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SUB. CODE: EC P81 YEAR: FINAL YEAR SEMESTER: VIII DEPARTMENT: ECE

EXPT. NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 DATE NAMEOF EXPERIMENTS STUDY OF MICROWAVE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM SIMULATION OF SATELLITE LINK BUDGET DESIGN OF FILTER SIMULATION OF FIBER OPTIC BUDGET ANALYSIS PC PC COMMUNICATION STUDY OF NETWORK ANALYZER DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF TV SIGNAL USING SPECTRUM ANALYZER DESIGN OF FOLDED DIPOLE USING NETWORK ANALYZER SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF MODULATED SIGNAL USING SPECTRUM ANALYZER RADAR TRAINER KIT MARKS SIGNATURE

H-PLANE TEE

E-PLANE TEE

AIM:

To find the characteristics of given Magic Tee, E-plane and H-plane

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. Micro wave source(klystron power supply) 2. Klystron Mount 3. Isolator 4. Variable Attenuator 5. Frequency meter 6. Magic Tee 7. Power Detector 8. Matched termination ----- 2 Nos
THEORY:

A T - junction is an intersection of three waveguides in the form of English alphabet T. There are several types of Tee Junctions.
TEE JUNCTION:

In microwave circuits a wave guide line with three independent ports are commonly referred to as Tee Junction. Waveguide tees are three port components. They are used to connect branch (or) Section of the waveguide in series or parallel with the main waveguide transmission Line for providing means of splitting and also of combining power in a waveguide System.

MAGIC TEE (HYBRID OR E H PLANE TEES)

The basic types are 1. 2. 3. E Plane Tee (series) H - Plane Tee (shunt) Magic Tees (Hybrid or E-H plane Tees).

E PLANE TEE:

An E plane tee is a waveguide tee in which the axis of its side arm is parallel to the E field of the main guide. A rectangular slot is cut along the broader dimension of a Long waveguide and side arm is attached. Ports 1 and 2 are the collinear arms and port 3 is the E- arm. When the waves are fed into the side arm (port 3), the waves appearing at port 1 and Port 2 of the collinear arm will be in opposite phase and in the same magnitude. If two input waves are fed into port 1 and port 2 of the collinear arm, the output Wave at 3 will be opposite in phase and subtractive. Hence it is called difference Arm

H PLANE TEE:

An H Plane Tee junction is formed by cutting a rectangular slot along width of a main waveguide and attaching another waveguide, the side arm is called the H-arm. Ports 1 and 2 are the collinear arms and port 3 is the H- arm. If two input waves are fed into port 1 and port 2 of the collinear arm, the output wave at port 3 will be in phase and additive. Because of this, the third port is called the sum Arm. All three arms of H Plane tee lie in the plane of magnetic field, the magnetic field itself into the arms. This is also called as current junction.
MAGIC TEES (HYBRID OR E H PLANE TEES):

Here rectangular slots are cut both along the width and breadth of a long waveguide and side arms are attached. Ports 1 and 2 are collinear arms, port 3 is the H- arm, and port 4 is the E- arm. So Magic tee is the combinations of E and H Plane Tee. A wave incident at port 3 (E arm) divides equally between ports 1 and 2 but opposite in phase with no coupling to port (H-ram). A wave fed into collinear port 1 or 2 will not appear in the other collinear port 2 or 1. Hence two collinear ports 1 and 2 are isolated from each other.

PROCEDURE:

1. Arrange the bench setup with out connecting magic tee/E-plane/ H-Plane and measure the input power. 2. Now connect the Tee junctions and note down the output power at port 2, port 3 & port 4. 3. Substitute the value of the port currents to obtain the scattering parameters of given magic tee. 4. For various values of input power find the scattering matrix.

RESULT: Thus the characteristics of given microwave devices characteristics was studied and verified.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

LNA

RF

MIXER

LOW PASS AMPLIFIER

MICROWAVE GENERATOR

2GHZ

TO EARTH STATION (4-12 GHZ)

TO OTHER TRANSPONDER

EXPT. No.:2 SIMULATION OF SATELLITE LINK BUDGET ANALYSIS

Date:
Aim To Design and simulate the satellite link budget analysis.

Theory: Uplink Model: A satellite system has 3 basic reaction uplink, satellite transponder and downlink. The primary component is earth station transmitter. A typically transmitter has IF modulator. A typically transmitter IF-RF microwave up convertor and some band limiting the output spectrum. If modulator converts input baseband to FN PSK/QAM intermediate frequency. The up converter converts IF-RF the HPA provide adequate gain and output power to propagate the signal to transponder. HPAs commonly used are kryptons and trave lling wave tubes.

