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Vol.5 August 2009 | Free
CSE Mains
2009
GS Model
Paper Solved
PART-2
Aspirants Times
India’s First Digital Magazine for IAS Aspirants around the world.
HOT TOPICS
- Arihant Class
Submarine
- Economy Special :
Terminology and Concept
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Ed i t or i a l
• Challenge is yours, take it ......................................................................................03
SECTI ON - 1: Ar t icles
• US-I n d ia Re la t ion s h ip ...........................................................................................04
• 35t h G-8 An n u a l Su m m it .......................................................................................18
• Ca r bon Em is s ion s Tr a d in g .....................................................................................34
• Econ om ic Su r ve y:20 0 8 -0 9 .....................................................................................45
• Hindi Article ( ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ) ...............................................................................60
SECTI ON - 2: Hot Topi cs
• Arihant Class Submarine ........................................................................................79
• Economy Special-Terminology and Concept .........................................................83
SECTI ON - 3: Cu r r en t Affa ir s ............................................................................101
SECTI ON -4 : Sp or t s .............................................................................................104
SECTI ON -5: Awa r d s ...........................................................................................106
SECTI ON - 6 : I AS Ma i n s , Mod el Pa p er cu m Not es Pa r t -2...........................111
I NDEX
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Challenge is yours, take it...
You have chosen to crack IAS examination… No doubt, it is difficul t. It is di fficul t whe n
you begin preparation, then many more difficul ties in exam; it is di fficul t as a servi ce.
First of all, you should take these difficul ties as a chal lenge and if you det er mi ned of
becoming IAS, then be ready to face all challenges at every step of life. Make challenges
your friend; it will help you to overcome from difficul ties. No w if you ar e goi ng to appear
IAS Mains-Exam this year, it is a big challenge. Take a firm st ep and go st rai ght , don' t
think either side; surely you will find your dest inat ion.
"UPSCPORTAL.COM" is always with you, but it cannot eradicate challenges; we
can make you more capable, wise, knowledgeable and quicker to face the challenges.
We feel that 'Aspirants Time' Magazine is going in the right direction to make you more
capable to face challenges. In this fifth vol ume of "As pi rant Ti me s", we ar e pr ovi di ng you
suffici ent and imp or t ant ma t er i al for IAS Ma i ns Exami nat ion. Ther e is a Mo del -cum-
Study Notes for General Studies Second Paper. These are important notes for practice
which are in detail and easy to understand. By reading these Notes, you will be able to
answer those questions, which has not been asked directly in this model. You will find
the chapter Economy Special-Terminology and Concept, which is very useful for the
examination point of view. Read it carefully and make the difficul t aspect of exami na-
tion, easy.
Besides this, There are regular articles like 'US-India Relationship', '35th G-8 An-
nual Summit', 'Carbon Emissions Trading', 'Economic Survey:2008-09', and 'Jalwayu
Parivartan' (in Hindi). Under HOT-TOPICS, we have 'Arihant Class Submarine'. Last
but not least regular columns - CURRENT AFFAIRS, SPORTS & AWARDS are also there.
With this we wish All The Best; Enjoy the Challenges...
Editor: R. K. Pandey
4 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
Hillary Clinton’s visit to India in july 2009, her
first as Secr et ar y of St at e, gave pr obabl y the best
insight yet into how President Obama intends to
carry forward that relationship, set to become one
of the most important and potentially trickiest
among the major nations as the 21st century
progresses. After perhaps
50 years when the US all
but ignored India it now
values the country as a
trading partner of poten-
tially huge consequence
(India is on course to be
among the world’s lead-
ing five economi es wi thi n
two decades), an Asian
count er weight t o t he
might of China and a key
player in the fight agai ns t
Islamist ext r emism. It
showed. The mood music
for Mrs Clinton’s trip was
almost unrelentingly upbeat. She also revealed that
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh had accepted
an invitation to make a state visit to Washington
in November,2009. More concretely, the US and
India inaugurated a strategic dialogue on issues
ranging from education to climate change, an on-
going conversation into which both governments
hope t o draw part icipant s from commerce,
academia and the arts.
That may sound a little fluf fy, but the US ha s typi -
cally reserved this kind of exchange for major
countries such as China. Extending it to India ac-
knowledged the country’s rising role and grow-
ing say on matters that directly affect the US such
as the progress of the Doha Trade Round. More
concretely still, the US announced an agreement
that will allow it to monitor the use of military
equipment it sells to India. The deal paves the way
for billions of dollars' worth of weapons contracts
as the latter emerges as one of the biggest spend-
ers in the global arms bazaar. Mrs Clinton also re-
vealed that India had identified two sites wh e r e
American companies would be allowed to build
nuclear power stations. This was another lucra-
tive arrangement for the US, one set up by Presi-
dent Bush who during his second term effectively
ended India’s status as an
international nuclear pa-
riah by granting it access
to US civilian nuclear tech-
nology, even though it has
not signed the Non-Prolif-
eration Treaty.
So far, so positive. But the
visit also highlight ed a
couple of all-important ar-
eas climate change and ter-
rorism, no less where the
US and India have substan-
tial differences. The Indian
Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh dismissed
out of hand US suggestions that India should ac-
cept worldwide legally binding caps on the pro-
duction of greenhouse gases. He did so with an
eye to a possible successor to the Kyoto Protocol
being drawn up at the Copenhagen Climate Con-
ference in December and in front of a barrage of
TV cameras in a way that seemed calculated to
set up an on-screen confrontat ion wit h Mrs
Clinton perhaps because the Indian Government
has recently been criticised at home for making
concessions at a global forum on green issues.
It’s difficul t to see a simp l e wa y ar ound thi s emi s-
sions impasse. Today, the idea of India a develop-
ing country with a vast poor population effectively
setting limits on industrial growth is about as cred-
ible as a US President making car-pooling manda-
tory for all Americans.
She also found herself in the unenviable position
of having to attest to Pakistan’s sincerity in tack-
US-India Relationship
Hillary Clinton's Visit to India
By: R. K. Pandey
Section -1 (Article : US-India Relationship)
5 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
ling Islamic extremism to an Indian audience. In
staying at the Taj, Mrs Clinton made it clear that
she wished to express her solidarity with India.
But US support of the Zardari regime in Islamabad
was also pronounced and she appears likely to
travel to Pakistan before long. It is hard to over-
state just how much distrust and rancour exists
between India and Pakistan from that felt by or-
dinary men on the street to that betrayed by offi-
cials on both sides when they lament and ridicule
their opposite numbers’ words and actions. Keep-
ing both countries’ friendship will be a testing task
for Mrs Clinton. For her to become a hero to In-
dia is not impossible but will take some doing.
India - US Joint Statement: External Affairs Min-
ister S.M. Krishna and Secretary of State Hillary
Clinton committed to building an enhanced In-
dia- U.S. strategic partnership that seeks to ad-
vance solutions to the defini ng cha l lenges of time .
India and US agreed to strengthen the existing
bilateral relationships and mechanisms for coop-
eration between the Government of Republic of
India and the Government of the United States of
America, while leveraging the strong foundation
of economic and social linkages between our re-
spective people, private sectors, and institutions.
Recognizing the new heights achieved in the In-
dia - U.S. relationship over the last two Indian
and U.S. Administrations, they committed to pur-
suing a third and transformative phase of the re-
lationship that will enhance global prosperity and
stability in the 21st century. Minister Krishna and
Secretary Clinton will chair an “India-U.S. Stra-
tegic Dialogue” that meets once annually in alter-
nate capitals. This dialogue will focus on a wide
range of bilateral, global, and regional issues of
shared interest and common concern, continuing
programmes currently under implementation and
taking mutually benefici al ini tiat ives tha t comp l e-
ment Indian and U.S. development, security and
economic interests.
Advancing Common Security Interests: Recog-
nizing the shared common desire to increase mu-
tual security against the common threats posed
by international terrorism, Minister Krishna and
Secretary Clinton reaffirme d the commi tme nt of
both Governments to build on recent increased
coordinat ion in counter-terrorism. Secret ary
Clinton invited Home Minister Chidambaram to
visit Washington in the near future. External Af-
fairs Minister Krishna and Secretary Clinton also
reaffirme d t he i r commi tme nt t o ear l y adopt ion
of a UN Comprehensive Convention against In-
ternational Terrorism which would strengthen the
framework for global cooperation.
Defence Cooperation: Noting the enhanced co-
operation in defence under the Defence Co-op-
eration Framework Agreement of 2005, External
Affairs Minister and Secretary Clinton reiterated
the commitment of both Governments to pursue
mutually benefici al cooper at ion i n t he field of
defence. External Affairs Minister Krishna an-
nounced that both sides had reached agreement
on End Use Monitoring for U.S. defense articles.
Seeking a World Without Nuclear Weapons: In-
dia and the United States share a vision of a world
free of nuclear weapons. With this goal in sight,
Minister Krishna and Secretary Clinton agreed to
move ahead in the Conference on Disarmament
towards a non-discriminatory, internationally and
effect ively verifiabl e Fi ssi le Ma t er i al Cu t -of f
Treaty. India and the United States will also co-
operate to prevent nuclear terrorism and address
the challenges of global nuclear proliferation. A
high-level bilateral dialogue will be established to
enhance cooperation on these issues.
Civil Nuclear Cooperation: Building on the suc-
cess of the India –U.S. Civil Nuclear Initiative, on
July 21, India and the United States will begin
consultations on reprocessing arrangements and
procedures, as provided in Article 6 (iii) of the 123
Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation be-
tween India and the United States.
Global Institutions: Secretary Clinton affirme d
that multilateral organizations and groupings
should reflect t he wo r l d of t he 21st cent ur y i n
order to maintain long-term credibility, relevance
and effectiveness, and both Minister Krishna and
Secretary Clinton expressed their interest in ex-
changing views on new configur at ions of the UN
Security Council, the G-8, and the G-20.
Section -1 (Article : US-India Relationship)
6 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
Pursuing Sustainable Growth and Development:
As members of the G-20, India and the United
States have pledged to work together with other
major economies to foster a sustainable recovery
from the global economic crisis through a com-
mitment to open trade and investment policies.
Minister Krishna and Secretary Clinton reaffirme d
the commitment of both Governments to facili-
tating a pathway forward on the WTO Doha
Round. They pledged to co-operate to not only
preserve the economic synergies between the two
countries that have grown over the years, but also
to increase and diversify bilateral economic rela-
tions and expand trade and investment flows . The
two sides noted that negotiations for a Bilateral
Investment Treaty would be scheduled in New
Delhi in August 2009. They resolved to harness
the ingenuity and entrepreneurship of the private
sectors of both countries with a newly-configur ed
CEO Forum that will meet later this year.
Education: External Affairs Minister Krishna and
Secretary of State Clinton affirme d the imp or t ance
of expanding educational cooperation through ex-
changes and institutional collaboration, and agreed
on the need to expand the role of the private sec-
tor in strengthening this collaboration.
