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Signals, Noise, Modulation,

and Demodulation
„ Signals can be:
„ Analog: Amplitude change continuously with time
„ Digital: are described as discrete and their amplitude
maintains constant level for a prescribed period of time.
It is called binary level if only two levels are possible
called also a pulse
„ All digital signals are not necessary binary
„ A four level signal is called a quarternary digital signal
FIGURE 2-
2-1 Electrical signals: (a) sine wave; (b) binary digital signal;
signal; (c) quaternary digital signal

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
Modulation
„ Converting information signals to a different form is
called modulation, and the reverse process is called
demodulation
„ Many of data communication systems utilize both
analog and digital systems, since it is often
necessary to change the form of the source
information
„ Modulate simply means to change, when analog
signal is being modulated (information =
modulating signal), some property of it is changing
proportional to the modulated signal (carrier)
Modulation
„ Electronic communications systems are analog and
digital
„ Analog systems in which energy is transmitted and
received in analog form
„ Digital communications covers digital transmission and
digital modulation
„ Digital transmission sys. require a physical facility between
transmitter & receiver
„ Original signal may be analog or digital
„ Digital modulation is the transmittal of digitally modulated
analog signals between two or more points
„ Modulating and demodulated signals are digital pulses
„ Carried through the system on an analog signal (carrier)
„ Original source information with digital modulation may be in
analog or digital form
FIGURE 2-
2-2 Analog and digital communications systems: (a) analog communications
communications system; (b) digital transmission; (c) digital
modulation.

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2- 2-2(continued) Analog and digital communications systems: (a) analog communications
communications system; (b) digital transmission;
(c) digital modulation.

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2- 2-2(continued) Analog and digital communications systems: (a) analog communications
communications system; (b) digital transmission;
(c) digital modulation.

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
Signal Analysis
„ A since wave consists of cycles
„ A cycle is one complete variation in the signal
„ A period is the time the waveform takes to complete
one cycle (T) and constitutes 360 degrees or (2 Π
radians)
„ A since wave can be described in terms of three
parameters:
„ Amplitude: is the magnitude of the signal at any point and
measured in voltage or the vertical displacement. The
max. voltage is called peak amplitude or voltage (V)
„ Frequency
„ Phase
FIGURE 2-
2-3 Three sine waves showing amplitude, frequency, and phase

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-4 Comparison of two sine waves of different amplitudes and phases
phases

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-5 Time domain representation of a single-
single-frequency sine wave

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-6 Frequency spectrum (frequency domain representation) of two sine waves

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-7 Wave symmetries: (a) even symmetry; (b) odd symmetry; (c) half
half--wave symmetry

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-8 2–1
Waveform for Example 2–

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
Frequency Spectrum and Bandwidth
„ Frequency Spectrum consists of all the frequencies
contained in the waveform and their amplitudes
plotted in the frequency domain
„ BW is the range of frequencies contained in the
spectrum and is calculated by subtracting the
lowest frequency from the highest
„ BW of a communication channel ≥ BW of
information signal
FIGURE 2-
2-9 2–1
Frequency spectrum for Example 2–

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-10 Voice-
Voice-frequency spectrum and telephone circuit bandwidth

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
Electrical Noise and Signal to Noise
Ratio
„ Electrical noise is any undesirable electrical energy that
falls within the pass band of the signal
„ The most prevalent and the most interfering noise to data
communication are:
„ Man-made noise called industrial noise
„ Thermal noise is associated to the rapid and random movement of
electrons due to thermal agitation
„ Correlated noise is mutually related to signal
„ Harmonic distortion
„ Intermodulation distortion
„ Impulse noise is characterized by high amplitude peaks of short
duration in the total noise spectrum
„ Signal-to-noise power ratio is the ratio of the signal power to the
thermal noise power level
S/N (dBm) = 10 log Ps/Pn
FIGURE 2-
2-11 Effects of noise on a signal: (a) signal without noise; (b) signal with noise

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-12 Correlated noise: (a) harmonic distortion; (b) intermodulation
intermodulation distortion

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
Amplitude Modulation
„ AM is the process of changing the amplitude of a
relatively high frequency carrier signal in
proportion to the instantaneous value of the
modulating signal (information)
„ Is relatively inexpensive, low quality form of
modulation used for commercial broadcasting, CB
radio
„ AM modulators are two-input devices, the output
produces a modulated wave
FIGURE 2-
2-13 AM generation

