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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS

YEAR 2012 MCQ 7.1

ONE MARK

A periodic voltage waveform observed on an oscilloscope across a load is shown. A permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC) meter connected across the same load reads

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(A) 4 V (C) 8 V

MCQ 7.2

(B) 5 V (D) 10 V

The bridge method commonly used for finding mutual inductance is (A) Heaviside Campbell bridge (B) Schering bridge (C) De Sauty bridge (D) Wien bridge

MCQ 7.3

For the circuit shown in the figure, the voltage and current expressions are v (t) = E1 sin (ωt) + E 3 sin (3ωt) and i (t) = I1 sin (ωt − φ1) + I 3 sin (3ωt − φ3) + I5 sin (5ωt) The average power measured by the wattmeter is

PAGE 380

ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS

CHAP 7

**(A) 1 E1 I1 cos φ1 2 (B) 1 [E1 I1 cos φ1 + E1 I 3 cos φ3 + E1 I5] 2 (C) 1 [E1 I1 cos φ1 + E 3 I 3 cos φ3] 2 (D) 1 [E1 I1 cos φ1 + E 3 I1 cos φ1] 2
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YEAR 2012 MCQ 7.4 TWO MARKS

An analog voltmeter uses external multiplier settings. With a multiplier setting of 20 kΩ , it reads 440 V and with a multiplier setting of 80 kΩ , it reads 352 V. For a multiplier setting of 40 kΩ , the voltmeter reads (A) 371 V (B) 383 V (C) 394 V (D) 406 V

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MCQ 7.5

YEAR 2011

ONE MARK

Consider the following statement (1) The compensating coil of a low power factor wattmeter compensates the effect of the impedance of the current coil. (2) The compensating coil of a low power factor wattmeter compensates the effect of the impedance of the voltage coil circuit. (A) (1) is true but (2) is false (C) both (1) and (2) are true (B) (1) is false but (2) is true (D) both (1) and (2) are false

MCQ 7.6

The bridge circuit shown in the figure below is used for the measurement of an unknown element ZX . The bridge circuit is best suited when ZX is a

(A) low resistance (C) low Q inductor

(B) high resistance (D) lossy capacitor

CHAP 7

ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS

PAGE 381

MCQ 7.7

A dual trace oscilloscope is set to operate in the ALTernate mode. The control input of the multiplexer used in the y -circuit is fed with a signal having a frequency equal to (A) the highest frequency that the multiplexer can operate properly (B) twice the frequency of the time base (sweep) oscillator (C) the frequency of the time base (sweep) oscillator (D) haif the frequency of the time base (sweep) oscillator

YEAR 2011 MCQ 7.8

TWO MARKS

A 41 2 digit DMM has the error specification as: 0.2% of reading + 10 counts. If a dc voltage of 100 V is read on its 200 V full scale, the maximum error that can be expected in the reading is (A) ! 0.1% (B) ! 0.2% (C) ! 0.3% (D) ! 0.4%

MCQ 7.9

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A wattmeter is connected as shown in figure. The wattmeter reads.

YEAR 2010

ONE MARK

**(A) Zero always (B) Total power consumed by Z1 and Z 2 (C) Power consumed by Z1 (D) Power consumed by Z2
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MCQ 7.10

An ammeter has a current range of 0-5 A, and its internal resistance is 0.2 Ω . In order to change the range to 0-25 A, we need to add a resistance of (A) 0.8 Ω in series with the meter (B) 1.0 Ω in series with the meter (C) 0.04 Ω in parallel with the meter (D) 0.05 Ω in parallel with the meter

PAGE 382

ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS

CHAP 7

MCQ 7.11

As shown in the figure, a negative feedback system has an amplifier of gain 100 with ! 10% tolerance in the forward path, and an attenuator of value 9/100 in the feedback path. The overall system gain is approximately :

(A) 10 ! 1% (C) 10 ! 5%

(B) 10 ! 2% (D) 10 ! 10%

YEAR 2010 MCQ 7.12

TWO MARKS

The Maxwell’s bridge shown in the figure is at balance. The parameters of the inductive coil are.

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(A) R = R2 R 3 /R 4, L = C 4 R2 R 3 (B) L = R2 R 3 /R 4, R = C 4 R2 R 3 (C) R = R 4 /R2 R 3, L = 1/ (C 4 R2 R 3) (D) L = R 4 /R2 R 3, R = 1/ (C 4 R2 R 3)

YEAR 2009 MCQ 7.13 ONE MARK

The pressure coil of a dynamometer type wattmeter is (A) Highly inductive (B) Highly resistive (C) Purely resistive (D) Purely inductive

MCQ 7.14

The two inputs of a CRO are fed with two stationary periodic signals. In the X-Y mode, the screen shows a figure which changes from ellipse to circle and back to ellipse with its major axis changing orientation slowly and repeatedly. The following inference can be made from this. (A) The signals are not sinusoidal (B) The amplitudes of the signals are very close but not equal

TB /2 TWO MARKS MCQ 7. If the input analog signal is reduced to 2. one of single slope integrating type and other of successive approximate type. the approximate time taken by the two ADCs will respectively.rejinpaul.15 TWO MARKS The figure shows a three-phase delta connected load supplied from a 400V.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 383 (C) The signals are sinusoidal with their frequencies very close but not equal (D) There is a constant but small phase difference between the signals YEAR 2009 MCQ 7.5 V.com (C) 800 Watt (D) 400 Watt An average-reading digital multi-meter reads 10 V when fed with a triangular wave. take TA and TB times to convert 5 V analog input signal to equivalent digital output.16 download from www. t) = A sin ω1 t and q (ω2 t) are applied to X and Y inputs of a dual channel CRO.17 ONE MARK Two 8-bit ADCs. with the coil polarities suitably selected to ensure a positive deflection.18 Two sinusoidal signals p (ω1. TB /2 YEAR 2008 (D) TA /2. TB (A) TA. 3-phase balanced source. TB (C) TA. The pressure coil (PC) and current coil (CC) of a wattmeter are connected to the load as shown. be (B) TA /2. The wattmeter reading will be MCQ 7. 50 Hz. The Lissajous figure displayed on the screen shown below : . symmetric about the time-axis. For the same input an rms-reading meter will read (B) 10 (A) 20 3 3 (C) 20 3 (D) 10 3 (A) 0 (B) 1600 Watt YEAR 2008 MCQ 7.