Space, Science and Technology and Innovation:
Recognizing the great potential in India-U.S. sci-
ence and technology collaboration, the two sides
have concluded a Science and Technology Endow-
ment Agreement, and signed a Technology Safe-
guards Agreement that will permit the launch of
civil or non-commercial satellites containing U.S.
components on Indian space launch vehicles. Both
sides welcomed India’s part icipat ion in t he
FutureGen Project for the construction of the first
commercial scale fully integrated carbon capture
and sequestration project and India’s participation
in the Integrated Ocean Development Project, an
international endeavour for enhancing the under-
standing of Earth and Ocean dynamics and ad-
dressing the challenges of climate change.
High Technology Cooperation: Noting the high
potential that exists due to the complementarities
in the knowledge and innovation-based economies
of the two countries, it was agreed that the agenda
and the initiatives in the bilateral High Technol-
ogy Cooperation Dialogue should continue, with
the objective of facilitating smoother trade in high
technology between the two economies reflect -
ing the present strategic nature of the India-U.S.
relationship. It was also agreed t hat working
groups would be formed to focus on new areas of
common interest in nano-technology, civil nuclear
technology, civil aviation and licensing issues in
defence, strategic and civil nuclear trade.
Ener gy Securit y, Environment and Climat e
Change: Minister Krishna and Secretary Clinton
pledged to intensify collaboration on energy se-
curity and climate change. Efforts will focus on
increasing energy effici ency, renewa bl e ener gy,
and clean energy technologies through the India-
U.S. Energy Dialogue and a Global Climate Change
Dialogue. Both sides also agreed to launch a pro-
cess of bilateral scientific and technol ogi cal col -
laboration to support the development, deploy-
ment and transfer of transformative and innova-
tive technologies in areas of mutual interest in-
cluding solar and other renewable energy, clean
coal and energy effici ency, and ot he r rel evant ar -
eas. India and the U.S. affirme d thei r commi tme nt
to work together with other countries, including
through the Major Economies Forum, for posi-
tive results in the UNFCCC Conference on Cli-
mate Change in Copenhagen in December 2009.
Global Issues: The two sides noted the valuable
engagement between both Governments on glo-
bal issues of common concern such as strength-
ening democracy and capacity building in demo-
cratic institutions as co-founders of the UN De-
mocracy Fund. The two sides agreed to develop a
Women’s Empowerment Forum (WEF) to ex-
change lessons and best practices on women’s em-
powerment and development and consider ways
to empower women in the region and beyond.
Section -1 (Article : US-India Relationship)
7 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
India – United States Relations
Despite being one of
t h e pioneer s and
founding members of
t h e Non Aligned
Movement, India de-
veloped a closer rela-
tionship with the So-
viet Union dur ing
the cold war. India's strategic and military rela-
tions with Moscow and strong socialist policies
had an adverse impact on its relations with the
United States. After the collapse of Soviet Union,
India began to review its foreign policy in a uni-
polar world following which, it took steps to de-
velop closer ties with the European Union and the
United States. Today, India and the U.S. share an
extensive cultural, strategic, military and economic
relationship. During the tenure of the Clinton and
Bush administration, relations between India and
the United States blossomed primarily over com-
mon concerns regarding growing Islamic extrem-
ism, energy security and climate change.
According to some foreign policy experts, there
was a slight downturn in India-U.S. relations fol-
lowing the appointment of Barack Obama as the
U.S. President in 2009. This was primarily due to
Obama administration’s desire to increase relations
with China, and Barack Obama's protectionist
views on dealing with the economic crisis. How-
ever, the leaders of the two countries have repeat-
edly dismissed these concerns.
After Indian independence until the end of the
cold war, the relationship between the two na-
tions has often been thorny. Dwight Eisenhower
was the first US Pr esident to vi sit Indi a in 1959.
During John F. Kennedy’s period as President, he
saw India as a strategic partner against the rise of
communist China. He said "Chinese Communists
have been moving ahead the last 10 years. India
has been making some progress, but if India does
not succeed with her 450 million people, if she
can't make freedom work, then people around the
world are going to determine, particularly in the
underdeveloped world, that the only way they can
develop their resources is through the Commu-
nist system." From 1961 to 1963 there was a prom-
ise to help set up a large steel mill in Bokaro that
was withdrawn by the U.S. The 1965 and 1971
Indo-Pakistan wars did not help their relations.
During the Cold War, the US asked for Pakistan's
help because India was seen to lean towards the
Soviet Union. Later, when India would not agree
to support the anti-Soviet operation in Afghani-
stan, it was left with few allies. Not until 1997
was there any effort to improve relations with the
United States.
Soon after Atal Bihari Vajpayee became Indian
Prime Minister, he authorized a nuclear weapons
test in Pokhran, which got the immediate atten-
tion of the US. The Clinton administration and
Vajpayee exchanged representatives to help build
relations. In March 2000, President Bill Clinton
visited India. He had bilateral and economic dis-
cussions with Prime Minster Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
Over the course of improved diplomatic relations
with the Bush administration, India has agreed to
allow close international monitoring of its nuclear
weapons development while refusing to give up
its current nuclear arsenal. India and the US have
also greatly enhanced their economic ties.
During the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the U.S., Presi-
dent George W. Bush chose India as the country
to control and police the Indian Ocean sea-lanes
from the Suez to Singapore. The tsunami that oc-
curred in December 2004 saw the U.S. and Indian
navies to work together in search and rescue op-
erations and to reconstruct the damaged lives and
land. An Open Skies Agreement was made in April
2005. This helped enhance trade, tourism, and
business by the increased number of flight s. Ai r
India purchased 68 US Boeing aircraft, which cost
$8 billion.Former U.S. Secretary of Defense
Donald Rumsfeld and U.S. Secretary of State
Condoleezza Rice have made recent visits to In-
dia as well. After Hurricane Katrina, India donated
$5 million to the American Red Cross and sent 2
plane loads of relief supplies and materials to help.
And on March 1,2006, President Bush made an-
other diplomatic visit to expand relations between
India and the United States.
Section -1 (Article : US-India Relationship)
8 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
Military Relations
The U.S.-India defense relationship derives from
a common belief in freedom, democracy, and the
rule of law, and seeks to advance shared security
interests. These interests include maintaining se-
curity and stability, defeating terrorism and vio-
lent religious extremism, preventing the spread
of weapons of mass destruction and associated ma-
terials, data, and technologies and protecting the
free flow of comme r ce vi a land, ai r and sea lanes.
In recent years India has conducted joint military
exercises with the U.S. in the Indian Ocean. De-
spite this the Indian government sees the sole U.S.
base in the Indian Ocean, Diego Garcia, and the
permanent presence of the U.S. military there, as
a potential escalation point in a future war, espe-
cially because of the current U.S. operations in
Iraq and Afghanistan.Recognizing India as a key
to strategic U.S. interests, the United States has
sought to strengthen its relationship with India.
The two countries are the world's largest democ-
racies, both committed to political freedom pro-
tected by representative government. India is also
moving gradually toward greater economic free-
dom. The U.S. and India have a common interest
in the free flow of comme r ce and resour ces, in-
cluding through the vital sea lanes of the Indian
Ocean. They also share an interest in fight ing ter -
rorism and in creating a strategically stable Asia.
There were some differences, however, including
over India's nuclear weapons programs and the
pace of India's economic reforms. In the past, these
concerns may have dominated U.S. thinking about
India, but today the U.S. views India as a growing
world power with which it shares common stra-
tegic interests. A strong partnership between the
two countries will continue to address differences
and shape a dynamic and collaborative future.
In late September 2001, President Bush lifted sanc-
tions imposed under the terms of the 1994 Nuclear
Proliferation Prevention Act following India' s
nuclear tests in May 1998. The nonproliferation
dialogue initiated after the 1998 nuclear tests has
bridged many of the gaps in understanding be-
tween the countries. In a meeting between Presi-
dent Bush and Prime Minister Vajpayee in No-
vember 2001, the two leaders expressed a strong
interest in transforming the U.S.-India bilateral
relationship. High-level meetings and concrete
cooperation between the two countries increased
during 2002 and 2003.
In January 2004, the U.S. and India launched the
Next Steps in Strategic Partnership (NSSP), which
was both a milestone in the transformation of the
bilateral relationship and a blueprint for its fur-
ther progress.In July 2005, President Bush hosted
Prime Minister Singh in Washington, DC. The two
leaders announced the successful completion of
the NSSP, as well as other agreements which fur-
ther enhance cooperation in the areas of civil
nuclear, civil space, and high-technology com-
merce. Other initiatives announced at this meet-
ing include: an U.S.-India Economic Dialogue,
Fight Against HIV/AIDS, Disaster Relief, Tech-
nology Cooperation, Democracy Initiative, an
Agriculture Knowledge Initiative, a Trade Policy
Forum, Energy Dialogue and CEO Forum. Presi-
dent Bush made a reciprocal visit to India in March
2006, during which the progress of these initia-
tives were reviewed, and new initiatives were
launched.
In December 2006, Congress passed the historic
Henry J. Hyde Unit ed Stat es-India Peaceful
Atomic Cooperation Act, which allows direct ci-
vilian nuclear commerce with India for the first
time in 30 years. U.S. policy had opposed nuclear
cooperation with India because the country had
developed nuclear weapons in contravention of
international conventions and never signed the
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The legislation
clears the way for India to buy U.S. nuclear reac-
tors and fuel for civilian use. In July 2007, the
United States and India reached a historic mile-
stone in their strategic partnership by completing
negotiations on the bilateral agreement for peace-
Section -1 (Article : US-India Relationship)
9 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
ful nuclear cooperation, also known as the "123
agreement." This agreement, signed by Secretary
of St at e Rice and Ext ernal Affairs Minist er
Mukherjee on October 10, 2008, governs civil
nuclear trade between the two countries and opens
the door for American and Indian firms to par -
ticipate in each other's civil nuclear energy sec-
tor. The U.S. and India seek to elevate the strate-
gic partnership further to include cooperation in
counter-terrorism, defense cooperation, educa-
tion, and joint democracy promotion.
Economic Relations
The United States is also one of India's largest di-
rect investors. From the year 1991 to 2004, the
stock of FDI inflow ha s incr eased from USD $11. 3
million to $344.4 million, totaling $4.13 billion.
This is a compound rate increase of 57.5% annu-
ally. Indian direct investments abroad were started
in 1992. Indian corporations and registered part-
nership firms ar e al lowe d to invest in bus inesses
up to 100% of their net worth. India's largest out-
going investments are manufacturing, which ac-
count for 54.8% of the country's foreign invest-
ments. The second largest are non-financi al ser -
vices (software development), which accounts for
35.4% of investments.
Trade Relations: The United States is India's larg-
est trading partner. In 2007, the United States
exported $17.24 billion worth goods to India and
imported $24.02 billion worth of Indian goods.