Transponder: It consists of input based limiting BPF, input LAN, frequency translators, LPA and output BPF. It is a RF repeater. The input BPF limits the total noise applied to LAN (tuned diode). The output of LNA is fed to frequency translator which converts high band uplink to low band downlink frequency. The LPP amplifier RF signal for transmission through the downlink to each earth station receiver.

Downlink Model: An earth station receive includes, input BPF, LNA, RF-IF down converter. The LNA is highly sensitive, Low noise device (Tunnel diode) parametric amplifier. The RF-IF down converter is mixer that converts RF-IF frequency.

Satellite system parameter: EIRP: Effective isotropic radiated power It is defined as an equivalent transmits power. EIRP=Pt*Gt Where Pt=Antenna power input (w) Gt= Transmitter antenna gain (unit less) d=Distance between transmitter & receiver

SIMULATION OF SATELLITE LINK BUDGET ANALYSIS: PROGRAM CODING:

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<math.h> Void main() { float EIRP1, EIRP2, F_pathloss1, F_path loss2; float G_Tel1,G-Tel2,Atm_loss1,Atm_loss2; float C_N_up,C-N_down,C_N_overall; clrscr(); printf(\n Enter the uplink parameters:); printf(\n Enter the EIRP(dBw):); scanf(%f,& EIRP); printf(\n Enter the free space path loss (dB):); scanf(%f,&F_pathloss1); printf(\n Enter the G/Te ratio(dB/k):); scanf(%f,&G_Te1); printf(\n Enter the Atmospheric loss(dB):); scanf(%f,&Atm_loss1); printf(\n Enter the downlink parameters(dB):); printf(\n Enter the EIRP(dBw):); scanf(%f,& EIRP2); printf(\n Enter the free space path loss (dB):); scanf(%f,&F_pathloss2); printf(\n Enter the G/Te ratio(dB/k):); scanf(%f,&G_Te2); printf(\n Enter the Atmospheric loss(dB):); scanf(%f,&Atm_loss2); C_N_up=EIRP_F-pathloss1+G-Te1-Atm_loss1+228.6; C_N_down = EIRP2_F_pathloss2+G-Te2-Atm_loss2+228.6; C_N_overall = ((1/C_N_up)+(1/C_N_down)); C_N_overall= 1/C_N_overall; Printf(C/N_uplink=%f,C_N_up);

Free space path loss: Lp=(4d/ )2-(4fd/c)2 Where, Lp= free space path loss (Unit less) D=distance (km) F=frequency (Hz) =wavelength (m) c=velocity of light in free space (3X108m/s).

Satellite Power (or) receiver: Pr=Pt*Gt*Gr(/4d)2 Where, Pt=transmitting power (W) Gt=Transmitting antenna gain (unit less) Gr=Receiver antenna gain

Uplink equation: (c/No) Uplink=10 log AA Pin-20 log (4d/ ) +10 log (G/Te)-10 log10-10 log K (c/No) Uplink=EIRP (dBW) -4P (dB) + G/TdB-1k-k (dBWk) Where, G/T=figure of merit K=Bolts man constant (1.38X10-23/-228.6)dBWt

SAMPLE INPUT & OUTPUT: Enter the uplink Parameter: Enter the EIRP(dBw):90 Enter the free space path loss (dB):5.3 Enter the G/Te ratio (dB/k):206.5 Enter the atmospheric loss (dB):0.6 Enter the downlink parameter Enter the EIRP(dBw):40.2 Enter the free space path loss (dB):205.6 Enter the G/Te ratio (dB/k):37.7 Enter the atmospheric loss (dB):4 C/N_uplink:579.799988 C/N_downlink:96.899994 C/N_overall:81.917374

The satellite link analysis is acceptable

Downlink equation: (c/No) downlink=EIRP (dBW) -Lp(dB)+G/Te(dBWk)-Ld(dB)-k(dBWk) (c/No) overall=[c/N+Uplink + c/N+downlink] In order to increase the power transmitted to increases Pr.Gr.Gr (or) decreases the path loss (Lp) Pt=Pr.Gr.Gt(/4d)2

Low noise amplifier: LNA is an electronic amplifier used to amplify very weak signal. It is usually located very close to the detection device to reduce the losses in the feed link. This type of active antenna arrangement is used in Microwave wave system like GPS. Because the coaxial cable feed line is very easy at the end of radio receiver.

Berkeley packet filter: BPF filter provide on same unix like system. A interface is allowed to data link layer which permitting packet to send & receive.

Low Power amplifier: Low power does not have mean low performance linear technologies. Low power also features low noise, high precision and microwave amplifier also generate from very low supply rails.

Result Thus the satellite link budget analysis was simulated using MATLAB.

