. U top ian S ocialists '•'he earlier Socialists th o u g h t it e n o u g h to prove th eir views b y pointing.

a n d so fori deem ed it im p o ssib le to b e c o n te n ted w ith su c h a l i e die! n o t confine h im se lf to d e sc rib in g the existin giving a ju d g m e n t oi: it a n d c o n d e m n in g it. 35. m o v e m e n t of th e pro leta ria t that re p r e se n t th e only possible p o in t of v ie w fr o m w hich the question of th e a ttitu d e of Social D e m o c ra c y to w a rd s a given p h en o m e n o n in in tern a tio n a l relations can be considered and solved.he su b je c ted objective analysis. he gave f e x p la n a tio n of it. w h o se ideas w ere fertilised b y H egel. p.r.and the various classes w ith in th ese c o u n trie s — a t a g iv en time. l 7.e. a nd E ngels. 11 P . 3 1 7 .” < In ¡u i m u l a belongs to C lau sew itz. to a of th e to an 437. one of th e greate st w rit > 1 1 th history of w a r. . p. A n d this w as alw ays th e sta n d p o in t of M a n . p. L . re d u c in g the existing system . pp. W ar i¥ a r is s i m p l y 1 > Un t. th e in terests of the international. W . A v a n g u a r d p e rfo rm ? its task as v a n g u a r d only w h en it is able really to lead th e w hole mass fo rw ard . W . s i r . H n.■every m an w ould receive w hat lie him self had pro< pointing to th e h a r m o n y b e t w e e n this id ea l system a n d n a tu r e . 379-18. . L . S . p. 4. 10. th e laws fu n c tio n in g a n d d e v elo p m en t of w h ich . W i t h o u t an alliance w ith n o n -< 'o n m im is ts in th e m o s t varied sp h e re oi activity there ca k n ) q u estio n of a n y successful C o m m u n ist c o n ­ stru ctiv e •Sff. p.. vio len t) -means.. o p rath er. b u t th e interests of th e class struggle of th e p ro le ta ria t. L . . w h o reg ard ed every w a r as the continuation o f the politics of th e given in te reste d pow ers-. tc ... H I It Is n o t th e offensive or defensive c h a rac ter of the war. L . 71.H '. C o m m u n ists m u s t take par! even in th e m o st re ac tio n a ry w ar. 2. V a n g « a ril iy 11 1.” th e co n cep tio n o f a m o ra l life. 332. S . ■common basis-—the capitalist social fo rm a tio n .aiion of politics b y the other (i. “ B oycott w a r ” . S . -is a stunici p hrase. L ..

8. W e are opposed to im perialist w ars fo r th e division ol spoils a m ong the capitalists. n erve-racking. chains her to th e kitchen a n d i ursery. p. p. 44d. 9. S . because p etty h o u se ­ w o r k crushes.H .. v. s t r a n g W Wfies a n d d eg rad es her.‘tty. etc. 6.a h u n d re d th p a r t of w h a t w e d id in th e very first 'year \ u ere in pow er.. 45. n o t even in th e m o st ad v a n c e d bourgeois republic. p. o f th e laws on illegitimate c h ild re n a n d on se a rc h in g fo r th e ir fathers. p.u . f o r th is p u rp o se w ith o u t th e a b u n d a n c e of p hrases. Y oung C o iiT im n m fs T h e u p b rin g in g of the C o m m u n ist y o u th o f all so rts of sentim ental speeches and m o ra ot consist ¡:s. of th e disg usting fo rm a litie s c o nn ected w ith divorce. systems. O'.L. lie it said.W e arc n o t pacifists.M ir a sin g le brick sta n d in g of the despicable laws w h ich p lace d \\uiiu n in a state of in feriority co m p ared w ith m en.l. 9. W . 440.. 9. w ay a n d enlist large n u m b e r s of workers. w h ich o ur sw e ll-h e ad ed “ in te llig e n tsia ” or h alf-b ak ed “ C o m m u n ists ” “ suffer' " from . of th e law s re s tric t­ ing divorce. 16. W om en N o t a sin g le dem oc ra tic p a rt y in th e w o rld . I n the literal sense of th e w ord. n u m e ro u s survivals of these laws exist in all civilised countries. etc. a n d a still larger n u m b e r of c o n ­ sum ers. a n d w aste s 'her la b o u r on b a rb a r o u sly . W o m a n c o n tin u e s to be a d o m estic slave. H . h iss. pe op le w h o are able to organise in a practical. W . p. b u t we have always declared it to be a b s u r d fo r th e re vo lution ary p ro le ta r ia t to re n o u n c e rev o lu tio n ary wars th a t m a y prove necessary rll the interests of socialism. 441. stu ltify in g an d c ru s h in g d rud gery . s q u a b b l in g a n d ch atter a b o u t plans. h a s do ne in tens ol ■ >e. T h e re is no d o u b t th a t th ere is far m ore organising ialenl a m o n g th e w o rk in g w om en a n d p ea sa n t w o m en th a n we are aw are of. 4/8- . T o the sham e of the b ourgeoise a nd of c ap italism . S I F . unprociv . p. S .. we d id not i. L. S .

education w ith participatio n every st in th e p ail strug gle of all th e toilers ag ain st th e exploiters.479. tr a in in g and.T h e Young C o m m u n is t L eag u e will ju stify its n a m e as the L e ag u e :he Y oung C o m m u n is t g eneratio n w h e n it lin k s u p i its tuition . P. .