Major items exported by India to the U.S. include
information technology Services, textiles, machin-
ery, ITeS, gems and diamonds, chemicals, iron and
steel products, coffee, tea, and other edible food
products. Major American items imported by In-
dia include aircraft, fertilizers, computer hard-
ware, scrap metal and medical equipment.
The United States is also India's largest investment
partner, with American direct investment of $9
billion accounting for 9% of total foreign invest-
ment into India. Americans have made notable
foreign investment in India's power generation,
telecommunications, ports, roads, petroleum ex-
ploration/processing, and mining industries.
In july 2005, President George W. Bush and In-
dian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh cre-
ated a new program called the Trade Policy Fo-
rum. It is run by a representative from each na-
tion. The United States Trade Representative is
Rob Portman and the Indian Commerce Secre-
tary is minister of commerce Kamal Nath. The goal
of the program is to increase bilateral trade which
is a two-way trade deal and the flow of invest-
ments.
There are five ma i n sub- di vi sions of t he Tr ade
Policy Forum which include: Agricultural trade
group- This group has three main objectives:
agreeing on terms that will allow India to export
mangoes to the United States, permitting India's
APEDA (Agricultural and Process Food Products
Export Development Authority) to certify Indian
products to the standards of the USDA, and ex-
ecuting regulation procedures for approving ed-
ible wax on fruit. Tariff and Non-Tariff Barriers
group- Goals of the group include: agreeing that
insecticides that are manufactures by United States
companies can be sold throughout India. India had
agreed to cut special regulations on trading car-
bonated drinks, many medicinal drugs, and low-
ering regulations on many imports that are not of
agricultural nature. Both nations have agreed to
discuss improved facets on the trade of Indian
regulation requirements, jewelry, computer parts,
motorcycles, fertilizer, and those tariffs that af-
fect the American process of exporting boric acid.
The two nations have discussed matters such as
those who wish to break into the accounting mar-
ket, Indian companies gaining licenses for the tele-
communications industry, and setting polices by
the interaction of companies from both countries
regarding new policies related to Indian media and
broadcasting. This group has strived to exchange
valuable information on recognizing different pro-
fessional services offered by the two countries, dis-
cussing the movement and positioning of people
Section -1 (Article : US-India Relationship)
10 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
in developing industries and assigning jobs to those
people, continuation of talks in how India's citi-
zens can gain access into the market for financi al
servicing, and discussing the limitation of equi-
ties.
The two countries have had talks about the re-
striction of investments in industries such as fi-
nancial services, insurance, and retail. Also, to take
advantage of any initiatives in joint investments
such as agricultural processing and the transpor-
tation industries. Both countries have decided to
promote small business initiatives in both coun-
tries by allowing trade between them.
The Majority of Exports from the United States to
India Include: aviation equipment, engineering
materials and machinery, instruments used in
optical and medical sectors, fertilizers, and stones
and metals.Below are the percentages of traded
items India to US increased by 21.12% to $6.94
billion.
» Diamonds and precious stones(25%)
» Textiles (29.01%)
» Iron and Steel (5.81%)
» Organic chemicals (4.3%)
» Machinery (4.6%)
» Electrical Machinery (4.28%)
Major Items of Export from U.S. to India: For
the year 2006, figur es are avai labl e up to the mo nt h
of April. Merchandise exports from US to India
increased by 20.09.26% to US $2.95 billion. Se-
lect major items with their percentage shares are
given below Engineering goods and machinery (in-
cluding electrical) (31.2%)
» Precious stones and metals (8.01%)
» Organic chemicals (4.98%)
» Optical instruments and equipment (7.33%)
» Aviation and aircraft ( 16.8%)
Obama Administration and
Bilateral Relations
Despite much gains in Indo-American relations
during the tenure of the Bush administration, In-
dia was not one of the Asian countries U.S. Secre-
tary of State Hillary Clinton visited in February
2009. The Foreign Policy magazine reported that
even though Foreign Policy Staff of the previous
administration had recommended India as a "key
stop" during any such offici al tour of As ia, Hi llar y
Clinton will not be making a visit to New Delhi.
The exclusion of India from the Asian tour was
regarded as a "mistake" by some analysts. India
was not even mentioned once in t he Obama
administration's offici al for ei gn pol icy agenda. The
Forbes magazine alerted U.S. President Barack
Obama on the need to prevent United States' new-
found alliance with India from erosion.
The initial approach of the Obama administration
towards ties with India raised concerns of a down-
turn in Indo-American relations. In an editorial,
the National Interest suggested that the Obama
administration could possibly damage "the foun-
dations underlying the geostrategic partnership"
between India and the United States. Another
editorial published by the Taipei Times high-
lighted the importance of India-U.S. relations and
urged Barack Obama to give India the attention it
deserves.Terming India to be United States' in-
dispensable ally, the Christian Science Monitor
argued that the Obama administ ration needs
India's cooperation on several issues, including
climate change, Afghanistan war and energy se-
curity and therefore, Obama cannot risk putting
ties with India on back-burner.
In an attempt to bolster relations between the two
countries, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
will be making a visit to India in the second half
of July 2009. Calling India a key partner of the
United States, Clinton said that the United States
wants India to succeed as an anchor for regional
and global security. She also mentioned four plat-
forms for building future U.S.-India relationship
global security, human development, economic
activity, science and technology.
Section -1 (Article : US-India Relationship)
11 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
Foreign Policy Issues: According to some ana-
lysts, India-U.S. relat ions have st rained over
Obama administration's approach in handling the
Tiliban Insurgency in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
India's national security adviser, M.K. Narayanan,
, criticized the Obama administration for linking
the Kashmir dispute to the instability in Pakistan
and Afghanistan and said that by doing so, Presi-
dent Obama was "barking up the wrong tree".The
Foreign Policy too criticized Obama's approach
towards South Asia saying that "India can be a
part of the solution rather than part of the prob-
lem" in South Asia and suggested India to take a
more proactive role in rebuilding Afghanistan ir-
respective of the attitude of the Obama adminis-
tration. In a clear indication of growing rift be-
tween India and the U.S., the former decided not
to accept a U.S. invitation to attend a conference
on Afghanistan. Bloomberg reported that since
2008 Mumbai attacks, the public mood in India
has been to pressure Pakistan more aggressively
to take actions against the culprits behind the ter-
rorist attack and this might reflect on the upcom-
ing general elections in May 2009. Consequently,
the Obama administration may find itsel f at odds
with India's rigid stance against terrorism. Robert
Blake, assistant secretary of United States' Bureau
of South and Central Asian Affairs, dismissed any
concerns over a rift with India regarding United
States' AfPak policy. Calling India and the United
States "natural allies", Blake said that the United
States cannot afford to meet the strategic priori-
ties in Pakistan and Afghanistan at "the expense
of India".
Economic Relat ions: India strongly criticized
Obama administration's decision to limit H-1B
visas and India's External Affairs Minister, Pranab
Mukherjee, said that his country would argue
against U.S. "protectionism" at various interna-
tional forums. The Vishwa Hindu Parishad, a close
aide of India's main opposition party the BJP, said
that if the United States continues with its anti-
outsourcing policies, then India will "have to take
steps to hurt American companies in India." India's
Commerce Minister, Kamal Nath, said that India
may move against Obama's outsourcing policies
at the world trade organization. However, the
outsourcing advisory head of KPMG said that In-
dia had no reason to worry since Obama's state-
ments were directed against "outsourcing being
carried out by manufacturing companies" and not
outsourcing of IT-related services.
In May 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama reit-
erated his anti-outsourcing views and criticized
the current U.S. tax policy "that says you should
pay lower taxes if you create a job in Bangalore,
India, than if you create one in Buffalo, New York."
However, during the U.S.-India Business Council
meet in June 2009, U.S. secretary of state Hillary
Clinton advocated for stronger economic ties be-
tween India and the United States. She also re-
buked protectionist policies saying that "[United
States] will not use the global financi al cr i sis as an
excuse to fall back on protectionism. We hope
India will work with us to create a more open,
equitable set of opportunities for trade between
our nations." In June 2009, United States provided
diplomatic help in successfully pushing through a
US$2.9 billion loan sponsored by the Asian De-
velopment Bank, despite considerable opposition
from the People’s Republic of China.
Strategic and Military Relations: In March 2009,
the Obama administration cleared the US$2.1 bil-
lion sale of eight P-8 Poseidons to India, the larg-
est military deal between the two countries. In-
dia expr essed it s concer ns t hat Obama
administration's non-military aid to Pakistan will
not be used for counter-insurgency, but for build-
ing up its military against India. However, Robert
Blake, assistant secretary of Bureau of South and
Central Asian Affairs, said that the Pakistani Gov-
ernment was increasingly focused at fight ing the
Taliban insurgency and expressed hope that the
people of India would "support and agree with
what we are trying to do".
Concerns were raised in India that the Obama
administration was delaying the full implemen-
tation of the Indo-U.S. Nuclear Deal. The Obama
administration has also strongly advocated for the
strengthening of t he comprehensive test ban
Section -1 (Article : US-India Relationship)
12 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
treaty and has pressurized India to sign the agree-
ment . India' s special envoy, Shyam Sar an,
"warned" the United States that India would con-
t inue t o oppose any such t r eat y as it was
"discriminatory".In June 2009, U.S. Secretary of
State Hillary Clinton said that the Obama admin-
istration was "fully committed" to the Indo-U.S.
civil nuclear agreement.
U.S. chairman of the joint chiefs of staff Mike
Mullen encouraged stronger military ties between
India and the United States and said that "India
has emerged as an increasingly important strate-
gic partner.
Background
India played a key role in establishing the Non-
Aligned Movement in 1961. Though India pur-
sued close relations with both US and USSR, it
decided not to join any major power bloc and re-
frained from joining military alliances. India, how-
ever began establishing close military relationship
with the Soviet Union.
After the Sino-Indian war and the Indo-Pakistan
war of 1965, India made considerable changes to
its foreign policy. It developed a close relation-
ship with the Soviet Union and started receiving
massive military equipment and financi al assis-
tance from the USSR. This had an adverse effect
on the Indo-US relationship. The United States
saw Pakistan as a counter-weight to pro-Soviet
India and started giving the former military assis-
tance. This created an atmosphere of suspicion be-
tween India and US. The US-India relationship
suffered a considerable setback during the Soviet
Invasion of Afghanistan when India openly sup-
ported the Soviet Union. Relations between India
and the United States came to an all-time low
during the early 1970s.
Despite reports of atrocities in East Pakistan, and
being told, most notably in the Blood telegram, of
genocidal activities being perpetrated by Pakistani
forces, U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and
U.S. President Richard Nixon did nothing to dis-
courage then Pakistani President Yahya Khan and
the Pakistan army. Kissinger was particularly con-
cerned about Soviet expansion into South Asia as
a result of a treaty of friendship that had recently
been signed between India and the Soviet Union,
and sought to demonstrate to the People’s Repub-
lic of China the value of a tacit alliance with the
United States.