ω2 = ω1 /2 The ac bridge shown in the figure is used to measure the impedance Z . ω2 = 2ω1 MCQ 7. G2 of Ch1 and Ch2 respectively are connected to points : .PAGE 384 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 The signal q (ω2 t) will be represented as (A) q (ω2 t) = A sin ω2 t. two channel oscillocope are clipped to points A. download from www. ω2 = 2ω1 (C) q (ω2 t) = A cos ω2 t. then the impedance Z will be (A) (260 + j0) Ω (B) (0 + j200) Ω (C) (260 − j200) Ω YEAR 2007 MCQ 7.20 (D) (260 + j200) Ω ONE MARK The probes of a non-isolated. The display on Ch1 and Ch2 are as shown on the right. ω2 = ω1 /2 (D) q (ω2 t) = A cos ω2 t. B and C in the circuit of the adjacent figure.com If the bridge is balanced for oscillator frequency f = 2 kHz. Vin is a square wave of a suitable low frequency. G1 and S2. Then the “Signal” and “Ground” probes S1.19 (B) q (ω2 t) = A sin ω2 t.rejinpaul.

com (B) First adjust R2 . 2 ms (D) 10 V. and then adjust R2 YEAR 2006 MCQ 7. B. B.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 385 (A) A.rejinpaul. 5 V p-p square wave calibration pulse to channel-1 of the scope and observes the screen to be as shown in the upper trace of the figure. An unknown signal is connected to channel-2(lower trace) of the scope. B. B (B) A. A. B (D) B. A. C.21 TWO MARKS A bridge circuit is shown in the figure below. A student connects a 1 kHz. and then adjust R1 download from www.22 ONE MARK The time/div and voltage/div axes of an oscilloscope have been erased. It the time/div and V/div on both channels are the same. C. 1 ms . the amplitude (p-p) and period of the unknown signal are respectively (A) 5 V. Which one of the sequence given below is most suitable for balancing the bridge ? (A) First adjust R4 . C YEAR 2007 MCQ 7. A (C) C. 2 ms (B) 5 V. B. and then adjust R3 (C) First adjust R2 .5 V. 1 ms (C) 7. and then adjust R4 (D) First adjust R4 .

If the number of secondary turns is reduced by 1 new ratioerror(%) and phase-error(min) will be respectively (B) − 0.rejinpaul.24 (B) 25 W (D) 100 W TWO MARKS download from www. 6. They are a centre zero PMMC meter. Under balanced conditions which one of the following is true . The reading in W will be (A) 0 W (C) 50 W YEAR 2006 MCQ 7. The source voltage is applied across R1 and R3 .PAGE 386 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 MCQ 7. The period is 20 ms. The variables are measured with meters of accuracy ! 0. a true rms meter and a moving iron instrument.2 A variable w is related to three other variables x .0.5% rdg (B) ! 5.26 A 200/1 Current transformer (CT) is wound with 200 turns on the secondary on a toroidal core. The actual readings of the three meters are 80.25 A current of − 8 + 6 2 (sin ωt + 30%) A is passed through three meters.7 rdg (D) ! 7. the ratio and phase errors of the CT are found to be − 0. The peak to peak voltage of the square wave is 10 V and the current is a triangular wave of 5 A p-p as shown in the figure.5% reading. 25 MCQ 7. 6. ! 1% of full scale value and ! 1.0 rdg MCQ 7.0.5% reading. 30 (D) − 1. The respective reading (in A) will be (A) 8. 35 (A) 0. 8 (D) − 8 .0. When it carries a current of 160 A on the primary.com (C) − 8 .10 MCQ 7.5% rdg (C) ! 6.2.5% and 30 minutes respectively.5. The maximum uncertainty in the measurement of w will be (A) ! 0. z as w = xy/z .23 A sampling wattmeter (that computes power from simultaneously sampled values of voltage and current) is used to measure the average power of a load.27 R1 and R4 are the opposite arms of a Wheatstone bridge as are R3 and R2 . 30 (C) − 1. 20 and 50 with 100 being the full scale value for all three.10.y . 10 (B) 8.

30 download from www.32 MCQ 7.010 Ω (B) 0.1 Ω and its current range is 0-100 A. then meter required the following shunt resistance (A) 0. Its bit size is (A) 4 (B) 8 The simultaneous application of signals x (t) and y (t) to the horizontal and vertical plates. respectively. respectively.01 Ω and 2000 Ω . of an oscilloscope.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 387 (A) R1 = R3 R4 /R2 (B) R1 = R2 R3 /R4 (C) R1 = R2 R4 /R3 (D) R1 = R2 + R3 + R4 YEAR 2005 MCQ 7.5 V has a resolution close to 14 mV.011 Ω (C) 0.rejinpaul. The meter reads (A) 2 V (B) 5 V (C) (2 + 3 /2) V (D) ( 17 /2) V MCQ 7. giving a measured resistances of 90 Ω The percentage error in the measurement is . produces a vertical figureof-8 display.025 Ω (D) 1.com (C) 16 (D) 32 YEAR 2005 MCQ 7.The ammeter and voltmeter resistances are 0.29 A PMMC voltmeter is connected across a series combination of DC voltage source V1 = 2 V and AC voltage source V2 (t) = 3 sin (4t) V.0 Ω MCQ 7. Their readings are 2 A and 180 V. then y (t) is equal to (A) Q sin (4t − 30c) (B) Q sin (2t + 15c) (C) Q sin (8t + 60c) (D) Q sin (4t + 30c) A DC ammeter has a resistance of 0. If P and Q are constants and x (t) = P sin (4t + 30c). If the range is to be extended to 0-500 A.33 The set-up in the figure is used to measure resistance R .28 ONE MARK The Q-meter works on the principle of (A) mutual inductance (C) series resonance (B) self inductance (D) parallel resonance MCQ 7. respectively.31 TWO MARKS A digital-to-analog converter with a full-scale output voltage of 3.

