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# Course Code: MMEF-406 [S.G.G.S.W.

U-DME]
UNIT-I

## Title: Fluid Mechanics L/T/P: 4/1/0

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics: Introduction; Applications; Concept of fluid; Difference between solids, liquids and gases; Concept of continuum; Ideal and real fluids; Fluid properties: density, specific volume, specific weight, specific gravity, viscosity (dynamic and kinematic), vapour pressure, compressibility, bulk modulus, Mach number, surface tension and capillarity; Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. (6 hrs.) Pressure and fluid statistics: Concept of pressure; pressure measurement devices; Pascals law and its engineering applications, Hydrostatic paradox. Hydrostatic force on submerged plane surface (horizontal, vertical and inclined), force and center of pressure, force on a curved surface due to hydrostatic pressure. Buoyancy and flotation, stability of floating and submerged bodies, meta-centric height and its determination, periodic time of oscillation, pressure distribution in a liquid subjected to constant horizontal/ vertical acceleration, rotation of liquid in a cylindrical container. (6 hrs.) UNIT-II Fluid Kinematics: Classification of fluid flows; Lagrangian and Euler flow descriptions; Velocity and acceleration of fluid particle; Local and convective acceleration; Normal and tangential acceleration; Path line, streak line, streamline and timelines; Flow rate and discharge mean velocity; One dimensional continuity equation; Continuity equation in Cartesian (x,y,z), polar ( r,) and cylindrical (r,,z) coordinates; Derivation of co ntinuity equation using the Lagrangian method in Cartesian coordinates; Rotational flows: rotation, vorticity and circulation; Stream function and velocity potential function, and relationship between them; Flow net. (6 hrs.) Fluid Dynamics: Derivation of Eulers equation of motion in Cartesian coordinates, and along a streamline; Derivation of Bernoullis equation (using principle of conservation of energy and equation of motion) and its applications to steady state ideal and real fluid flows; Representation of energy changes in fluid system (hydraulic and energy gradient lines); Impulse momentum equation; Kinetic energy and momentum correction factors; Flow along a curved streamline; Free and forced vortex motions. (4 hrs.) UNIT-III Dimensional Analysis and Similitude: Need of dimensional analysis; Fundamental and derived units; Dimensions and dimensional homogeneity; Rayleighs and Buckinghams - method for dimensional analysis; Dimensionless numbers (Reynolds, Froudes, Euler, Mach, and Weber) and their significance; Need of similitude; Geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity; Model and prototype studies; Similarity model laws. (6 hrs.) Introduction to computational fluid dynamics: introduction and fundamentals, equations of motion, solution procedure, grid generation and grid independence, boundary conditions, laminar CFD calculations. (6 hrs.) UNIT-IV Internal Flows: Laminar and Turbulent Flows: Reynolds number, critical velocity, critical Reynolds number, hydraulic diameter, flow regimes; Hagen Poiseuille equation; Darcy equation; Head losses in pipes and pipe fittings; Flow through pipes in series and parallel; Concept of equivalent pipe; Roug hness in pipes, Moodys chart. (6 hrs.) Flow measurements: Venturimeter, orificemeter, Pitot-tube, Orifices, mouth pieces, notches, weirs, Current meter.

Books Recommended:
1. Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, Yunus Cengel & John Cimbala, 2nd reprint, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi (2007). 2. A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics by. R. K. Bansal, 1 st edition, Laxmi Publications (2005). 3. Fluid Mechanics by A. K. Mohanty, 2nd editon, PHI Learning (2009). 4. Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power Engineering by Kumar D S, 6th Edition, S K Kataria and Sons, Delhi (1998). 5. Mechanics of Fluids by B. S. Massey 7th Edition, Nelson Thornes Ltd (2001). 6. Fluid Mechanics by J. F. Douglas, Gasionckw, and J. P. Swaffield, 3rd Edition, Addision Wesley Longman, Inc Pitman (1999). 7. 8. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics by B. R. Munson, D. F. Young, T. H. Okiishi and W. W. Huebsch, 4th edition, John Wiley and Sons (2002). For e-learning courses from IIT and IISc visit at http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses.php?disciplineId=112