During the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971,Indian
Armed Forces, along with the Mukti Bahini, suc-
ceeded in liberating East Pakistan which soon de-
clared independence. Richard Nixon, then US
President, feared that an Indian invasion of West
Pakistan would mean total Soviet domination of
the region, and that it would seriously undermine
the global position of the United States and the
regional position of America' s new tacit ally,
China. In order to demonstrate to China the bona
fides of the Un i ted St at es as an al ly, and in di rect
violation of the US Congress-imposed sanctions
on Pakistan, Nixon sent military supplies to Paki-
stan, routing them through Jordan and Iran, while
also encouraging China to increase its arms sup-
plies to Pakistan.
When Pakistan' s defeat in the eastern sector
seemed certain, Nixon sent the USS Enterprise to
the Bay of Bengal, a move deemed by the Indians
as a nuclear threat. The Enterprise arrived on sta-
tion on December 11, 1971. On 6 December and
13 December, the Soviet Navy dispatched two
groups of ships, armed with nuclear missiles, from
Vladivostok; they trailed U.S. Task Force 74 into
the Indian Ocean from 18 December 1971 until 7
January 1972. The Soviets also sent a nuclear sub-
marine to ward off the threat posed by USS En-
terprise in the Indian Ocean.
Though American efforts had no effect in turning
the tide of the war, the incident involving USS
Enterprise is viewed as the trigger for India's sub-
sequent nuclear program. American policy to-
wards the end of the war was dictated primarily
by a need to restrict the escalation of war on the
western sector to prevent the 'dismemberment'
of West Pakistan. Years after the war, many
American writers criticized the White House poli-
cies during the war as being badly flawe d and ill-
Section -1 (Article : US-India Relationship)
13 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
serving the interests of the United States. India
carried out nuclear tests a few years later result-
ing in sanctions being imposed by United States,
further drifting the two countries apart. In recent
years, Kissinger came under fire for comme nt s
made during the Indo-Pakistan War in which he
described Indians as "bastards." Kissinger has since
expressed his regret over the comments.
Since the end of the cold war , India-US relations
have improved dramatically. This has largely been
fostered by the fact that the US and India are both
democracies and have a large and growing trade
relationship. During the gulf war, the economy
of India went through an extremely difficul t
phase. The Government of India liberalized the
Indian economy. After the break up of the Soviet
Union, India started looking for new allies and
tried improving diplomatic relations with the
members of the NATO particularly the United
States, Canada, France and Germany. In 1992,
India established formal diplomatic relations with
Israel.
In the mid-1990s, India tried to attract world at-
tention towards the Pakistan backed terrorism in
Kashmir. The Kargil war resulted in a major dip-
lomatic victory for India. The United States and
European Union recognized the fact that Pakistani
military had illegally infiltrat ed int o Indi an ter ri -
tory and pressurized Pakistan to withdraw from
Kargil. Several anti-India terrorist groups based
in Pakistan were labelled as terrorist groups by
the United States and European Union.
In 1998, India tested nuclear weapons which re-
sulted in several U.S., Japanese and European sanc-
tions on India. India' s then defence minister,
George Fernandes, said that India's nuclear pro-
gram was necessary as it provided a deterrence to
some potential nuclear threat. Most of the sanc-
tions imposed on India were removed by 2001.
India has categorically stated that it will never use
weapons first but wi ll def end if at tacked. In fact
Pakistan is the first count ry tha t Indi a inf or ms if
any nuclear tests are on the agenda.
The economic sanctions imposed by the United
States in response to India's nuclear tests in May
1998 appeared, at least initially, to seriously dam-
age Indo-American relat ions. President Bill
Clinton imposed wide-ranging sanctions pursuant
to the 1994 nuclear proliferation prevention act.
U.S. sanctions on Indian entities involved in the
nuclear industry and opposition to international
financi al ins titut ion loans for non- huma ni tar i an
assistance projects in India. The United States en-
couraged India to sign the comprehensive test ban
treaty (CTBT) immediately and without condition.
The U.S. also called for restraint in missile and
nuclear testing and deployment by both India and
Pakistan. The non-proliferation dialogue initiated
after the 1998 nuclear tests has bridged many of
the gaps in understanding between the countries.
After the September 11,2001 attacks, Indian in-
telligence agencies provided the U.S. with signifi-
cant information on Al-Qaeda and related groups'
activities in Pakistan and Afghanistan. India's ex-
tensive contribution to the war on terrorism has
helped India's diplomatic relations with several
countries. Over the past few years, India has held
numerous joint military exercises with U.S. and
European nations that have resulted in a strength-
ened U.S.-India and E.U.-India bilateral relation-
ship. India's bilateral trade with Europe and U.S.
has more than doubled in the last five year s.
However, India has yet to sign the CTBT, or the
nuclear non proliferation treaty, claiming the dis-
criminatory nature of the treaty that allows the
five decl ar ed nucl ear count ri es of t he wo r l d t o
keep their nuclear arsenal and develop it using
computer simulation testing. Prior to its nuclear
testing, India had pressed for a comprehensive de-
struction of nuclear weapons by all countries of
the world in a time-bound frame. This was not
acceptable to the US and other countries. Pres-
ently, India has declared its policy of "no-first us e
of nuclear weapons" and the maintenance of a
"credible nuclear deterrence". The US, under
President George W. Bush has also lifted most of
its sanctions on India and has resumed military
co-operation. Relations with US have consider-
ably improved in the recent years, with the two
countries taking part in joint naval exercises off
Section -1 (Article : US-India Relationship)
14 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
the coast of India and joint air exercises both in
India as well as in the United States.
India has been pushing for reforms in the UN and
WTO with mixed results. India's candidature for
a permanent seat at the UN security council is
currently backed by several countries including
United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, Bra-
zil, African Union nations and recently People’s
Republic of China. In 2005, the United States
signed a nuclear co-operation agreement with
India even though the latter is not a part of the
NPT. The US argued that India's strong nuclear
non-proliferation record made it an exception and
persuaded other NSG members to sign similar deals
with India.
On March 2, 2006 India and the US signed the
Indo-U.S. nuclear pact on co-operation in civilian
nuclear fiel d. Thi s wa s signed dur i ng the four days
state visit of US president George Bush in India.
On its part, India would separate its civilian and
military nuclear programs, and the civilian pro-
grams would be brought under the safeguards of
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The
United States would sell India the reactor tech-
nologies and the nuclear fuel for setting up and
upgrading its civilian nuclear program. The U.S.
Congress needs to ratify this pact since U.S. fed-
eral law prohibits the trading of nuclear technolo-
gies and materials outside the framework of the
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG).
Indo-US Strategic Partnership
Indo-US relations got strategic content way back
in early sixties. The rise of China worried the
policymakers in Washington. Chinese annexation
of Tibet, its role in Korean war and other such
acts convinced Washington about the expansion-
ist designs of the Chinese. As the relations between
India and China deteriorated during late fifties,
the Americans found a golden opportunity to take
advantage of this situation to promote India as a
counterweight to China But any unidimensional
alliance is bound to be short-lived and this alli-
ance was no exception to this general rule. As
China ceased to be a headache for the American
policymakers by the late sixties, this unidimen-
sional alliance disappeared into thin air.
The end of the Cold War necessitated as well as
facilitated the infusion of strategic content to Indo-
US relations–this time multidimensional.In the
post Cold War era, the strategic objectives of In-
dia and the US converges on a number of issues
and not just one–as well as the case earlier. These
issues include, inter alia, containment of terror-
ism, promotion of democracy, counter prolifera-
tion, freedom of navigation in the Indian Ocean,
Asian balance of power, etc.
One of the very interesting feature of Indo-US
relations of recent times is the changes on the
terms of engagement between the two countries
on the issue of nuclear proliferation.While ear-
lier, in the US strategic thinking on nuclear pro-
liferation, India figur ed ma i nl y becaus e of Ame r i -
can concern about latter’s nuclear and missile
programmes, in the twenti-first cent ur y, howe ver ,
American strategic thinking on the issue of nuclear
pr olifer at ion has under gone r adical
reorientation.Now, the Americans are increasingly
realising the futility of insisting on a rollback of
India’s nuclear programme. They, rather, want to
leverage India’s growing power and influence in
favour of t heir broader nonproliferation and
counter proliferation objectives.
As promotion of democracy around the world is
one of the most important foreign policy objec-
tive of the USA, India- as the largest democracy
of the world-can hardly be ignored by the US.
This is the reason, cooperation in promotion of
democracy in the world has become one of the
most important facets of Indo-US relations in re-
cent times.India is a founding member of the
‘Community of Democracies’ – a prominent en-
deavour of t he US on pr omot ion of
democracy.However,India rejected the suggestion
of the US about setting up a Centre for Asian De-
mocracy.
Agriculture is another important area of coopera-
tion between India and the USA in present times.
Section -1 (Article : US-India Relationship)
15 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
Considering the fact that both the nations at present have a vast pool of human resources adept at knowl-
edge economy, it is only natural that the most optimal course such partnership can aim at is harnessing
these human resources by concentrating on development and dissemination of agricultural knowledge
through research, education and training etc.An initiative to forge such a partnership is the 'India-US
Knowledge Initiative on Agriculture' (KIA).
Section -1 (Article : US-India Relationship)
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35th G8 Summit was held in L’Aquila, Italy the
country that currently holds the G8 Presidency
from 8 to 10 July,2009. G8 leaders pledged $20
billion in aid to help poor na-
tions feed themselves, surpass-
ing expectations of a summit
that made little ground on cli-
mate change and may spell the
end of the G8 itself. U.S. Presi-
dent Barack Obama and the
summit ' s It alian host Silvio
Berlusconi reflect ed gr owi ng
consensus t hat t he Group of
Eight industrial powers, long
criticized as an elite club, does
not reflect the shi fting pat ter ns
of global economic
power.Tackling global chal-
lenges "in the absence of major
powers like China, India and Brazil seems to be
wrongheaded," Obama said, adding that he looked
forward to "fewer summit meetings."
Begun in 1975 with six members, the G8 now
groups the United States, Japan, Germany, France,
Britain, Italy, Russia and Canada. That enabled
Obama, traveling to Ghana on his first tri p to sub-
Saharan Africa as president, to use the summit to
push for a shift toward agricultural investment
from food aid. Washington will make $3.5 billion
available to the 3-year program. "There is no rea-
son Africa should not be self-suffici ent wh e n it
comes to food," said Obama, recalling that his rela-
tives in Kenya live "in villages where hunger is
real," though they themselves are not going hun-
gry.