5 kW.684 (C) 8. A standard cell of emf 1.5 kW and − 2.52 (D) 8.0 kW.02 Ω and 1000 Ω resistances respectively.PAGE 388 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 (A) 2.334 (B) 13.5% MCQ 7. then voltmeter reads download from www.37 The circuit in figure is used to measure the power consumed by the load.00 V (B) 1. which are connected to measure the total power on a three-phase system supplying a balanced load.25% (C) 4.35 (B) 16 V (D) 40 V Two wattmeters. The measured power compared to the load power will be . The total power and the power factor. respectively.34 V (C) 1.36 ONE MARK A dc potentiometer is designed to measure up to about 2 V with a slide wire of 800 mm.70 V MCQ 7.rejinpaul. read 10.334 YEAR 2004 MCQ 7.50 V (D) 1.0 kW. respectively. When connected between the positive core and earth. The current coil and the voltage coil of the wattmeter have 0.com (A) 8 V (C) 24 V MCQ 7. 0.34 (B) 2.18 V obtains balance at 600 mm. 0.71% A 1000 V DC supply has two 1-core cables as its positive and negative leads : their insulation resistances to earth are 4 M Ω and 6 M Ω . respectively. are (A) 13. A voltmeter with resistance 50 k Ω is used to measure the insulation of the cable.35% (D) 4. The emf of the test cell is (A) 1. as shown in the figure. 0. 0. A test cell is seen to obtain balance at 680 mm.0 kW.0 kW.

rejinpaul.40 (B) 4.54 V MCQ 7. The probe is used to measure the voltage between P and Q as shown in figure. The measured voltage will be (A) 3. and a length and depth of 10 mm and 20 mm respectively. The coil carries a current of 50 mA. The rate of change of self induction .41 A dc A-h meter is rated for 15 A.53 V (C) 4. 250 V.4 % less (C) 0. The torque on the coil is (A) 200 µNm (B) 100 µNm (C) 2 µNm (D) 1 µNm MCQ 7.com A CRO probe has an impedance of 500 kΩ in parallel with a capacitance of 10 pF.37 V (D) 5.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 389 (A) 0.39 TWO MARKS download from www.4% more A galvanometer with a full scale current of 10 mA has a resistance of 1000 Ω .2% more MCQ 7.2% less (D) 0.38 (B) 0. The meter constant is 14.00 V A moving coil of a meter has 100 turns. The meter constant at rated voltage may be expressed as (A) 3750 rev/kWh (B) 3600 rev/kWh (C) 1000 rev/kWh (D) 960 rev/kWh MCQ 7.4 A-sec/ rev. The multiplying power (the ratio of measured current to galvanometer current) of 100 Ω shunt with this galvanometer is (A) 110 (B) 100 (C) 11 (D) 10 YEAR 2004 MCQ 7. It is positioned in a uniform radial flux density of 200 mT.42 A moving iron ammeter produces a full scale torque of 240 µNm with a deflection of 120c at a current of 10 A .

4-wire system with phase sequence RYB.6c MCQ 7.5 mWb YEAR 2003 (D) 100.44 (B) − 597 W (D) + 795 W download from www. The power factor of the load is 0.6 µ H/radian A single-phase load is connected between R and Y terminals of a 415 V.0 µ H/radian MCQ 7.4c The core flux in the CT of Prob Q. 3-phase.43 (D) 114.6c (B) 85. A wattmeter is connected in the system as shown in figure.44. under the given operating conditions is (A) 0 (B) 45.0 µ H/radian (B) 4. The magnetizing ampere-turns is 200.45 (D) 175.0 µ Wb (C) 22.PAGE 390 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 ( µ H/radian) of the instrument at full scale is (A) 2.rejinpaul.8 lagging.8 µ H/radian (C) 12.0 mWb ONE MARK MCQ 7.46 A Manganin swap resistance is connected in series with a moving coil ammeter consisting of a milli-ammeter and a suitable shunt in order to (A) minimise the effect of temperature variation (B) obtain large deflecting torque (C) reduce the size of the meter (D) minimise the effect of stray magnetic fields MCQ 7. The wattmeter will read (A) − 795 W (C) + 597 W MCQ 7. bar primary CT has a secondary with 500 turns. symmetrical.47 The effect of stray magnetic field on the actuating torque of a portable instrument is maximum when the operating field of the instrument and the stray fields are (A) perpendicular (B) parallel . The secondary supplies 5 A current into a purely resistive burden of 1 Ω .4c (C) 94.com A 50 Hz. The phase angle between the primary and second current is (A) 4.

The value of Cx in pF is (A) 100 (B) 200 (C) 300 (D) 500 YEAR 2003 MCQ 7. Q. Select the correct choice of the item in Group-II for the corresponding item in Group-I from the following List-I P. the maximum frequency of the analog signal that can be converted using this A/D converter is approximately download from www. A lossless capacitor of unknown value Cx is then connected in parallel with the variable capacitor and the same reading was obtained when the variable capacitor is readjusted to a value of 200 pF. R.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 391 (C) inclined at 60% MCQ 7. The items in Group-II represent the various bridges available for this purpose. The 10-bit counter at the output is clocked by a 1 MHz clock. are nearly equal Inductance of a coil with a 4.com (A) 2 kHz (C) 500 Hz MCQ 7. Comparison of resistance which 3. List-II Wheatstone Bridge Kelvin Double Bridge Schering Bridge Wien’s Bridge Hay’s Bridge Carey-Foster Bridge . large time-constant 5. S. Assuming negligible timing overhead for the control logic.49 TWO MARKS The simplified block diagram of a 10-bit A/D converter of dual slope integrator type is shown in figure. 6.rejinpaul.50 (B) 1 kHz (D) 250 Hz The items in Group-I represent the various types of measurements to be made with a reasonable accuracy using a suitable bridge. Resistance in the milli-ohm 1. range Low values of Capacitance 2.48 (D) inclined at 30% A reading of 120 is obtained when standard inductor was connected in the circuit of a Q-meter and the variable capacitor is adjusted to value of 300 pF.