ALGORITHM: IIR FILTER: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Start Open a new .m file Clear the screen Get the value of alphap, alphas, omegap, omegas. Compute the function for [n,wc], [nu,de],[nu1,de1] and [h,w] using the respective function. 6. Display n,wc,nu,de,nu1,de1 7. Plot the graph for w versus abs(h) 8. Mark the title. 9. Mark the x-label and y-label 10. Stop FIR FILTER: 1. Start 2. Open a new .m file. 3. Clear the screen and assume N as 25. 4. Compute the values for alphas, eps, wc, n, hd, wn, wr, hu ct and [h,w] using respective formulae and function. 5. Compute wh using hanning (N) function 6. Compute hann using hann=hd*wh 7. Obtain the value of [hr,w] using frequency function 8. Plot the graph 9. Compute when using hamming (N) function 10. Compute hamm using hamm=hd*whm 11. Obtain the value of [h2,w] using frequency function 12. Plot the graph 13. Compute wb, using blackman (N) function 14. Compute a h black using hblack=hd*wb1 15. Obtain the value of [a3,w]using frequency function 16. Plot the graph 17. Mark the title 18. Give the X label and Y label 19. Mark the legend 20. Stop.

EXPT. NO. 3 DATE:

DESIGN OF FILTER

AIM: To simulate the frequency response of the following digital filters using MATLAB. IIR FILTER: a) b) c) d) e) Digital LPF using Butterworth approximation and impulse invariance transformation Digital HPF using Butterworth approximation and Bilinear transformation Digital LPF using Chebyshev approximation and Bilinear transformation Digital BPF using Butterworth approximation and Bilinear transformation Digital HPF using Chebyshev approximation and Bilinear transformation

FIR FILTER: FIR filters using rectangular, hamming hanning and Blackman windows.

THEORY: A digital filter is basically a linear time invariant discrete time system. The terms finite impulse FIR and infinite impulse response IIR are used to distinguish filter types. The FIR filters are of non recursive type, whereas the present output sample depends on the present input sample and previous input samples. Whereas the IIR filters are of recursive type. Whereby the present, output sample depends on the present input, past input samples and output samples. The magnitude response of Butterworth filter decreases monotonically as the frequency increases from 0 to whereas the magnitude response of the Chebyshev filters exhibits ripples in the pass band or stop band according to the type. The transition band is more in Butterworth filter when compared to Chebyshev filter. The poles of Butterworth filter lie on a circle whereas the poles of the Chebyshev filter lie on the ellipse. For the same specification, the number of poles in butterworth is more when compared to the Chebyshev filter is less than that of Butterworth. This is a great advantage because less number of discrete components will be necessary to construct the filter. Our possible way to obtaining FIR filter is to truncate the infinite possible at n= (N-1/2), Where N is the length of the discrete sequence. The central lobe of the frequency response of the window should contain most of the energy and should be narrow. The highest lobe level of the frequency response be small.

TABULATION: Chebyshev LPF

Normalised frequency(MHZ) Magnitude (dB)

Chebyshev HPF
Frequency(MHZ)

FIR filter
Frequency(MHZ)

Magnitude (dB)

Magnitude (dB)

ButterworthHPF
Frequency(MHZ) Magnitude (dB)

ButterworthBPF
Frequency(MHZ)

ButterworthLPF
Frequency(MHZ)

Magnitude (dB)

Magnitude (dB)

FREQUENCY REPONSE OF CHEBYSHEV LPF USING BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION

clc; alpap=2; alphas=30; omegap=0.5; omegas=0.4; [n,wc]=cheblord (omegap,omegas,alphap,alphas); disp(n); disp(wc); [nu,de]=cheby1 (n,0.1,wc,s); disp(nu); disp(de); [nu1,de1]=bilinear (nu, de, 1); disp(nu1); disp(de1); [h,w]=freqz(nu1,de1); plot(w,abs(h)); axis([0 3.5 0 2]); title (frequency response of Chebyshev LPF using bilinear transformation); xlabel (normalised frequency); ylabel(magnitude(h(z));
FREQUENCY REPONSE OF BUTTERWORTH LPF USING BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION

clc; alpap=2; alphas=30; omegap=0.5; omegas=0.4; [n,wc]=buttord (omegap,omegas,alphap,alphas); disp(n); disp(wc); [nu,de]=butter (n,0.1,wc,s); disp(nu); disp(de); [nu1,de1]=impinvar (nu, de, 1); disp(nu1); disp(de1); [h,w]=freqz(nu1,de1); plot(w,abs(h)); axis([0 3.5 0 2]); title (frequency response of Butterworth LPF using bilinear transformation); xlabel (normalised frequency); ylabel(magnitude(h(z));