Obama said Africa had enough arable land but
lacked seeds, irrigation and mechanisms for farm-
ers to get a fair price for their produce issues that
the summit promised to tackle.Africa told the
wealthy powers they must honor their commit-
By Dr. Nageshwar Nath Mishra
The Aut hor is Professor and Head of t he Depart ment for Hist ory
35th G-8 Annual Summit
Insuring Global Food Security with Economic Stability
ments, old and new mindful that some in the G8
had fallen well short of their 2005 promise to in-
crease annual aid by $50 billion by 2010, half of
wh ich was meant for
Africa.South African President
Jacob Zuma said the new fund-
ing will "go a long way" to help-
ing Africa, adding: "We can't say
it's enough, but at least it begins
to do very concrete things."
Nigerian Agriculture Minister
Abba Ruma said the new pledge
was "very commendable in view
of the current global recession.
"But he cautioned that it must
be "disbursed expeditiously. It is
only then we will know that the
G8 is living up to its commitment
and not just making a pledge and going to sleep."
The United Nations said the number of malnour-
ished people has risen in the past two years and is
expected to top 1.02 billion this year, reversing
decades of declines. The global recession is ex-
pected to make 103 million more go hungry. Aid
bodies like t he World Food Program said a
last-minute surge of generosity at the summit in
L'Aquila resulting in the $20 billion pledge was
"greeted with great happiness. "That amount over
three years may compare unfavorably with the
$13.4 billion the G8 says it disbursed between
January 2008 and July 2009, but aid groups said
the new pledge in Italy was more clearly focused.
Japan and the European Union were also champi-
oning a code of conduct for responsible invest-
ment after growing farmland acquisition or "land
grabs" in emerging nations. The group of eight de-
veloped countries have vowed to curb transfer
enrichment and reprocessing (ENR) technology
and equipment, surprising India as it goes against
the spirit of Nuclear Suppliers Group's "clean"
waiver to it. In a joint statement on non-prolif-
Section -1 (Article : 35th G-8 Annual Summit)
19 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
eration, the G-8 nations also pushed other mem-
bers of the 45-nation NSG to reach a consensus
within this year to disallow transfer of ENR to
countries which are not signatories to NPT. The
statement was issued after the Summit that was
attended by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in
L'Aquila.
The move, which would have an impact on India,
comes even though the NSG had last September
given New Delhi "clean" and "full" waiver for civil
nuclear cooperation with the world despite it be-
ing a non-signatory to NPT. "To reduce the pro-
liferation risks associated with the spread of en-
richment and reprocessing facilities, equipment
and technology, we welcome the progress that
continues to be made by the NSG on mechanisms
to strengthen controls on transfers of such enrich-
ment and reprocessing items and technology," said
the statement issued yesterday. While noting that
the NSG has not yet reached consensus on this
issue, the G-8 nations said "we agree that NSG
discussions have yielded useful and constructive
proposals contained in the NSG's “clean text” de-
veloped at the November 20,2008 Consultative
Group meeting.
The leaders stressed that the standstill commit-
ments made at the London G20 summit must be
adhered to and to refrain from introducing barri-
ers to trade and investment. They asked the World
Trade Organisation and other international bod-
ies to monitor the situation and report publicly
on adherence on a quarterly basis. They also com-
mitted themselves to refraining from competitive
devaluations of the currencies and to a stable and
well functioning international monetary system.
The declaration expressed the joint commitment
of the G8 and G5 to implement rapidly the deci-
sions taken at the Washington and London G20
summits, including those on providing additional
resources to the international financi al i ns titu-
tions. Noting the high social costs of the current
economic crisis, the countries committed them-
selves to tackling the social dimensions, putting
people first. The y we r e mo der ni sing, rei nf or ci ng
and increasing the effici ency of soci al pr ot ect ion
policies, including safety nets, health and educa-
tion.
The declaration committed the G8 and the G5 to
“facilitating the development, dissemination and
mutually agreed transfer of clean, low-carbon
technologies, reducing carbon emissions and in-
creasing energy effici enc y. ” The l eader s recon-
firme d the i r pol itical wi ll to reach a “comp r ehe n-
sive, fair, effective, agreed outcome, following the
principles of common but differentiated respon-
sibilities and respective capabilities” at the United
Nations climate change conference in Copenhagen
in December.
This is the first time in a G8 pl us G5 summi t tha t
a joint declaration has been issued. The G8 and
G5 nations decided to continue the dialogue pro-
cess started in 2007 in Heiligendamm, Germany,
and now renamed the Heiligendamm-L’Aquila
Process (HAP). This dialogue process has been
described as a partnership on an equal footing and
a steering committee will prepare a report for the
next G8 plus G5 summit in Muskoka. The joint
declaration said the G8 and the G5 countries were
committed to advancing the reform process in in-
ternational organizations, including the United
Nations, “to reflect cont emp or ary real ity and cha l -
lenges thus enhancing their relevance, legitimacy
and effici ency. ”
Debatable Issues
Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, spoke in his ca-
pacity as President of the G8, summed up the main
points on the agenda for debate at the Summit
Economic Crisis and a Boost to Growth: Posi-
tive pointers to improvement in the economy are
starting to emerge and it is important to support
families' and businesses' confidence i n or der t o
rapidly trigger economic recovery. The current
economic and financi al cr i sis ha s hi ghl ight ed cer -
tain crucial weaknesses in the global economy,
which have helped to trigger and to spread the
crisis itself. Hence the need to thrash out a code
of shared ground rules for t he world of the
economy and of finance wi th speci fic, clear cri t e-
Section -1 (Article : 35th G-8 Annual Summit)
20 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
ria and with the establishment of supervisory bod-
ies and tools. One of the issues on the agenda at
the G8 Summit in L'Aquila was the strategy de-
signed to put together a series of common prin-
ciples governing the rules of propriety, integrity
and transparency in international financ e and
business.
Imparting a Fresh Boost to International Trade:
Another crucial factor in combating the economic
crisis and in imparting a fresh boost to growth is
international trade: the aim of the Summit in
L'Aquila was to impart a new thrust to the Doha
talks on world trade, in order to help ensure that
the talks are successfully completed as rapidly as
possible. Achieving an ambitious and balanced
agreement would make it possible to boost global
exports and to support development in the poorer
countries by offering them improved access to
markets in the wealthy countries.
People First: People first: t ha t i s t he 2009 G8
Summit's message. The international community
is living through one of its most serious economic
and financi al cr i ses since Wo r l d Wa r II. If we ar e
to make it through this crisis, we have to consider
its social aspect and to place people in the centre
of government action by pursuing policies de-
signed to restore people's confidence. Count ri es
must continue to implement strategies capable of
reducing the impact of the crisis on employment,
and of ensuring that welfare and social safeguard
systems are both effective and sustainable.
Climate Changes: The struggle against climate
changes is one of the Italian Presidency's priori-
ties on the G8 Agenda. It is necessary to define a
global response in which the leadership and com-
mitment of the industrially advanced countries is
paralleled by an active contribution from the
emerging and developing countries on the basis
of a balanced sharing of responsibilities. In that
sense, the L'Aquila G8 Summit, which will also
be hosting the first ever me et ing of t he Ma j or
Economies Forum on Energy and Climate (MEF)
at leadership level, is going to be a vital step in
paving the way for the success of the United Na-
tions Conference in Copenhagen next December.
Development in the Poorer Countries and in
Africa: The Summit broadcasted a strong message
designed to attenuate the impact of the crisis on
developing countries, an impact that is jeopardiz-
ing the progress made to date in the struggle
against poverty. It planed to do this by putting
together a "rescue package" entailing: confirma -
tion of the G8's commitment to development aid;
the use of innovative financi al tool s; ha l vi ng the
cost of emigrants' remittance transactions; and
imparting a fresh boost to international trade; not
to mention the debt issue. The G8 is promoting a
new approach to backing development in the
poorer countries based on the involvement of the
"country system" as a whole. This, in order to
make the most of the role played by all of the
actors (governments, local authorities, private in-
dividuals and civil society) and all of the available
resources and policies in both donor and destina-
tion countries in boosting growth and develop-
ment in the poorer countries. The issue of devel-
opment has addressed, with differing nuances,
both at the G8 sessions and at the sessions with
the emerging and African countries.
Food Safety and Security, and Access to Water:
Over 1 billion people are currently suffering from
starvation or malnutrition. The situation had been
aggravated by insuffici ent investme nt in far mi ng
over the past few decades, and by the economic
crisis. All of the leaders attended the L'Aquila
summit signed a joint declaration with the inter-
national organizations and launched an important
initiative on food safety and security, to fund farm-
ing and to support the struggle against starvation.
Moreover, the G8 under Italy's presidency was
committed to laying the groundwork for launch-
ing a G8-Africa Partnership designed to improve
access to water and to basic sanitary facilities, be-
fore the end of the year.
Health: World health has traditionally been one
of the central issues on the G8 group's agenda,
and the Italian Presidency planed to continue de-
voting particular attention to it. The key topics
included strengthening health systems and cut-
ting infant mortality and death during childbirth.
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On the basis of the experience garnered in the
launch of the Global Fund at the G8 Summit in
Genoa in 2001, there is to be ongoing support for
programmes designed to combat AIDS, tubercu-
losis and malaria, also through the exploration of
innovative forms of funding.
International Political Issues: The G8 Summit
addressed the most important political issues on
the international agenda: the commitment to
making progress on the nuclear non-proliferation
front, the situation in Iran and in the Middle East,
the struggle against terrorism, the stabilization of
the Afghanistan and Pakistan region, and the situ-
ation in North Korea.
Strengthening The Reform Process
Leaders of the developing countries meeting at
their parallel G5 summit at the venue of the G8
summit urged the industrial nations to deliver on
the commitments they had made on financi al and
credit flows and on avoi di ng pr ot ect ioni sm. At the
end of meetings, which the chairman, President
Felipe Calderon of Mexico, described as “quite
interesting and very productive,” the G5 came out
with a declaration that it was important to com-
ply with the agreements reached at the earlier G8
and G5 meetings and particularly at the London
G20 summit in April. These related to the steps to
address the economic crisis jointly and in particu-
lar the commitment to provide the resources to
restart credit flows to the devel opi ng count ri es.
The sudden departure of Chinese President Hu
Jintao to deal with the ethnic violence in the
Xinjiang region cast a shadow over the delibera-
tions of the G5, but the Chinese delegation re-
mained as an active participant. The G5 came out
with a political declaration and another on trade
that were presented at a joint press appearance
where the leaders made opening statements.
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh stressed in his
remarks that the developing countries had been
the worse hit by the economic crisis, and a collec-
tive approach to recovery should address their
problems of drying up of credit flows and wo r s-
ening food poverty.
The G5 declared its commitment to engage with
all World Trade Organisation members to com-
plete the Doha round of negotiations. It wanted
the negotiations to deliver real and improved mar-
ket access to the developing countries. On the
contentious issues of agriculture and non-agricul-
ture market access, the G5 leaders wanted the
mandates already negotiated to be upheld and not
reopened selectively in a way that will upset the
overall balance.