an ideal full-wave rectifier bridge and a PMMC instrument as shown in figure.53 The inductance of a certain moving-iron ammeter is expressed as L = 10 + 3θ − (θ2 /4) µH . R=4.3 kΩ download from www.52 A wattmeter reads 400 W when its current coil is connected in the R-phase and its pressure coil is connected between this phase and the neutral of a symmetrical 3-phase system supplying a balanced star connected 0.54 A 500A/5A. This phase sequence is RYB.6 Nm/radian.56 (C) 11. The internal. The value of Rs required to obtain full scale deflection with an ac voltage of 100 V (rms) applied to the input terminals is (A) 63.PAGE 392 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 Codes : (A) P=2. S=5 (D) P=1.6 (C) 300. R=6. is (A) 2. The deflection of the pointer in radian when the meter carries a current of 5 A. where θ is the deflection in radians from the zero position. S=6 A rectifier type ac voltmeter of a series resistance Rs . Q=3.4 (B) 2. 50 Hz transformer has a bar primary.93 Ω (D) 141.0 MCQ 7. inductive load.93 Ω (B) 69.56 (B) − 10. S=5 (C) P=2.80 (D) − 11.2 (D) 1. Q=3. S=4 MCQ 7. The control spring torque is 25 # 10 .56 Ω (C) 89. R=5.80 . What will be the reading of this wattmeter if its pressure coil alone is reconnected between the B and Y phases.0 (C) 1.com MCQ 7.0 (B) 519. the percentage ratio error is (A) 10. R=2. Q=6.rejinpaul.0 (D) 692.8 p.51 (B) P=2.8 MCQ 7. If the magnetic core requires 250 AT for magnetization. Q= 3.f. resistance of the instrument is 100 Ω and a full scale deflection is produced by a dc current of 1 mA. all other connections remaining as before ? (A) 400. The secondary burden is a pure resistance of 1 Ω and it draws a current of 5 A.

4 mW (B) − 3. 77. Choose the correct value of Φ from Group-I to match with the corresponding figure of Group-II. Q= 3. what would be observed if the oscilloscope is operated in X-Y mode ? (A) A circle of unit radius (B) An ellipse (C) A parabola . − 85. Q=5. time scale and other settings are exactly the same for both the channels.8 mW. S=5 (C) P=2.56 Group-II represents the figures obtained on a CRO screen when the voltage signals Vx = Vxm sin ωt and Vy = Vym sin (ωt + Φ) are given to its X and Y plates respectively and Φ is changed. R=5. π < Φ < 3π/2 S. Assuming that the voltage scale.1 W (D) 4. Φ = 0 download from www.rejinpaul.5 lagging are respectively (A) 3.com R.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 393 MCQ 7. The errors introduced in the reading of this meter when the current is 5 A at power factor of unity and 0. Q= 6.2 W.2 W.4 mW (C) − 4. Φ = 3π/2 Q. R=6. R=4. Group-I Group-II P.55 The voltage-flux adjustment of a certain 1-phase 220 V induction watt-hour meter is altered so that the phase angle between the applied voltage and the flux due to it is 85c(instead of 90c). − 77.8 mW. 50 Hz sinusoidal waveforms of unit amplitude are fed into channel-1 and channel-2 respectively of an oscilloscope. Φ = π/2 Codes : (A) P=1. S=4 ONE MARK Two in-phase.1 W MCQ 7. S=4 YEAR 2002 MCQ 7.57 (B) P=2. Q= 3. R=6. S=5 (D) P=1. 85.

MCQ 7.rejinpaul.371 Ω (C) 3.59 If an energy meter disc makes 10 revolutions in 100 seconds when a load of 450 W is connected to it. respectively. 2-wire balanced or unbalanced power is (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 MCQ 7.0 MCQ 7.237 Ω to 3. nominal values of 10 Ω and 5 Ω . and tolerance of ! 5% and ! 10% .077 Ω to 3.0 (B) 22.com MCQ 7.435 Ω *********** .192 Ω to 3.61 A 100 µA ammeter has an internal resistance of 100 Ω . the shunt required is of resistance (in Ω) (A) 20. Assuming that the phase sequence is RYB. For extending its range to measure 500 µA . the wattmeters would read.60 The minimum number of wattmeter(s) required to measure 3-phase.805 Ω to 3. 50 Hz. (A) W1 =886 W and W2 =886 W (C) W1 =0 W and W2 =1000 W YEAR 2001 (B) W1 =500 W and W2 = 500 W (D) W1 = 250 W and W2 = 750 W ONE MARK download from www.62 Resistance R1 and R2 have.678 Ω (D) 3. The range of values for the parallel combination of R1 and R2 is (A) 3.58 The line-to-line input voltage to the 3-phase. ac circuit shown in Figure is 100 V rms.0 (D) 50.22 (C) 25.636 Ω (B) 2. the meter constant (in rev/kWh) is (A) 1000 (B) 500 (C) 1600 (D) 800 MCQ 7.PAGE 394 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 (D) A straight line inclined at 45c with respect to the x-axis.