FREQUENCY REPONSE OF CHEBYSHEV HPF USING BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION

clc; alpap=2; alphas=70; omegap=0.2; omegas=0.4; [N,wc]=cheblord (omegap,omegas,alphap,alphas); disp(N); disp(wc); [Nu,De]=cheby1 (N,0.1,wc,high,s); disp(Nu); disp(De); [Nu1,de1]=bilinear (Nu, De, 1); disp(Nu1); disp(De1); [H,w]=freqz(Nu1,De1); plot(w,abs(H)); axis([0 3.5 0 2]); title (Frequency response of Chebyshev HPF using bilinear transformation); xlabel (Normalised Frequency); ylabel(Magnitude|H(z)|);

FREQUENCY REPONSE OF BUTTERWORTH HPF USING BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION

clc; alpap=2; alphas=30; omegap=0.6; omegas=0.2; [n,wc]=buttord (omegap,omegas,alphap,alphas); disp(n); disp(wc); [nu,de]=butter1 (n,wc,high,s); disp(nu); disp(de); [nu1,de1]=bilinear (nu, de, 1); disp(nu1); disp(de1); [h,w]=freqz(nu1,de1); plot(w,abs(h)); axis([0 3.5 0 2]); title (frequency response of Butterworth HPF using bilinear transformation); xlabel (normalised frequency); ylabel(magnitude(h(z));

FREQUENCY REPONSE OF BUTTERWORTH BPF USING BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION

clc; alpap=2; alphas=30; omegap=[0.2 0.8]; omegas=[0.4 0.6]; [n,wc]=buttord (omegap,omegas,alphap,alphas); disp(n); disp(wc); [nu,de]=butter (n,wc,bandpass,s); disp(nu); disp(de); [nu1,de1]=bilinear (nu, de, 1); disp(nu1); disp(de1); [h,w]=freqz(nu1,de1); plot(w,abs(h)); axis([0 3.5 0 2]); title (frequency response of Butterworth BPF using bilinear transformation); xlabel (normalised frequency); ylabel(magnitude(h(z));

FREQUENCY REPONSE OF LOW PASS FIR FILTERS FOR DIFFERENT WINDOWS

clear all; clc; hold on; N=25; alpha=(N-1)/2; eps=0.001; wc=3.14/2; n=0:1:N-1; hd=(sin ((n-alpha+eps)*3.14)-sin(wc*(n-alpha+eps)))/((n-alpha+eps)*3.14); wn=0:0.001:3.14; wr=boxcar(N); hrect=hd.*wr; [h,w]=freqz(hrect,1,wn); plot(w/3.14,20*log(abs(h)),-k); %HANNING WINDOW wh=hanning (N); hann=hd.*wh; [h1,w]=freqz(hann,1,wn); plot(w/3.14,20*log(abs(h1)),-k); %HAMMING WINDOW whm=hamming (N); hamm=hd.*whm; [h2,w]=freqz(hamm,1,wn); plot(w/3.14,20*log(abs(h2)),--k); %BLACKMAN WINDOW wb1=blackman(N); hblack=hd.*wb1; [h3,w]=freqz(hblack,1,wn); plot(w/3.14,20*log(abs(h3)),+k); title(frequency response of low pass filters for different windows); xlabel(NORMALISED FREQUENCY); ylabel(MAGNITUDE |H(z)|); disp(x,y); legend(RECTANGULAR,HANNING,HAMMING,BLACKMAN);

Viva questions: 1. Define filter: A filter is a reactive network that freely passes the desired bands of the frequency and totally suppressing all other bands of frequencies. 2. Mention the types of filter: Low pass filter, high pass filter, band pass filter and band stop filter 3. What is ideal filter? An ideal filter offers zero attenuation in the pass band and infinite attenuation in stop band.

Result: Thus the frequency response of the digital filters was simulated using MATLAB.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:
SIGNAL SOURCE OPTICAL TRANSMITTER
AMPLIFIER (OR) REGENERATOR

FIBER CABLE

SIGNAL DESTINATION

TRANSMITTER SIDE

From Transponder

DEMODULATION

BPF

LNA

MIXER

BPF
(FM, PSK, QAM)

MICROWAVE GENERATOR

EXPT. NO.4 SIMULATION OF FIBER OPTIC LINK POWER BUDGET ANALYSIS Date: Aim: To design and simulate the fiber optic link power budget for the given link parameter using MATLAB software.