The leaders wanted the negotiations on climate
change to move forward to a successful conclu-
sion at Copenhagen on the basis of joint but dif-
ferentiated responsibility. They urged the devel-
oped countries to commit themselves to reducing
their emissions by at least 40 per cent below the
1990 levels by 2020. They also wanted the con-
ference to consider the funding arrangements for
the developing countries to cut emissions and an
international mechanism for developing and trans-
ferring climate-friendly technologies. The G5 dec-
laration also stressed the need for the strongest
collective action by the international community
to prevent terror attacks and punish the perpe-
trators. To provide an effective international le-
gal framework against terrorism, it called upon
the United Nations members to conclude and
adopt as early as possible a comprehensive con-
vention on international terrorism.
Climate Change
India considered the declaration on climate change
in the agreed draft at the Major Economies Fo-
rum a “very strong political message” that would
provide impetus to the negotiations on climate
change before the Copenhagen summit in Decem-
ber.
The Prime Minister’s special envoy on climate
change, Shyam Saran, said at a briefing on the side-
lines of the G8 and G5 meetings that the declara-
tion was positive and forward looking and would
send the right kind of message, though the spe-
cifics wo ul d ha ve t o be ne got iat ed under t he
United Nations Framework Convention on Cli-
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22 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
mat e Ch ange leading t o t he Copenhagen
summit.Outlining the perspectives of the G5 de-
veloping countries, including India, he said that
while climate change was a global challenge, there
was an aspect of historical responsibility of the
industrial countries for the accumulated emissions
in the atmosphere. On the principle of “polluter
pays,” the major responsibility lay with the in-
dustrial nations, and this was a responsibility that
they had acknowledged and undertaken under the
UNFCCC.
The developing countries wanted the industrial
nations to commit themselves to sharp and sig-
nificant reduct ions i n emi ssions by 40 per cent
below the 1990 (the date of the Kyoto protocol)
levels by 2020. This could form the basis for a more
ambitious target over the longer term.
The developing nations were faced with the prob-
lem of adaptation to climate change and India it-
self was spending 2 to 2.5 per cent of its Gross
Domestic Product on adaptation, including to ex-
treme climatic events and disasters and the im-
pact on agriculture. Even if emissions were re-
duced to zero, the accumulated emissions would
continue to impose a long term burden on the
developing countries.
Based on this perspective, the developing coun-
tries have been emphasising the two pillars of fi-
nancing mitigation and adaptation actions and the
transfer of technology. The position of the G5 was
that there should be predictable, stable and ad-
equate resources available for a credible response
from the developing countries and the industrial
nations could provide 0.5 per cent to 1 per cent of
their GDP for the purpose. The G5 also wanted
the existing climate-friendly technologies to be
diffused rapidly and widely. In addition, they
wanted a global programme for capacity building
to combat climate change put in place. Transfor-
mational technologies, including on clean energy
and new and renewable sources, needed to be de-
veloped and provided. It was with these goals that
India, in association with the United Nations, was
organising a conference in New Delhi in October
on the development and transfer of technology
for climate change.
The Green Fund proposed by Mexico and endorsed
by both the G5 and the G8, involved contribu-
tions by all nations assessed on the basis of their
historical responsibility, current level of develop-
ment and weighted per capita emissions. From the
Indian viewpoint, the principle of assessed con-
tribution would be welcome as it would provide
stable resources.
As regards the binding reduction targets for India
and the other developing countries that have so
far been exempt from such commitments, India
was already committed to the goal of sustainable
development, and there has to be a deviation from
the business as usual path of growth. However,
without clarity on capacity building, funding and
technology transfer for climate friendly technolo-
gies, India and the other developing countries were
unable to give binding commitments on emission
reduction targets. However, they were commit-
ted to the overall goal of keeping the rise in aver-
age global temperature to below 2 degrees over
the pre-industrialisation levels.
Proposals and Understandings
» The Leaders of the Group of Eight meeting in
L’Aquila, expressed their heartfelt solidarity to the
people of Abruzzo affected by the tragic earth-
quake which struck the region on 6th April 2009,
and to all those around the world who have been
touched by natural disasters.
» G8 determined to ensure sustainable growth
and to tackle the interlinked challenges of the
economic crisis, poverty and climate change.
These challenges require immediate action and
long term vision.
» Guided by their common values, G8 addressed
global issues and promote a world economy that
is open, innovative, sustainable and fair. To this
end, effective and responsible leadership is re-
quired. G8 determined to fully take on their re-
sponsibilities, and are committed to implement-
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23 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
ing their decisions, and to adopting a full and com-
prehensive accountability mechanism by 2010 to
monitor progress and strengthen the effectiveness
of actions.
» G8 remain focused on the economic and finan-
cial crisis and its human and social consequences.
G8 will continue to work together to restore con-
fidence and set gr owt h on a mo r e robus t, gr een,
inclusive and sustainable path. This will include
strengthening standards of integrity, propriety and
transparency for economic activities.
» G8 intended to secure present and future pros-
perity by taking the lead in the fight agai ns t cl i-
mate change. G8 committed to reaching a global,
ambit ious and comprehensive agreement in
Copenhagen. In this respect, G8 called upon other
industrialised countries and emerging economies
to actively engage, consistently with the principle
of common but differentiated responsibilities and
respective capabilities.
» G8 renewed all their commitments towards the
poor, especially in Africa. G8 determined to un-
dertake measures to mitigate the impact of the
crisis on developing countries, and to continue to
support their efforts to achieve the Millennium
Development Goals.
» The world economy is experiencing the most
severe economic and financi al di stur bances in de-
cades. After several years of very high global
growth, G8 have been facing challenging eco-
nomic conditions, characterised by financi al tur -
moil, widespread recession, intense deleveraging,
an abrupt decline in international trade and grow-
ing unemployment and social suffering. While
there are signs of stabilization, including a recov-
ery of stock markets, a decline in interest rate
spreads, improved business and consumer confi-
dence, the situation remains uncertain and sig-
nificant ri sks rema i n t o economi c and financi al
stability.
» G8 strongly reaffirme d commi tme nt s under -
taken at the London Summit to take all necessary
steps to support demand, restore growth and main-
tain financi al stabi lity, i ncl udi ng st rengt he ni ng
financi al regul at ion and Int er nat iona l Fi nanci al
Institutions (IFIs) and maintaining open markets
worldwide. G8 continue to implement swiftly
these decisions and call on all countries to act de-
cisively to reinforce the international economic
and financi al sys tem, and to wo r k cooper at ivel y
and responsibly with regard to the impact on other
countries.
» G8 taken stock of progress made to date to re-
store confidence, stabi lise the financi al sect or and
provide stimulus to boost growth and create jobs.
Despite the current difficul t condi tions , we wi ll
continue to address global challenges, including
fight ing pover t y and cl ima t e change, wi th the ai m
of establishing a more balanced and sustainable
growth path, underpinned by sound fundamen-
tals and social inclusion.
» The current financi al and economi c cr i sis ha s
reinforced the need generally for cooperation
among key economies. The Heiligendamm Dia-
logue Process (HDP), a topic-driven dialogue of
the G8 with major emerging economies – China,
India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa – estab-
lished in 2007, has helped to fulfil t hi s rol e by
serving as a platform to develop common under-
standing and shared responsibility in responding
to the challenges of the world economy concern-
ing investment, innovation, development and en-
ergy effici ency, wh i ch wi ll be imp or t ant for gl o-
bal economic growth going forward. The dialogue
has helped to gain a shared understanding of these
global challenges in order to find appr opr i at e re-
sponses. G8 endorsed the results achieved until
now and called for an extension of this dialogue
among equals.
» Since the beginning of the crisis G8 have taken
an unprecedented and concerted action to ensure
recovery and repair our financ i al sys t ems . G8
have:
» Coordinated their efforts with partners at vari-
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24 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
ous levels in response to a crisis that has affected
every corner of the world. They have taken force-
ful and coordinated action to provide stimulus to
economic growth..
» They agreed on the need to prepare appropri-
ate strategies for unwinding the extraordinary
policy measures taken to respond to the crisis once
the recovery is assured. These “exit strategies” will
vary from country to country depending on do-
mestic economic conditions and public finances,
and must ensure a sustainable recovery over the
long term. They welcomed the analytical work of
the IMF which will assist them with this process.
» Repairing t he fina nc i al sect or , i nc l udi ng
stabilising financi al ma rket s and nor ma l ising bank-
ing activity, is an urgent priority to ensure lasting
economic recovery. They are implement ing
swiftly the commitments made at the London
Summit and call on others to join their efforts to
ensure global financi al stabi lity and an int er na-
tional level playing fiel d.
» In this difficul t time , the pr ot ect ion of tax base
and the efforts to combat tax fraud and tax eva-
sion are all the more important, especially given
the ext raordinary fiscal me asur es adopt ed t o
stabilise the world economy and the need to en-
sure that economic activity is conducted in a fair
and transparent manner. G8 are making progress
in promoting tax information exchange and trans-
parency across the globe, which is helping to
widen the acceptance of internationally agreed
standards on the exchange of tax information and
increase the number of bilateral agreements signed
by several jurisdictions. But there is no space for
complacency: all jurisdictions must now quickly
implement their commitments. They cannot con-
tinue to tolerate large amounts of capital hidden
to evade taxation.
» G8 asked the OECD to swiftly address these
challenges, propose further steps and report by
the time of the next G20 Finance Ministers’ meet-
ing.
» G8 call on all jurisdictions to adhere to interna-
tional standards in the prudential, tax and Anti-
Money Laundering and Combating Financing of
Terrorism (AML-CFT) areas. To this end, they
called on the appropriate bodies to conduct and
strengthen objective peer-reviews, based on ex-
isting processes, including through the Financial
Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) process.
» They are pleased with the progress being made
by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) in
improving the standards for combating money
laundering and the financi ng of ter ror i sm and by
the OECD on international standards of transpar-
ency.
» The fight agai ns t non- cooper at ive jur i sdi ct ions
should also encompass anti money laundering and
terrorism financi ng, as we l l as in the ar ea of pr u-
dential regulations. G8 called on the Financial Sta-
bility Board (FSB) to assess jurisdictions against
international supervisory and prudential standards.
The FATF and FSB should report back by Sep-
tember on their progress in identifying uncoop-
erative jurisdictions.
» G8 noted that several countries are implement-
ing voluntary compliance strategies in order to
repatriate assets held in non-cooperative jurisdic-
tions, and the need is felt to define a di scus sion
framework for interested countries.
» Going forward, world needed a strategy to com-
prehensively address long-term issues and lead the
global economy to stable, balanced and sustain-
able growth. Achieving economic and social sta-
bility as a global public good requires better gov-
ernance. Regulatory reform will reduce room for
excessive leveraging and risk taking and promote
sound capitalisation of financi al ins titut ions . Com-
mon principles and standards on propriety, integ-
rity and transparency governing the conduct of
international business and finance he l p pr omo t e
a healthy and sustainable economic system. The
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25 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
social dimension of growth is also crucial in this
effort, through the promotion of employment op-
portunities, the creation and updating of skills and
the protection of the weakest through appropri-
ate social safety nets and income support.