Heaviside mutual inductance bridge measures mutual inductance is terms of a known self-inductance. Let ωt = θ .(i) P = 1 v (t) i (t) dθ 2π 0 We can solve this integration using following results.com Option (C) is correct. 2π (i) 1 A sin (θ + α):B sin (θ + β) dθ = 1 AB cos (α − β) 2π 0 2 Option (A) is correct. 20 T 1 v (t) dt Vavg = 1 v (t) dt = − 3 T 0 20 # 10 0 # # 10 = 1 . P = 1 E1 I1 cos φ + 1 E 3 I 3 cos φ3 2 2 SOL 7. tdt + 20 0 # # (− 5) dt + # 5dtE 10 12 12 20 2 10 20 = 1 c :t D − 5 6t @12 + 5 6t @12 m 10 20 2 0 = 1 [50 − 5 (2) + 5 (8)] = 80 = 4 V 20 20 SOL 7. . which is gives as 2π .4 Option (D) is correct.. we have instaneous voltage and current as follows..2 SOL 7. Thus integration of equation (i) gives. PMMC instrument reads average (dc) value.1 Option (A) is correct. A voltmeter with a multiplier is shown in figure below.rejinpaul.3 download from www.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 395 SOLUTIONS SOL 7. # # # 0 0 (ii) 1 2π (iii) 1 2π (iv) 1 2π 2π A sin (θ + α):B cos (θ + α) dθ = 1 AB sin (α − β) 2 # A sin (mθ + α):B cos (nθ + β) dθ = 0 # A sin (mθ + α):B cos (nθ + β) dθ = 0 0 2π 2π Result (iii) and (iv) implies that power is transferred between same harmonics of voltages and currents. v (t) = E1 sin θ + E 3 sin 3θ i (t) = I1 sin (θ − φ1) + I 3 sin (3θ − φ3) + I5 sin (5θ) We know that wattmeter reads the average power.

we get V = 480 V . Option (C) is correct.406 V m2 Vm3 220 k When. Let Z1 = R1 || jωC1 so admittance Y1 = 1 = 1 + jωC1 Z1 R 1 Z2 = R2 and Z 4 = R 4 Let ZX = RX + jωLX (Unknown impedance) For current balance condition of the Bridge Z 2 Z 4 = Z X Z1 = Z X Y1 SOL 7.6 . Vm3 = ? 480 = 1 + 40 k & V . 352 Rm Solving equation (i) and (ii).com So. Rm = 220 kΩ So when Rs3 = 40 kΩ . Vm1 = 440 V V = 1 + 20k 440 Rm SOL 7.5 Option (A) is correct..(ii) Here when.. Rs1 = 20 kΩ . .(i) Rs2 = 80 kΩ . .. Rm = Internal resistance of meter Rs = Voltage across the meter V = Full range voltage of instrument Vm = Im Rm V = Im (Rm + Rs) V = R m + Rs = 1 + Rs Rm Rm Vm download from www.PAGE 396 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 Here Im = Fully scale deflection current of meter.. Vm2 = 352 V V = 1 + 80 k So.rejinpaul. The compensating coil compensation the effect of impedance of current coil.

letting each through for one cycle of horizontal sweep as shown in the figure. download from www.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 397 Let ZX = Z2 Z 4 Y1 RX + jωLX = R2 R 4 b 1 + jωC1 l R1 Equating imaginary and real parts RX = R2 R 4 and LX = R2 R 4 C1 R1 Quality factor of inductance which is being measured Q = ωL X = ωR 1 C 1 RX From above equation we can see that for measuring high values of Q we need a large value of resistance R 4 which is not suitable.com . In the alternate mode it switches between channel A and channel B.7 Option (C) is correct.e. This bridge is used for measuring low Q coils. Q < 10 ) SOL 7.rejinpaul.r Note: We can observe directly that this is a maxwell’s bridge which is suitable for low values of Q (i.

99 So error of 10 counts is 2 equal to = ! 0.3 V Percentage error = ! 0.3 % of reading 100 SOL 7.com Wattmeter read power consumed by Z2 Option (D) is correct.091 = g = 9 110 #9 1 + 1 + (100 + 10%) b 100 l 100 . the maximum error is e = ! (100 # 0. Overall gain of the system is 100 = 10 (zero error) g = 1 + 100 b 9 l 100 Gain with error 100 + 10% 110 = 10.05 Ω 20 SOL 7.002 + 0. Given that full scale current is 5 A SOL 7.1) = ! 0.3 # 100 % = ! 0.8 Option (C) is correct.11 Option (A) is correct.PAGE 398 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 SOL 7.00 to 199.9 Option (D) is correct.2 Rsh = 1 = . Since potential coil is applied across Z2 as shown below download from www.10 Current in shunt I l = IR − I fs = 25 − 5 = 20 A 20 # Rsh = 5 # 0.rejinpaul.10 V For 100 V. 4 1 digit display will read from 000.

15 .− 0. Option (D) is correct. A circle is produced when there is a 90c phase difference between vertical and horizontal inputs.rejinpaul.13 Option (B) is correct. SOL 7.com jR2 R 3 ωC 4 jR2 R 3 ωC 4 SOL 7.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 399 error 3 g = 10. so that all the voltage appears across load.12 Option (A) is correct.1 So gain g = 10 ! 0. so it should be highly resistive.14 SOL 7.0. RR 4 = R2 R 3 ωC 4 ωC 4 R = R2 R 3 R4 Similarly.091 − 10 . Wattmeter reading P = VPC ICC VPC " Voltage across potential coil.89 − 10 .89 error 3 g = 9.1 Similarly 100 − 10% 90 g = = 9 1 + (100 − 10%) 1 + 90 # 9 100 100 = 9. Option (C) is correct. LR 4 = R R R 2 3 4 C4 (R + jωL) c R 4 < L = R2 R3 C 4 download from www. Since Potential coil is connected across the load terminal.1 = 10 ! 1% SOL 7. At balance condition −j = R2 R 3 ωC 4 m − jR 4 ωC 4 = R2 R 3 (R + jωL) j R − c 4 ωC 4 m − jRR 4 ωLR 4 + = R2 R 3 R 4 − ωC 4 ωC 4 − jRR 4 LR 4 + = R2 R 3 R 4 − ωC 4 C4 Comparing real & imaginary parts.