Theory: The 3 primary building blocks are Tr, Rr and optical fiber cable. The transmitter is comprised of voltage current converter. Light source, source to fiber interface. The fiber guide is transmission medium which is glass, plastic cable. The regenerator are used to reconstruct the receiver include a fiber to interface detection and a current to voltage convertor.The light source can be modulated by analog1 digital signal. The voltage current converter serves as electrical interface between light source and circuitry. They are source of LED or ILD. The light output of the source is proportional to magnitude of input voltage. The source light coupler couple the light by light source into cable. The fiber light detector coupling device is also a mechanical coupler. The light detectors are PIN and APD. A current voltage controller transforms changes in detector current to change in voltages. Link equation: Pr=Pt-losses----------------(1) (or) Pt=Pt-Pr Where Pt=power transmitted (dBM) Pr=power received (dBM) Pt=Total power loss (dB) Pt=2lc=1+s----------------(2) Where, Pt=Total power loss(dB) Lc=connector loss L=length of cable s=external losses. =attenuator loss.

SIMULATION OF OPTIC FIBER LINK BUDGET ANALYSIS: PROGRAM CODING: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<math.h> void main() { float con_loss, Att_loss, length, sys_mar, T_pow, R_Power,T_loss,Pt; clrscr(); X; printf(\n Enter the losses:); printf(\n Enter the connector loss (dB):); scanf(%f,&Att_loss); printf( \n Enter the Attenuation loss (dB/km):); scanf(%f,&Att_loss); printf(\n Enter the length of the fiber(km):); scanf(%f,&length); printf(\n Enter the system margin(dB):); scanf(%f,&sys_mar); printf(\n Enter the power transmitted (dBW)) scanf(%f,&T_Pow); printf(\n Enter the received (dBW)) scanf(%f,&R_Pow); T_loss=2*con_loss+Att_loss*length+sys_mar; Pt=T_Pow-T_loss; Printf(\n Total Power Loss=%f,T_loss); Printf(\n Transmitted Power=%f,Pt);

Printf(\n Received Power=%f,R_Power); if(Pt>=R_Power) printf(\n The optical fiber link analysis is acceptable): else goto X; getch(); }

SAMPLE INPUT AND OUTPUT: Enter the losses: Enter the connector loss (dB):1 Enter the attenuation loss (dB/km):3 Enter the length of the fiber (km);5 Enter the system margin (dB):6 Enter the power transmitted (dBW):-69897 Enter the received power (dBM):23

The Optical fiber link analysis is acceptable

Optical source: Solid state LED & ILD are primarily source for optical fiber transmission because their light output can be rapidly controlled by varying their bias current. Coupling loss must be considered for evolution of the source. Typically ILDs will launch in 18dB more power than the LEDs are attractive for the use. Instead of ILDs because of lower cost, longer life time and wide temperature range.

Optical Detector: The optical receiver consists of an optical detector and amplifier that are provided for output that reproduce the input signal. The two types of solid state detector suited for moderate to high bit ratio. The optical fiber receivers they are PIN layer. The diode and avalanche Photo diode together called as APD. It requires more power and it is costly but it is more sensitive.

Dynamic ranges: Dynamic range 20dB for Optical receiver.

Multimode graded index fiber: A multimode graded index fiber has a core of radius (r). Unlike the step index fiber. The value of m1 decreases as the distance (r) from the centre of fiber. The values of n1 decreases until it approach the value of refractive index of cladding n2. The value of n1 must be higher than the value of n2.

Result: Thus the fiber optic link budget analysis was simulated using MATLAB.

EXPT. NO.5

PC TO PC COMMUNICATION

Date:
Aim To study the PC to PC communication by establishing an optical link.

Components Requirements: 1. 2. 3. 4. Optical trainer kit Personal computer Optical fiber cable RS-232 serial interface.

Theory: Serial communication uses a transmitter to send one bit at a time, over a single communication link line to the receiver. This method can be used, when the data rate is low or when data need to transmit over a long distance. There is no need of extra hardware then a cable to connect two PCs. Serial communication requires the following parameters. a) Baud rate of transmitter b) Number of data bits c) Optical parity bits d) Number of stop bits. Baud rate is a measure of how fast data are moving between PCs. RS 232 uses only two voltage state called MARK and SPACE. A start bit signal the beginning of each other characteristics frame. It is a transition from MARK to SPACE voltages. If the instrument is transmitting each subsequent bit is 0.103ms. an optical or optimal parity bit follows the data bit in the character. The transmission on any character frame handled by a start bit means SPACE Voltage.

RS232: It includes electrical signal character and mechanical characteristics. It mainly used for serial communication between pc and printer, modem and other equipment.