» Stable and sustained long-term growth will re-
quire a smooth unwinding of the existing imbal-
ances in current accounts. G8 recognised the im-
portance of working together to ensure the nec-
essary adjustments in line with the multilaterally
agreed strategies, which include supporting strong
internal demand in surplus countries and increas-
ing savings rates in defici t count ri es thr ough ap-
propriate macroeconomic and structural policies.
New sources of growth will have to be supported
by investments in infrastructure, innovation and
education to facilitate productivity growth, while
ensuring sustainable use of resources in a greener
economy, wit hin a context of open market s.
Greater macroeconomic policy coordination will
also be needed to help ensure that the burden of
adjustment is fairly shared.
» G8 emphasized the need for an enhanced glo-
bal framework for financi al regul at ion and super -
vision, promoting consistency between account-
ing and prudential standards and setting up ad-
equate tools to address procyclicality, as well as
ensuring a comprehensive oversight of all systemi-
cally significant ent ities and act ivi ties. G8 com-
mitted to vigorously pursue the work necessary
to ensure global financi al stabi lity and an int er na-
tional level playing fiel d, incl udi ng on comp ens a-
tion structures, defini tion of capi tal and the ap-
propriat e incent ives for risk management of
securitisation, accounting and prudential stan-
dards, regulation and oversight of systemically im-
portant hedge funds, standardisation and resilience
of OTC derivative markets, establishment of cen-
tral clearing counterparties for these products, and
regulation and transparency of credit rating agen-
cies.
» International cooperation against corruption
should be enhanced in order to achieve effective
results. G8 are therefore committed to update G8
anticorruption.
» G8 also welcomed the update of the Account-
ability Report: Implementation Review of G8 on
Anti-Corruption Commitments which was pre-
sented for the first time in Toyako. We envi sage
making it a permanent tool which sets examples
on combating corruption and holds the G8 coun-
tries to the highest standards of transparency and
accountability. To this end, we appreciate the as-
sistance of the OECD in preparing our regular re-
ports on anti-corruption commitments. Going for-
ward, we invite our major partners to prepare simi-
lar reports on their anti-corruption commitments.
» G8 are committed to tackling the social dimen-
sion of the crisis, putting peoples’ concerns first.
The impact of the economic crisis on labour mar-
kets can undermine social stability. Therefore,
good macroeconomic policies must be linked to
employment and social policies that reduce un-
employment, enable a quick re-entry into the
labour market and prevent social exclusion. We
support the conclusions of the G8 Social Summit
in Rome and the London Jobs Conference to take
further coherent actions to reduce the impact of
the crisis on employment and maximise the po-
tential for growth in jobs, in accordance with the
following principles:
» Promotion of active labour market policies to
reduce unemployment, enhance skills develop-
ment and match jobs with labour market needs;
maintain income support for the unemployed;
sustain existing employment, including through
partial
» Unemployment schemes combined with train-
ing provisions and temporary flexi bl e wo r k or
other arrangements, such as employment subsi-
dies, in order to prevent lay-offs;
» Ensuring the sustainability and effectiveness of
social protection systems as drivers of confidence
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26 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
and consequently of economic and employment
recovery;
» G8 invited international organisations, in par-
ticular the IMF, the OECD and the ILO, to take
into account the labour and social impact of their
advice and cooperation with governments.
» The emergency response to the economic crisis
should not overlook the opportunity to facilitate
a global green recovery putting our economies on
a path towards more sustainable and resilient
growth. G8 fiscal stimu l us packages ar e incr eas-
ingly investing in measures encouraging the cre-
ation of green jobs and low-carbon, energy effi-
cient and sustainable growth. These include en-
ergy effici ency me asur es, i nvestme nt i n publ ic
transportation infrastructure, incentives for fuel-
effici ent vehi cl es, resear ch in al ter nat ive sour ces
of energy, support for renewable energy technolo-
gies, as well as in enhanced CO2 reduction, recy-
cling and disposal such as Carbon Capture and
Storage.
On goods and services directly linked to address-
ing climate change, as agreed at the Toyako Sum-
mit. At the same time, G8 will ensure proper regu-
latory and other frameworks facilitating transi-
tion towards low-carbon and resource effici ent
growth. In this light, G8 has called for a reduc-
tion of subsidies that artifici al ly encour age car -
bon-intensive energy consumption.
» The current financi al and economi c cr isis shoul d
not delay cost -effect ive investment s or pro-
grammed energy projects that would create jobs,
enhance energy security and help limit greenhouse
gas emissions in the short and medium term. G8
has urged all countries and the private sector to
adopt a long-term view in planning their invest-
ments.
In this context, G8 reaffirme d the i r strong com-
mitment to implement the St Petersburg Prin-
ciples on Global Energy Security in our countries
and call on others to join us in this effort. G8 in-
vited the major international energy organisations
to review and update their programmes and pro-
mote them in light of the changing energy chal-
lenges.
» G8 reconfirme d t he i r commi tme nt t o keep
markets open and free and to reject protectionism
of any kind. In difficul t time s G8 mu s t avoi d past
mistakes of protectionist policies, especially given
the strong decline in world trade following the
economic crisis. Recovery needs a strong interna-
tional trade component to be viable and the rel-
evant programmes must fully respect our obliga-
tions and commitments to non-discriminatory
treatment under WTO and other international
agreements. G8 will maximise efforts and steps to
promote and facilitate trade and investment.
» G8 stressed the importance of fully adhering to
the standstill commitment and the commitment
to rectify protectionist measures adopted in Lon-
don to avoid further deterioration of international
trade, including refraining from taking decisions
to increase tariffs above today’s levels. G8 will re-
frain from raising new barriers to investment or
to trade in goods and services, imposing new ex-
ports restrictions, or implementing World Trade
Organisation (WTO) inconsistent measures to
stimulate exports.
» G8 will continue to ensure that our share of the
pledge taken in the London Summit of $250 bil-
lion of support for trade finance is pr omp t ly ma de
available t hrough our export credit agencies
(ECAs) and investment agencies and through
Multilateral Development Banks. G8 support co-
ordination and cooperation in its implementation,
and welcome exchange of information on the mea-
sures taken in this regard. Cooperation among
ECAs, such as st r engt hening r e- insur ance
schemes, is expected to play an important role to
this end.
» The current crisis has affected capital flows ,
including foreign direct investments (FDIs), which
represent an important source of financi ng and a
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driver of economic growth and integration. G8
stressed the positive role of long term investments.
G8 will work to reverse the recent decline in FDI,
by fostering an open, receptive climate for for-
eign investment, especially in emerging and in de-
veloping countries.
» Innovation and knowledge are key factors for
supporting the recovery and putting the world
economy on a more sustainable growth path. G8
has intended to accelerate innovation in relation
to long-term challenges and to encourage the de-
velopment of new industries, companies and ser-
vices that will be decisive to create new sources
of growth. G8 are committed to implementing
innovation policies in our countries, also through
our stimulus packages. G8 aimed to foster research,
entrepreneurship, human capital and skills, green
technologies and investment in infrastructure,
including Information and Communication Tech-
nology (ICT) networks.
» Recognising the importance of research and
development, we committed in Toyako to increase
investment in basic and applied clean technology
research and development. G8 will intensify such
efforts and explore options to enhance global tech-
nology cooperation. G8 believed that provisions
on financi ng technol ogy resear ch, devel opme nt ,
deployment and diffusion should form an inte-
gral part of the post-2012 agreement.
» Financing is central to achieving an agreement
at Copenhagen and requires mobilisation of sig-
nificant financi al resour ces, bot h publ i c and pri -
vate. Given its capacity to innovate, the private
sector should play a pivotal role in financi ng in-
vestments in new technologies. Public resources
should therefore seek to leverage private-sector
financi ng, to suppor t resear ch, devel opme nt and
demonstration of low carbon technologies in or-
der to accelerate the development and deployment
of early stage technologies, and to aid implemen-
tation of adaptation and mitigation strategies in
developing countries. To promote concerted ef-
forts on technology and financi ng, G8:
» Strive for greater predictability of international
support and affirm the i r int ent ion to cont ri but e
fair share, in the context of an ambitious deal in
Copenhagen;
» Affirm tha t al l count ri es, except Least De vel -
oped Countries (LDCs), should participate in the
financi al ef for t to tackl e cl ima t e cha nge, accor d-
ing to criteria to be agreed, and G8 support con-
sideration of the proposal by Mexico;
» Call for the elaboration and implementation of
an effective financi al ar rangeme nt to suppor t the
post-2012 regime. G8 underlined that mobilizing
financ i ng for devel opi ng count ri es, t hr ough a
broad range of financi al sour ces, incl udi ng finan-
cial assistance, is required for adaptation and miti-
gation, and to facilitate the transition to low-car-
bon economies. Financial support needs to be ef-
fici ent , ef fect i ve and equi tabl e and t he r ef or e
linked to results in terms of emission reductions
and adaptation actions;
» Will work to ensure that the governance of
mechanisms disbursing funds is transparent, fair,
effective, effici ent , and of bal anced repr esent at ion
among developed.
» Promote public-private partnerships, in order
to facilitate targeted and effici ent investme nt s in
research, development, deployment and diffusion
of clean technologies, while mobilising additional
resources from the private sector.
Promoting Global Food Security : Agriculture
and food security should be placed at the core of
the international agenda. G8 welcomed the Final
Declaration of the G8 Ministers of Agriculture
who recently met in Treviso, and commit to con-
tinue working with partner countries and inter-
national and regional organizations to foster the
conditions for ensuring sustainable access to suf-
fici ent , af for dabl e and saf e food to ever yone. The
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economic crisis dramatically changed the scenario
faced when G8 last convened in Toyako. Although
global commodity and food prices significant ly
decreased in many regions, they remain high com-
pared with historical levels.
As a consequence of spikes in food prices, the num-
ber of people suffering from hunger increased by
100 million up to 1 billion and could significant ly
worsen as the global economic crisis unfolds.
Lower incomes and higher unemployment reduce
the purchasing power of the poor, worsening their
access to food. The climate change impact on ag-
riculture and decreasing availability of water could
aggravate the already critical situation of food se-
curity, requiring broader adaptation and mitiga-
tion efforts.
In Toyako G8 agreed to undertake all possible
measures to ensure global food security, highlight-
ing that the G8 had committed over US$ 10 bil-
lion since January 2008 for short, medium and
long-term purposes, to support food aid, nutrition
interventions, social protection activities and ag-
ricultural output increase. The monitoring report
by their experts confirms tha t from Januar y 2008
to July 2009 US$ 13 billion have been disbursed
and that substantial additional commitments have
been undertaken since the Toyako Summit.