. Option (D) is correct.17 SOL 7. Conversion time does not depend on input voltage so it remains same for both type of ADCs.rejinpaul. VPC = Vbc = 400+ − 120c ICC = Iac = 400+120c = 4+120c 100 Power P = 400+ − 120c # 4+120c = 1600+240c = 1600 # 1 = 800 Watt 2 SOL 7. download from www.16 Option (D) is correct. so there is a phase difference of 90c exists between vertical and horizontal inputs.com SOL 7.18 Frequency ratio meeting points of horizontal tangents fY = fX meeting points of vertical tangents fY =2 4 fX fY = 1 (fX ) 2 ω2 = ω1 /2 Since the Lissajous figures are ellipse.PAGE 400 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 ICC " Current in current coil. Average value of a triangular wave Vav = Vm 3 rms value Vms = Vm 3 Given that Vav = Vm = 10 V 3 So Vrms = Vm = 3 Vav = 10 3 V 3 Option (A) is correct.

To balance the bridge (R1 + jX1) (R 4 − jX 4) = R2 R 3 (R1 R 4 + X1 X 4) + j (X1 R 4 − R1 X 4) = R2 R 3 comparing real and imaginary parts on both sides of equations .398 µF ...com Option (A) is correct.20 download from www. Impedance of different branches is given as ZAB = 500 Ω 1 + 300 Ω j # 2π # 2 # 103 # 0.(2) X 1 R 4 − R 1 X 4 = 0 & X1 = R 1 X4 R4 from eq(1) and (2) it is clear that for balancing the bridge first balance R 4 and then R1 . Since both the waveform appeared across resistor and inductor are same so the common point is B. Signal Probe S1 is connecte with A. ω2 = ω1 /2 Option (A) is correct.. Option (B) is correct.5 V 2 Division Time (3 T) = 1 ms = 1 msec 4 4 Division .21 SOL 7.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 401 So SOL 7.rejinpaul. S2 is connected with C and both the grount probes G1 and G2 are connected with common point B.22 Option (C) is correct.(1) R 1 R 4 + X1 X 4 = R 2 R 3 .. From the Calibration pulse we can obtain Voltage (3 V) = 5 = 2.(− 200j + 300) Ω ZAD = j # 2π # 2 # 103 # 15. SOL 7.19 q (ω2 t) = A cos ω2 t.91 mH + 300 Ω .(200j + 300) Ω To balance the bridge ZBC = ZAB ZCD 500Z 500Z Z = ZAD ZBC = (200j + 300) (− 200j + 300) = 130000 = (260 + j0) Ω SOL 7.

10 A) SOL 7. Given that ω = xy z log ω = log x + log y − log z Maximum error in ω dy ! dz % dω = ! dx ! x y z ω dx = ! 0. PMMC instrument reads only dc value so I PMMC =− 8 A rms meter reads rms value so Irms = (6 2 ) 2 (− 8) + 2 2 = 64 + 36 = 10 A Moving iron instrument also reads rms value of current So I MI = 10 mA Reading are (I PMMC.5% reading x .rejinpaul. Irms.PAGE 402 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 So amplitude (p-p) of unknown signal is VP − P = 3 V # 5 = 2.25 Option (D) is correct.24 total common area = 0 (Positive and negative area are equal) So Pav = 0 Option (C) is correct.5 # 5 = 7. I MI) = (− 8 A. Reading of wattmeter (Power) in the circuit T Pav = 1 # VIdt = Common are between V − I T 0 download from www. 10 A.5 V Time period T = 3 T # 8 = 1 # 8 = 2 ms 4 SOL 7.23 Option (A) is correct.com SOL 7.

5% = ! 7% ω Option ( ) is correct. At resonance VC = VL .rejinpaul.26 SOL 7. download from www.5% ! 5% ! 1.27 dy = ! 1% full scale y = ! 1 # 100 = ! 1 100 dy = ! 1 # 100 = ! 5% reading y 20 dz = 1.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 403 So SOL 7.5% reading z % dω = ! 0.28 Option (C) is correct. Option (B) is correct. Q-meter works on the principle of series resonance.com In balanced condition there is no current in CD arm so VC = VD Writing node equation at C and D VC − V + VC = 0 & V = V R3 C b R1 + R 3 l R1 R3 V0 − V + VD = 0 & V = V R4 D b R2 + R 4 l R2 R4 So Vb R3 l = Vb R4 l R1 + R 3 R2 + R 4 R 2 R 3 + R 3 R 4 = R1 R 4 + R 3 R 4 R 1 = R 2 R 3 /R 4 SOL 7.

PMMC instruments reads DC value only so it reads 2 V.rejinpaul.5 2n − 1 3. SOL 7. The configuration is shown below .29 Option (A) is correct. Resolution of n-bit DAC = So Vfs 2 −1 V 14 mv = 3. we can obtain Q SOL 7.PAGE 404 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 and I = V R Quality factor Q = ωL = 1 = ωL # I = VL = VC R R#I E E ωCR Thus.31 Option (B) is correct.5 2n − 1 = 14 # 10− 3 2n − 1 = 250 2n = 251 n = 8 bit n SOL 7.30 download from www. We can obtain the frequency ratio as following meeting points of horizontal tangents fY = fX meeting points of vertical tangents fY =2 4 fX fY = 1 fX 2 There should exist a phase difference(15c) also to produce exact figure of-8. Option (B) is correct.com SOL 7.32 Option (C) is correct.

025 Ω 400 SOL 7.1 = 0.com Current in voltmeter is given by IV = E = 180 = . I = 500 A So.91 I R 0 = 180 = 90 Ω 2 R % error = − R 0 # 100 = 94. Im Rm = (I − Im) Rsh 100 # 0.91 V R = E = 180 = 94.09 = 1. The measurement system is shown below .34 Option (A) is correct.33 Option (D) is correct.24 Ω 1.09 A 2000 2000 So I + IV = 2 amp I = 2 − .rejinpaul. The configuration is shown below download from www.1 = (500 − 100) Rsh Rsh = 100 # 0.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 405 It is given that Im = 100 A Range is to be extended to 0 − 500 A.24 − 90 # 100 = 4.71% 90 R 0 Ideally SOL 7.