ALL PROGRAMS

ACCESSORIES

COMMUNICATION

HYPERTERMINAL

OK

CONNECTION TO BOX (Com 1 for both PCs)

OK

COM1 PROPERTIES
(Bit/sec-9600, data bits-8, parity-None, Stop bit-1, flow control-none)

OK

THE TYPED TEXT WILL BE SHOWN IN PC2

PIN CONFIGURATION OF RS-232: Pin Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Direction of Signal Carrier detect (CD) from DCE 1 incoming signals from a medium Received data (RD) incoming data from DCE Transmitted data (TD) outgoing from DCE Data terminal ready (DTR) handshaking signal Signal ground, common reference signal Data Set ready (DSR) Request to send(RTS) Clear to send(CTS) RIN indicator signal from DCE

Hyper terminal: It is a program, used to link with other computer; it is used by means of configuring and testing of modems. It records the message passed to and from the computer or service on the other end of the connection. Therefore it can serve as a valuable troubleshooting tod. We can use the program for debug the source code from remote terminal. We can also communication with older character based computer. Procedure: 1. Make necessary jumper setting in fiber optic communication kits 2. Connect 1m or 2m fiber cable between transmitter and receiver of fiber communication kit 3. Connect pc to pc cable between pc1 to optical transmitter. Similarly between pc2 and optical receiver 4. Open hyper-terminal window and set the following Serial port=comm. 1 Baud rate=9600 No. Of bits=8 Parity=none Stop bits=1 Hardware=none 5. Open communication and type a word in pc1 and observe the received data in pc2.

Result: Thus the pc to pc communication was established using fiber optic communication.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:
DEVICE UNDER TEST

POWER DIVIDER

LENGTH EQUQLIZER

32.8 PF

32.8 PF

Aim:-

STUDY OF NETWORK ANALYZER

To design and obtain the gain & phase response of filters Equipments Required:1. 2. 3. 4. Network analyzer Filter section (BPF, LPF, HPF) Connecting probes Coil to design inductances.

Theory:A Network analyzer is a network system that measures both amplitude and phase of a microwave signal over a wide frequency range is a reasonably small time. In network analyser, the basic principle of measurement is to generate an accurate reference signal and compare this with respect to the test signal whose amplitude and phase are to be measured. A sweep signal generator feeds a power divider or splitter that converts into two signal and ref. Signal. The device under test is fed with the test signal and length equalizer takes in the ref. signal. These test & ref. signal are then converted into a std. IF freq by a harmonic freq. converter. The output of the harmonic freq. Converter is then used to determine the amplitude and phase of the test signal. A network is quite useful for the measurement of both passive and active microwave components. It is used for measurement of both gain and impedance of microwave component. It uses a stimulus response method for testing over a range of frequency. As these parameters are a function of frequency with complex variable a swept frequency measurement becomes imminent does effect of the signal level at the input and therefore decreases the SNR with the lowest possible attenuation. In the analyzer the noise is random. It is added on the power basis, so the relationship between the displayed noise level and the resolution between is a ten log basis. In their worlds of BW is increased by a factor of 10. More noise energy. Hits the detector and displayed arrange noise level increases by 10dB. Detector: Many modern spectrum analyzers have digital displays, which first digitise the video signal with A-D convertor. This allows the several detector modes which affect the signal to be displayed.

C2=27.7pF

MODEL GRAPH:

77.1H

77.1H

BAND PASS FILTER CIRCUIT:

Video Filter: It is a LPF located after the envelope detector and before the ADC. This filter determines the BW of the video amplifier and also used to average or smoothen the trace seen on the screen. Network analyser: It can be a scalar or vector. A scalar network analyzer provides only magnitude characteristics of microwave device as a function of frequency. A vector network analyzer can measure complex reflection (or) transmission characteristics of microwave devices. The principle of measurement of both methods are same in that they compare the incident (or) input power with the transmitted or reflected waves depending on the parameter to be measured. A vector network analyser can measure complex transmission reflection characteristics of microwave devices as a function of frequency. In a scalar network analyser, a diode detector is used, whereas in vector analyzer is a multi channel receiver used. Filters: Low pass prototype is the base for all types of filter such as HPF, BPF, and BSF scaling information are used to design any filter from prototype. It can be scaled at any characteristics impedance and cut off frequency.

Procedure: 1. Switch on the trainer and ensure the display TEST MENU 2. Select the filter test and press the ENTER key 3. Enter the values of start frequency and end frequency of filter (user select the start and end frequency by using up, down, left, right key). 4. After selecting the desired frequency press ENTER key 5. For calculation purpose, connect the RF Out and DET in by using the probe. 6. After completion of calculation, press ENTER and remove the short & connect the filter (LPF, HPF, BPF) between RF out and DET in. 7. After finishing the scanning process filter characteristics will be displayed. 8. Same procedure repeated for RF amplifier.