...... 46 pages 6 ti. T H E A PR IL C O N FE R E N C E .. 32 pages 6 il ......... 127 pages ................. 48 pages 6 d ............ IM P E R IA L IS M 16........ 8 ........... O P PO R T U N ISM C H A U V IN IS M 2 4 ......... ’I U P i A R 1 S C O M M U N E IG IO N R E V O L U T I O N O F D O S .. TO A V E R T I T ... L E N IN ON A N I) S O C I A I.... T H E T H k i \ N IN G CA TA STR O PH E A N D i n A. T H E T A S K O F T H E .. W I L L T ill:.........« „ r i ' j j : i .......S< h i \ i A S M A N D W A R . 22.. 3 .. T H E T E A C H I N G S O F K A R L M A R X --2...... I ........... 2 1 .............E N IN A N D S T A L I N O N T H E S T A 'P E P R O P A G A N D A .... 374 pages 2 / 62 pages .......I 1 lU \ N l I \ < /I I i n o : 1 i l l -O 7 T U I I ' ¡ F .........P R O L E T A R IA T 10... L E T T E R S . TH E PRU.............. . 5 ................ .. . O N T H E E V E O F O C T O B E R ............... 64 pages 1 / 48 p ages 6d....... W A R A N D T H E W O R K E R S . T H E / 19........................ 9 .............. TH T WAR AND THE SECOND \' v F I O N A ! ........ 1 2 ..........................!......I.. 4.................. ... L E N I N A N D S T A L I N O N Y O U T H . T W O T A C T IC S O F SO C IA L " D E M O C E ACS? ..F R O M A F A R ... 1 / 0 18......... < i ' M u IS T O B E D O N E ? .......... S T A T E A N D R E V O L U T I O N ... : 2 3 ...... ............... 2()... 1 4 ...........t P E N 47 pages (>d..................../56 p ag es 1 / 48 pages 9 d ......................... 15. B u L S H E V T K S M A I N T A I N POW ER ? 13. 11.... 61 pages i f 46 pages i / 48 4-8 96 127 1 .......... va../59 pages ..... 1 /6 96 pages 9 d ..........................1... 1 7 .... 48 pages 9 d .. l i H i 110 li t i l OF mu PI ( 1 j L 40 40 48 pages 9 d . “ L E F T W IN G ” C O M M U N IS M ..

P a rt i .C. 420 pp. V o lu m e X X . 496 pp.Part 1. ..COLLECTED WORKS |P H iN il 1 «.. T w e lv e Shillings an d Sixpence 1916— ¡917 C lo th 1'welve Shillings and Sixpence THE 382 pp.LTD._ _ _ . based on the revised and edite1 I by “L f!-i ''i ii 1 ru e ls-L e n in In stitu te o f M oscow . 368 pp. 464. exhaustive e x p la n a to ry notes an d a d ic tio n a ry of nam es. M A T E R IA L IS M & E H P 1R S O -C R IT IC S S M C lo th Ten Shillings an d Sixpence THE IM P E R IA L IS T W A R V o ! si m e X V I Si. C lo th T en ShUlin^s am! S ixp enc e C lo th T e n Shillings a nd Sixpence 336 pp. LONDON. R E V O L U T IO N O F 1917 C lo th Ten Shillings and Sixpence Cloth T en Shillings a n d Sixpence V o lu m e X X L TO W ARDS THE S E IZ U R E O F P O W E R Hart 1. T h e series will eventually in clu d e th irty volumes. V o lu m e X III. C lo th T en Shillings a nd Sixpence C loth T e n Shillings and Sixpence . In ad d itio n to ext( phical and bibliographical no time con tain s im p o rta n t related po litical d o cu m en ts.. Cloth. V o lu m e X I X . b u t are issued heir interrelation. T h e y are n u r with reference to th e c o m p lete w o rk . P art 2.pp..I . LAWRENCE & WISHART. P art 2. 318 pp. Part t. ra th e r th a n ch ro n o lo g ically . W. 350 pp. 304 pp.. V o l u m e IV. ii i. 2 SOUTHAMPTON PLACE. THE iS K R A P E R IO D .

This t i t l e has n ow been a d d e d t o A . and his acc o u n t is w ritten w ith the m a tu rity oi fo rty years' experience in the w o rking-class m ov em en t. an d a fo u n d a tio n m e m b e r of the C o m m u n ist Party nearly tw enty y ears later. l . a full u n d ers ta n d in g p lay a g reat part in b rin g in g a b o u t unity.” It is n o t merely a b io g ra p h y . C .W O R K E R ’S LIBRARY SERIES F len se ‘ ¿ o rile f o r o u r f i d ! l i s i . tro m perio d of' the of which "can T h is book is “ one m a n ’s c o n trib u tio n to th e m o v em e n t. o f events in the fo rm ativ e British L a b o u r m o v e m e n t. W .His record is one o f 'which an y m an m ight b e p rou d. . 2/è fu tu re o f o u r a c c o u n t.PIONEERING » A r s Thomas Beli 316 pp. but an personal experience. T o m Bel! was one of the founders of the S ocialist L a b o u r Party in 1903. LAWflEMCE & W I S H ART L I MI T E D ’ 2 S O U T H A M P T O N PLACE.

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