5 − 2. Let the actual voltage and current are I1 and V1 respectively. E2 l2 l E2 = E1 d 1 n = (1.5 = 8 kW Power factor = cos θ Where θ = tan− 1 . for the dc potentiometer E \ l E1 = l 1 so.35 Option (D) is correct.18) # 680 = 1.2% more .rejinpaul. 3 b P2 − P1 lE = tan− 1 : 3 # − 13D 8 P2 + P1 =− 70.43c Power factor = cos θ = 0. then Current in CC is 20 A 20 = I1 b 1000 1000 + 0.40 Power measured Pm = V1 I1 = 20 (200.20 A 200 = V1 − .40) = 4008 W Load power PL = 20 # 200 = 4000 W % Change = Pm − PL = 4008 − 4000 # 100 4000 PL = 0.PAGE 406 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 Voltmeter reading 1000 (50 kΩ z 4 MΩ) V =b 6 MΩ + 50 kΩ z 4 MΩ l = 1000 # .34 V 600 l2 Option (C) is correct. Total power P = P1 + P2 = 10.0004 A .02 # 20 = 200.334 SOL 7.049 = 8.02 l I1 = 20.36 CHECK download from www.37 Option (B) is correct.049 SOL 7.com SOL 7.10 V 6 + .

2 − j0. N = 100 I = 50 mA B = 200 mT A " Area.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 407 SOL 7.2 − j0. B " magnetic field. The torque on the coil is given by τ = NIBA N " no. In the following configuration Option (A) is correct.rejinpaul. We have to obtain n = I I1 I1 = Rsh = 100 = 1 I2 Rm 1000 10 I1 + I 2 = I I1 + 10I1 = I 11I1 = I n = I = 11 I1 SOL 7.39 download from www.628) 10 = (2. I " current.38 V 2. . of turns.38 Option (C) is correct.628) VP VP 10 = 4.com 1 1 = jω C 2π # 100 # 103 # 10 # 10− 12 writing node equation at P VP − 10 + V 1 + 1 − j = 0 Pb 100 100 500 159 l Rectance Xc = 10 − VP = VP (1.28 SOL 7.40 Option (B) is correct.

8 & φ = 36.PAGE 408 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 So.com SOL 7.4 = K # Power Where ‘ K ’ is the meter constant in rev/kWh.43 ` power factor = 0.15+ − 6.87c 3 .15+6.87c = 4. For moving iron ameter full scale torque is given by τC = 1 I2 dL 2 dθ 240 # 10− 6 = 1 (10) 2 dL 2 dθ Change in inductance dL = 4.4 = I speed I 14.4 1 = 1000 # 3600 = 1000 rev/kWh. A = 10 mm # 20 mm τ = 100 # 50 # 10− 3 # 200 # 10− 3 # 200 # 10− 3 # 10− 3 = 200 # 10− 6 Nm SOL 7.42 Option (C) is correct. K = 3600 250 # 14.4 = K # VI 15 14. I 14.8 cos φ = 0.41 download from www.rejinpaul.87c Power = VI) = 415 +120c # 4. In the figure VRY = 415+30c VBN = 415 +120c 3 Current in current coil IC = VRY = 415+30c Z 100+36. Meter constant (A-sec/rev) is given by 14.4 = K # 15 # 250 1 K = 250 # 14.8 µH/radian dθ Option (B) is correct.87 SOL 7.4 b 1000 # 3600 l Option (B) is correct.

.87ch = 994. which has a zero-temperature coefficient. φ " flux 2 # 3.com Option (B) is correct.3+126. In PMCC instruments.87c Reading of wattmeter P = 994.45 download from www.3 (− 0. Voltage appeared at secondary winding ES = IS # ZL = 5 # 1 = 5 Volts Voltage induced is given by ES = 5= φ= 2 πfNφ . φ " Phase angle (radians) IS n " turns ratio Magnetizing ampere-turns = 200 So primary current IP = 200 # 1 = 200 amp Turns ratio n = 500 Secondary current IS = 5 amp 200 = 500φ So 5 φ (in degrees) = b 180 lb 200 l π 5 # 500 .3 ^cos 126.14 # 25 # 103 SOL 7.46 Option (A) is correct. as temperature increases the coil resistance increases.60) =− 597 W SOL 7. Swamp resistors are connected in series with the moving coil to provide temperature compensation.rejinpaul.44 Option (A) is correct.4.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 409 = 994. Swamping resistors is made of magnin.58c SOL 7.14 # 50 # 500 # φ 5 = 45 # 10− 6 wb 2 # 3. For small values of phase angle IP = nφ .

Im "peak value of ac current π 1 mA = 2Im 3.com so SOL 7.PAGE 410 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 SOL 7. Option (A) is correct. Maximum frequency of input in dual slop A/D converter is given as where Tm = 2n TC fm = 1 " maximum frquency of input Tm fC = 1 " clock frequency TC f .50 Option (A) is correct. Kelvin Double bridge is used for measuring low values of resistances.14 SOL 7.51 . n = 10 fm = C 2n 6 = 10 = 1 kHz (approax) 1024 download from www. Full scale deflection is produced by a dc current of 1 mA (Idc) fs = 1 mA For full wave reactifier (Idc) fs = 2Im . Let C1 = 300 pF 1 ωC 1 R Now when Cx is connected in parallel with variable resistor C1 ' = 200 pF 1 Q = 120 = ω (C1 ' + Cx ) R Q = 120 = So C 1 = C1 ' + C x 300 = 200 + Cx Cx = 100 pF SOL 7.48 SOL 7.47 Option () is correct.49 Option (B) is correct. (P " 2) Low values of capacitances is precisely measured by schering bridge (Q " 3) Inductance of a coil with large time constant or high quality factor is measured by hay’s bridge (R " 5) Option (C) is correct.rejinpaul. Effect of stray magnetic field is maximum when the operating field and stray fields are parallel.