DESIGN CALCULATION FOR BPF: C1=g1/R02f0 L1=R0/2f0g1 C2= /R02f0*g2 L2=R0g2/2f0 C3=g3/R02f0 L3=R0 /2f0g3

TABULATION: Butterworth LPF

Normalised frequency(MHZ) Magnitude (dB)

Butterworth HPF
Normalised frequency(MHZ) Magnitude (dB)

Butterworth BPF
Normalised Magnitude frequency(MHZ) (dB)

Result: Thus the gain response and phase response of filters were determined by using network analyser.

REFLECTOR

0.25 L 0.13

L+0.05L

DIRECTOR DIPOLE

Towards director

Towards reflector

L-0.05L

EXPT. NO.7 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF TV SIGNAL USING SPECTRUM ANALYZER DATE: AIM To conduct and test the characteristics of yagi uda antenna for a given a given frequency band.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED: 1. Spectrum analyzer 2. Twin cable 3. BNC cable FORMULA 1. Centre frequency, fc=fs+fe/2 2. Length of dipole,=c/f, L=/2 3. Length of reflector, L+0.05L 4. Length of director,L-0.05L 5. Spacing between dipole and reflector=0.25 6. Spacing between dipole and director=0.13 THEORY: Yagi uda antenna: It is a high gain antenna and it is known after the professor S.Uda and H.Yagi who invented it. It consists of a driven element reflector and one or more directors. The yagi uda antenna is an array of driven element and called as active element where the power is fed from the transistor. It is resonant half wave dipole and reflector and directors are called as parasitic element. The parasitic element receives their excitation from the voltages induced in them by current flow in the driven elements. Reflector length =500/f (MHz) Driven element length=475/ (MHz) Director length = 455/f (MHz) Spacing=0.1 to 0.15 The parasitic element is clamped on a metallic support rod. The use of parasitic element in conjunction with driven elements causes the dipole impedance to fall below 43. It may be also low as 25. If these 3 elements are alone used, then such type of yagi uda antenna is generally referred as beam antenna.

MODEL GRAPH:

AMPLITUDE

REFLECTOR+DIPOLE+DIRECTOR REFLECTOR+DIPOLE

DIPOLE

FREQUENCY (HZ)

PHASE

DIPOLE

DIPOLE+REFLECTOR

DIPOLE+REFLECTOR+DIRECTOR

FREQUENCY (HZ)

DESIGN CALCULATION:

TABULATION:
DIPOLE DIPOLE+REFLECTOR DIPOLE+REFLECTOR+DIRECTOR

Frequency (MHZ)

Magnitude (dB)

Frequency (GHZ)

Magnitude (dB)

Frequency (GHZ)

Magnitude (dB)

CHARACTERISTICS: 1. If three elements array is used then the antenna is called as beam antenna 2. It has unidirectional beam of moderate directivity with light weight, low cost and simplicity in design. 3. With spacing of 0.1 to 0.15 a frequency bandwidth of the order of 12% obtained. 4. It provides a gain of order of 3dB 5. It also known as super directive due to its high gain or bandwidth per unit area of an array. 6. Greater directivity is desired, more number of elements can be added for better TV reception, 7. Fixed frequency device. PROCEDURE: 1. The folded dipole length was made with respect to centre frequency fc 2. The folded dipole was connected to the spectrum analyzer and the frequency pattern was inferred. 3. The fc and the given values are checked and frequency cur ve was measured. 4. The fc was inferred for reflector and director. 5. The impedance of the folded dipole also noted.

RESULT: Thus the design of yagi uda antenna for the given channel band was constructed and the performance of antenna was determined using spectrum analyzer. fc=_________GHz

l=/2

NETWORK ANALYZER

MODEL GRAPH:

Gain in dB

Frequency (Hz)

EXPT. No.8 DESIGN OF FOLDED DIPOLE USING NETWORK ANALYZER DATE: AIM: To design the folded dipole and check its frequency using network analyzer

REQUIREMENTS: 1. Folded dipole 2. Network analyzer 3. BNC cables

THEORY: A folded dipole is made by 2 half wave dipole sections. One is continuous and another split at the centre, folded dipoles mainly used for impedance matching. The radiation pattern of folded dipole is same as the conventional half wave dipole. But the impedance input of the forms is higher. A folded dipole differ from other dipoles by their directivity and broadness in bandwidth, the directivity of the folded dipole is bidirectional because of the distribution of the current in the parts of the folded dipole, input becomes higher as the ratio of the two conductors are equal in magnitude and phase. The input terminals equal to the square of the number of conductors comprising the antenna times the impedance at the terminal of the conventional dipole.

The folded dipole is connected to the network analyzer to find the frequency characteristics of the devices. The network analyzer graphically displays the gain VS frequency characteristics and return loss. The sensitivity and wider range make the network analyzer useful for communicating and measuring low level modulation.