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
Angle Modulation
„ Results whenever the phase angle (θ) of a
sinusoidal signal is varied with respect to time
„ Includes both FM and PM where the difference
lies in which property of the carrier (frequency
or phase) is directly varied by the modulating
signal and which property is indirectly varied.
„ If frequency of the carrier is varied directly in
accordance with the information (modulating)
signal, FM results, otherwise PM results.
FIGURE 2-
2-14 Angle-
Angle-modulated wave in the frequency domain

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-15 Angle modulation in the time domain: (a) phase changing with
with time; (b) frequency changing with time

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2- sine-wave carrier by a sine-
2-16 Phase and frequency modulation of a sine- sine-wave signal: (a) unmodulated carrier; (b)
modulating signal; (c) frequency-
frequency-modulated wave; (d) phase-
phase-modulated wave

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
Information Capacity, Bits, Bit Rate,
Baud, and M-Ary encoding
„ Information theory is a highly theoretical study of the
efficient use of bandwidth to propagate information
through electronic communication systems
„ It is used to determine the information capacity which is a
measure of how much information (number of independent
symbols) can be propagated through a communication
system and a function of bandwidth and transmission time
„ Binary digit, or bit is the most basic digital symbols that
can be used to represent information
„ Information capacity is often convenient to be expressed in
bit rate which is the number of bits transmitted during 1
second (bps).
Hartley’s Law
„ In 1928, Hartley of Bell Telephone
Laboratories developed a useful relationship
among bandwidth, transmission time, and
information capacity
I∞Bxt
I = information capacity (bps)
B = bandwidth (hertz)
t = transmission time (seconds)
Shannon’s Formula
„ In 1948, mathematician Claude E. Shannon
developed the Shannon limit for information
capacity
I = B log ( 1 + S/N )
2

= 3.32 B log ( 1 + S/N )


10

I = information capacity (bps)


B = bandwidth (hertz)
S/N = signal-to-noise power ratio (unitless)
M-ary Encoding
„ Derived from the word binary
„ M represents a digit that corresponds to the
number of conditions, levels, or combinations
possible for a given number of binary variables
„ The number of bits necessary to produce a given
number of conditions is expressed as
N = log M or 2*N = M
2

N = number of bits necessary


M = number of conditions, levels, or
combinations possible with N bits
Baud and Minimum Bandwidth
„ Commonly confused with bps
„ Is rate of change of the signal and is the reciprocal
of the time of one output signaling element
(symbol) which may represent several information
bits and could be encoded as change of amplitude,
frequency, or phase
„ Bit rate refers to the rate of change of digital
information signal
„ Baud is considered less than bit rate
Nyquist’s Formula
„ Noiseless transmission medium
fb = 2 B
fb = is the bit rate in bps
B = is the ideal Nyquist bandwidth
„ Using multilevel signaling, the Nyquist formulation for
channel capacity is:
fb = B log2 M → B = fb / B log2 M = fb / N
fb = channel capacity (bps)
B = minimum Nyquist bandwidth (hertz)
M = number of discrete signal or voltage levels
N = number of bits encoded into each signaling element

baud = fb / N
FIGURE 2-
2-17 Simplified block diagram of a digital radio system

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-18 Digital amplitude modulation: (a) input binary; (b) output DAM waveform

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-19 FSK in the frequency domain

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-20 FSK in the time domain: (a) waveform; (b) truth table

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-20(continued) FSK in the time domain: (a) waveform; (b) truth table

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-21 phase–versus–
Output phase–versus–time relationship for a BPSK modulator

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-22 BPSK modulator: (a) truth table; (b) phasor diagram; (c) constellation
constellation diagram

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-23 phase–versus–
QPSK: (a) output phase–versus–time relationship; (b) truth table; (c) constellation

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-23(continued) phase–versus–
QPSK: (a) output phase–versus–time relationship; (b) truth table; (c) constellation

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-24 phase–versus–
8-PSK: (a) output phase–versus–time relationship; (b) truth table; (c) constellation diagram

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-24(continued) phase–versus–
8-PSK: (a) output phase–versus–time relationship; (b) truth table; (c) constellation diagram

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-25 16-
16-PSK: (a) truth table; (b) constellation diagram

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-26 phase–versus-
8-QAM: (a) output phase–versus-time relationship; (b) truth table; (c) constellation diagram

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-26(continued) phase–versus-
8-QAM: (a) output phase–versus-time relationship; (b) truth table; (c) constellation diagram

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.
FIGURE 2-
2-27 16-
16-QAM modulator: (a) truth table; (b) constellation diagram

Wayne Tomasi
Introduction to Data Communications Copyright ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
and Networking, 1e All rights reserved.