cos θ1 = 0.(1) 400 = IL VL # 0.11 mA) 100 # 900 = Rs + 100 Rs = 89.52 download from www.rejinpaul.8 3 Now when pressure coil is connected between B and Y-phases.8 & θ1 = 36.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 411 Im = 1..57 mA Full scale ac current (Irms) fs = 1..11 mA 2 V = (Rs + Rm) (Irms) fs 100 = (Rs + 100) (1. First the current coil is connected in R-phase and pressure coil is connected between this phase and the neutral as shown below reading of wattmeter W1 = IP VP cos θ1 .86c 400 = IL VL cos θ1 3 . the circuit is .com Option (B) is correct.9 k Ω SOL 7.57 = 1.11 mA) 100 = Rs + 100 (1.

com angle θ2 = 23.8 W2 = 400 # 3 # cos 53.PAGE 412 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 phasor diagram download from www. In a moving-iron ammeter control torque is given as τc = Kθ = 1 I2 dL 2 dθ .14c + 30c = 54.53 Option (C) is correct.rejinpaul.14c2 now wattmeter reading W2 = VYB IL cos θ2 from equation (1) so VL IL = 400 # 3 0.8 = 519.14c 0.5 W SOL 7.

2 rad. Magnetizing current Im = 250 = 250 amp 1 download from www.80 100 =− 10.55 Option (C) is correct. τc = (25 # 10− 6) θ = 1 (5) 2 b 3 − θ l # 10− 6 2 2 2θ = 3 − θ 2 5θ = 3 & θ = 6 = 1.80 SOL 7.01 amp Turn ratio n' = IT = 559.55% = # 111.rejinpaul. 2 5 SOL 7.80 5 Is Percentage ratio error 3 n = n − nl # 100 nl 100 − 111. Power read by meter Pm = VI sin (3 − φ) Where 3 "Phase angle between supply voltage and pressure coil flux.01 = 111.54 Option (B) is correct.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 413 Where K " control spring constant θ " deflection Given that L = 10 + 3θ − θ 4 dL = 3 − θ µH/rad b 2l dθ 2 So. φ "Phase angle of load Here .com Primary current I p = 500 amp Secondary current Is = 5 amp I Turn ratio n = p = 500 = 100 5 Is Total primary current (IT ) = IT = = [primary current (I p)] 2 + [magnetising current (I m)] 2 2 2 + Im Ip (500) 2 + (250) 2 = 559.

5 = 550 W Error in measurement = Pm − PO = 464.5 So measured power Pm = 200 # 5 sin (85c − 60c) = 1100 sin 25c = 464.88 − 550 =− 85.com Vy = Vym sin (ωt + 0c) = sin ωt Draw Vx and Vy as shown below Option (A) is correct.12 W For unity power factor cos φ = 1 φ = 0c So Pm = 220 # 5 sin (85c − 0c) = 1095. We can obtain the Lissaju pattern (in X-Y mode) by following method. Vx = Vxm sin ωt Divide both Vy and Vx equal parts and match the corresponding points on .56 download from www. φ = 60c "a cos φ = 0. For φ = 0c.PAGE 414 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 3 = 85c.rejinpaul.19 W SOL 7.81 W PO = 220 # 5 cos 0c = 1100 Error in Measurement = 1095.88 W Actual power PO = VI cos φ = 220 # 5 # 0.81 − 1100 =− 4.

.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 415 the screen. Similarly for φ = 90c Vx = Vxm sin ωt Vy = Vym sin (ωt + 90c) download from www.com Similarly for φ = 3π 2 we can also obtain for 0 < φ < 3π 2 SOL 7.57 Option (D) is correct.rejinpaul.

rejinpaul. S = K # power K " meter constant S = 10 rev = K # 450 100 sec 10 rev K = = 10 # 1000 # 3600 100 # 450 kWh 100 # 450 b 1000 # 3600 l = 800 rev/kWh . In two wattmeters method angle between phase voltage and phase current is given by φ = tan− 1 b 3 W2 − W1 l W2 + W1 here φ =− 60c readings in option (C) only satisfies this equation.PAGE 416 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS CHAP 7 We can obtain the Lissaju pattern (in X-Y made) by following method.59 Option (D) is correct. Speed (rev/sec) of the energy meter is given.com SOL 7. match the corresponding points on the screen.58 Divide the wave forms appearing an channel X and channel Y in equal parts. Option (C) is correct. download from www. We would get a straight line in X − Y mode. φ = tan− 1 b 3 0 − 1000 l =− 60c 0 + 1000 SOL 7.

33% value of R = 3.05 Ω to 3. Option (C) is correct.66% = 8.66% 15 % error in R = 5% + 10% − 6.com SOL 7.33 Ω 15 R sum % error in R = ∆R1 (%) + ∆R2 (%) − ∆R sum (%) ∆R sum = (10 ! 5%) + (5 ! 10%) = (10 ! 0.33% = 3.5) = 15 ! 0.5) + (5 ! 0. Ameter configuration is given below SOL 7.rejinpaul.62 IR 500 Isn Im Ish 100 400 Rsh = Im + Ish = 100 + Ish = 400 µA = Rsh Rm = Rsh 100 = 25 Ω Option (A) is correct.33 ! 8. with balanced load can be measured by using two wattmeters. Power in a 3-phase three wire system. Equivalent resistance when connected in parallel is R = R1 R 2 R1 + R 2 Let So R1 + R2 = R sum R = R1 R2 = 10 # 5 = 3.61 Here download from www.60 Option (B) is correct.CHAP 7 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS PAGE 417 SOL 7.61 Ω *********** .1 ∆R sum (%) = 15 ! 1 # 100% = 15 ! 6. The load may be star or delta connected.

rejinpaul.com .download from www.

rejinpaul.download from www.com .

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download from www.com .rejinpaul.

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