Return Loss

(dB)

VSWR

(dB)

CALCULATION:

TABULATION: For distance 15cm:

Return Loss

(dB)

VSWR

(dB)

CALCULATION:

PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Switch on the network analyzer and select the mode of operation (option3) Set the start frequency and stop frequency Then fix the network analyzer for the internal calibration Connect the micro strip in between network analyzer using BNC cable The graphical representation of return loss and SWR shown in network analyzer By changing the wavelength of dipole antenna we can measure the return loss for different cut off frequency.

RESULT: Thus the design of the folded dipole and its frequency characteristics analysis was done by using network analyzer.

Input signal

IF Bandwidth

Amplitude

Frequency in Hz

fL0 fRFfL0+fRF

f fRF f

fL0

10KHZ

Amp

-3dB

10KHZ

EXPT. NO.9 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF MODULATED SIGNAL USING SPECTRUM

ANALYZER DATE:

AIM: To study the spectrum of communication circuits like AM, FM and FSK by using spectrum analyzer. EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Spectrum Analyzer Arbitrary waveform generator 20 MHz dual oscilloscope Multi meter Connecting wires

THEORY: The main components of spectrum analyzer are an RF input attenuator, input amplifier, mixer, IF amplifier, IF filter, Envelope detector, video filter, CRT display, ramp generator. Input section: The input to the spectrum analyzer has a step attenuation followed by an amplifier. The purpose of this input section is to control the signal level applied to the rest of the instrument. If the signal level is too large, the analyzer circuit will saturate the mixer and distort the signal, causing distorted products to appear along with the desired signal. If the signal level is too small, it may be mashed by the noise present in the analyzer. Either problem tends to reduce the dynamic range of the measurements. the new instruments provide an auto range feature which automatically selects an appropriate input attenuation. The input analyzer circuit is very sensitive and will not withstand much abuse. Careful attention should be paid to the allowable signal level at the input particularly for microwave analyzer. Some instruments analyzer tolerate DC voltages at their inputs, but other require that no DC be applied or be restricted to small amounts. The front end of the spectrum analyzer is made with wide open, on the basis that we have no idea how many signals are involved in our measurement in order to control somehow on the measured spectrum. It is necessary to add LPF for image rejection. A mixer is a device that converts a signal from one frequency to another. It is therefore, sometimes called a frequency convertor device. The output of the two original signal consist of f{L0} and f{RF} as well as the sum of these two signals IF filter and selectively.

3dB

Bandwidth

60 dB BW

IF filter shape and selectivity

FSK Modulation:

When measuring two signals of equal amplitude the value of the selected BW tells us how close together they can be distinguishable from one another. However with wider BWs the two signal may appear as one. In general the two equal amplitude signal can be s\reserved if their separation is greater than or equal to 3dB bandwidth.

Sensitivity: One of the primary uses of spectrum analyzer is to search out and measure low level signals. The sensitivity of any receiver is an indication of how well it can detects small signal. N=KTB Where, N=Noise power K=Boltzmans constant T=Temperature in Kelvin degree B=Bandwidth of the system in Hz In practise, all receivers including spectrum analyzer and add some amount of internally generated noise spectrum analyzer usually characterised this by specifying the displayed. The Average noise level in dBm with smallest RBW settings. Generally sensitivity is one of the order of -90dBm to -145dBm depending on the quality of the spectrum analyzer. It is important to known to sensitivity capability of the analyzer in order to determine if it will measure lower levels. One aspect of the analysis internal noise that is often overload is its selective level as a function of the RF input attenuation setting. Since the internal noise is generated after the mixer, the RF input attenuation has no effect on the actual noise level. The VBW, however does not affect the frequency resolution of the analyzer and changing the video filter does not improve stability. It does improve discernibly and repeatability of low SNR measurements. FSK modulation for transmission has many features: 1. 2. 3. 4. High data rate Continuous carrier presence Better noise immunity Channelization

The limitations are: 1. 2. 3. 4. High cost Large size High power consumption Low output power.

Model Graph:

Power (dfm)

f space

f mark frequencies

PROCEDURE: 1. Select the type of modulation for frequency shift keying 2. Set the carrier frequency which can range up to 20 MHz the carrier is a sine wave. 3. Set the hop frequency which is modulating signal a square wave range is limited. 4. Set the FSK rate which would mark the mark frequency and space frequency. It is limited to 100 KHz. 5. The output performance in frequency domain can be viewed in spectrum analyzer.

TABULATION: FREQUENCY (MHZ) GAIN IN dB

RESULT: Thus the modulated signal was analyzed using spectrum analyzer. fc=_________GHZ