With a view to ensuring a more food secure
world, G8 committed to: Stimulate sustainable
growth of world food production, by promoting
increased investment in agriculture, including
through development assistance, and with particu-
lar attention to small-hold farmers; promote well-
functioning and transparent international, national
and local markets as a means to reduce the vola-
tility of prices and combat speculation; work with
gover nment s and r egional organizat ions t o
strengthen national agricultural research systems;
increase investment and access to scientific knowl -
edge and technology, also by strengthening the
role of the Consultative Group for International
Agricultural Research (CGIAR); encourage appro-
priate land and natural resource management, the
protection of biodiversity and the adaptation to
climate change.
Noting a growing trend of international agricul-
tural investment, including land leasing and pur-
chases in developing countries, G8 will work with
partner countries and international organizations
to develop a joint proposal on principles and best
practices for international agricultural investment.
Foster a more effici ent and cohe r ent int er nat ional
agricultural and food security architecture by: ad-
vancing the reforms of the FAO, the Committee
on World Food Security and other specialized
agencies and their cooperation at global, regional
and country level; enhancing food aid effective-
ness; continuing to explore various options on a
coordinated approach to stock management; ad-
vancing trade negotiations to achieve a balanced,
comprehensive and ambitious conclusion of the
Doha Round. Support country-led and regional
processes, such as the Comprehensive Africa Ag-
riculture Development Programme (CAADP), to
promote sustainable agriculture, the development
of local markets and rural non-farm economies,
as well as to strengthen early warning systems,
social protection mechanisms and safety nets for
vulnerable population groups.
G8-Africa Partnership on Water and Sanitation:
G8 has determined to build a stronger partner-
ship between African and G8 countries to increase
access to water and sanitation, based on the prin-
ciples of shared responsibility and mutual account-
ability. Through the joint political weight of the
G8 and the AU, we will ensure adequate momen-
tum and commitment on water and sanitation
improvements at national and international lev-
els, for concrete results on the ground. coordina-
tion processes and the defini tion of wa t er and sani -
tation investment plans in line with the Paris dec-
laration on Aid Effect iveness and the Accra
Agenda for Action.
To support the implementation of the African
commitments, G8 countries will: assist the build-
ing of capacity in African countries to develop and
implement national water and sanitation plans;
improve coordination within multi-donor plat-
Section -1 (Article : 35th G-8 Annual Summit)
29 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
forms to promote aid effectiveness; align assistance
to better reflect nat ional pr i or i ties; imp r ove bi lat -
eral and multilateral contributions to financi al
mechanisms aimed at mobilizing investment; as-
sist the AU Commission, AMCOW and Regional
Economic Communities in response to the Afri-
can demands for institutional support. G8 will con-
tinue working at all levels to consolidate and de-
velop this cooperation with a view to present a
strengthened Africa-G8 Partnership on Water and
Sanitation by the end of 2009. The Africa Water
Week due to take place in November in South
Africa might provide an opportunity for tangible
progress towards their common goal of meeting
water and sanitation challenges.
G5 Trade and Political Declaration
Trade Declaration: The Leaders of the Group of
Five (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Af-
rica) in L’Aquila, Italy on July 8, 2009, have de-
cided to issue the following Declaration on Trade:
Group of Five convinced that the successful con-
clusion of the Doha Round on the basis of its de-
velopment mandate will provide a major stimulus
to the restoration of confidence in wo r l d ma r ket s
and inhibit emerging protectionist trends which
are particularly damaging to developing countries.
G5 also believed that a strengthened multilateral
trading system must play a role in promoting de-
velopment and reducing poverty. The full inte-
gration of developing countries in world trade re-
quires a fair, equitable and development-friendly
multilateral trading system.
G5 need to conclude this final stage of negot ia-
tions. The only way to achieve this in the fore-
seeable future is by upholding the mandates ne-
gotiated over the last seven years. The conclusion
of the modalities in agriculture and non-agricul-
tural market access (NAMA) continues to be a
necessary step in the negotiations. The December
2008 draft Agriculture and NAMA texts must be
completed in line with the development mandate
and their overall balance must be preserved, as
they offer the only prospect for a timely conclu-
sion of the Round.
The time has come to intensify dialogue among
WTO Members with a view to findi ng sol ut ions
to the remaining negotiating gaps. The contribu-
tion that countries are making in this Round is
unprecedented and all Members must be prepared
to do the same, especially the developed ones. G5
are ready to engage with all WTO Members with
a view to completing the modalities and address-
ing any outstanding problems, within the context
of a transparent and inclusive multilateral process.
After consultations, Egypt has associated itself
with this Declaration.
Political Declaration: The Leaders of the Group
of Five (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South
Africa) have decided to issue the following Politi-
cal Declaration:
The global economic crisis in its multiple dimen-
sions, including social, employment and food and
energy security risks, non traditional threats to
security such as diseases and epidemics, as well as
the challenges posed by climate change, under-
score our fundamental interdependence and the
imperative of enhancing cooperation to achieve
equitable and sustainable development for all.
The world needs a new global governance, the
construction of which must be based on inclusive
multilateralism. In our evolving multi-polar world,
the G5, as a positive platform that contributes to
the promotion of the interests of developing coun-
tries, will continue to actively engage in jointly
tackling global challenges.
The recent outbreak of influenza A( H1 N1 ) , al ong
with its rapid spread to various countries all around
the world, has further underscored the growing
interconnection among people and countries. G5
will continue monitoring the development of this
epidemic and facing it on the basis of constructive
dialogue and cooperation.
Collectively, at the G-20 Summit held in London
last April, G5 stressed the need of addressing the
global and financi al cr i sis in an int egr at ed ma n-
Section -1 (Article : 35th G-8 Annual Summit)
30 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
ner, carefully considering its social and develop-
mental impacts, as well as the long term require-
ments of stability and sustainability. It is their
conviction that efforts to address food security,
energy security and other issues of common con-
cern to developing countries, should not be re-
duced because of the financi al cr i sis. On the con-
trary, G5 must grab the crisis as an opportunity to
reform the international economic system for the
benefit of al l, par t icul ar l y the mo st vul ner abl e. As
a first step, G5 cal l for the ful l imp l eme nt at ion of
the G-20 London Summit Declaration without any
delay.
At the global level, G5 must swiftly strengthen
macroeconomic policy coordination and adopt
strong economic stimulus measures to restore
market confidence, stabi lize financi al mar ket s and
promote world economic growt h. Developed
countries have a leading responsibility in this re-
gard.
The G5 will continue to promote the reform of
the international financi al sys tem i n a comp r e-
hensive, balanced and result-oriented way, with
the purpose of establishing a new international
financi al or der wh i ch is fai r, jus t, incl us ive and
well-managed. In particular, we pledge to devote
appropriate efforts to fundamentally resolving the
issue of under-representation and inadequate voice
of developing countries in international financi al
institutions, which is urgently needed. Towards
this end, the G5 will collaborate with other world
leaders. In this light, we welcome the outcome
document adopted by the United Nations Con-
ference on the World Financial and Economic
Crisis and its Impact on Development.
The promotion of equitable and sustainable de-
velopment for all must be at the core of global
efforts. G5 urged international financi al ins titu-
tions to use their recently augmented resources
to mainly help those developing countries which
have been seriously affected by the crisis. G5 also
called on all countries to consider the impact of
their macroeconomic policies on developing coun-
tries and avoid aggravating the difficul ties of de-
veloping countries due to the negative spillover
effect of their policies.
G5 reaffirme d the i r commi tme nt to me et ing the
Millennium Development Goals and to contrib-
uting to poverty eradication and the promotion
of social development and justice at a global scale.
In this regard, considering the threatening social
impact of the global financi al and economi c cr i -
sis, G5 urged developed countries to speedily meet
the already committed target of 0.7% of their gross
national income for offici al devel opme nt assistance
to developing countries. Also, G5 emphasised the
importance of fully implementing the outcomes
of major World Summits, especially the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Devel-
opment , t he Mont er rey Consensus and t he
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. This is also
a necessary condition for global recovery.
G5 stressed the need for developing countries to
strengthen coordination and collaboration on out-
standing global issues and call on all Governments,
international organizations and relevant parties to
vigorously support South-South and trilateral co-
operation, making full use of the existing mecha-
nisms to deepen cooperation in all fiel ds . An ex-
panded South-South cooperation can be supple-
mentary but is not a substitute for North-South
cooperation.
G5 urged developed countries to assist the devel-
oping countries that are particularly vulnerable
to the adverse effects of climate change in meet-
ing costs of adaptation. G5 also urged developed
countries to commit themselves to ambitious and
comparable quantified emi ssion reduct ion tar get s
by reducing their emissions in aggregate by at least
40% below their 1990 levels by 2020, in the sec-
ond commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.
G5 were fully committed to working for an ambi-
tious outcome at the 2009 United Nations Climate
Change Conference in Copenhagen, to ensure the
full, effective and sustained implementation of the
Convention and its Kyoto Protocol.
Peace and development are mutually reinforcing.
Section -1 (Article : 35th G-8 Annual Summit)
31 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
The G5 will continue to support efforts that pro-
mote global security based on international law,
and through constructive dialogue and diplomacy,
seek to strengthen the international legal frame-
work. We remain committed to supporting the
role of the United Nations in global governance
and further undertake to intensify international
cooperation, especially in the multilateral arena.
G5 will continue to strive for a comprehensive
reform of t he Unit ed Nat ions t hat includes
strengthening the General Assembly, revitalizing
ECOSOC, reforming the Secretariat, strengthen-
ing the UN gender architecture and, in particular,
achieving an early reform of the UN Security
Council, that properly reflect s t he cur rent eco-
nomic and political realities.
G5 unequivocally condemn in the strongest terms
terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. The
global scourge of terrorism need strongest collec-
tive action by the international community to
prevent terrorist acts and punish perpetrators, fin-
anciers and others involved in such acts. In order
to provide a comprehensive international legal
framework against terrorism, the UN member
states should conclude and adopt the Comprehen-
sive Convention on International Terrorism as
early as possible.
G5 reiterated their commitment to ensure a world
free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass
destruction and welcome the strengthening of
multilateral dialogue on disarmament issues. In
particular, G5 supported the implementation of
the World Program of the Conference on Disar-
mament for its 2009 sessions and expect a sub-
stantive outcome of these meetings.
What is G8
The Group of Eight was created by France in 1975
as an informal forum for the six largest industrial-
ized economies of the Northern Hemisphere —
Britain, France, West Germany, Italy, Japan and
the United States. It was born out of the 1973 oil
crisis and global recession.In 1975, French Presi-
dent Valéry Giscard d’Estaing called the leaders
of the other five count ri es to a summi t in Ra m-
bouillet. There, they decided to hold the meet-
ings annually, with each nation taking a turn to
serve as host and chair.
The European Union is represented at the meet-
ings, but does not act as host.Canada joined the
group in 1976 to make it the G7, and Russia be-
came a member in 1997 to form the G8.
G8 ministers meet many times during the course
of the year. The finance mi ni ster s me et four time s
a year, and the foreign ministers and environmen-
tal ministers meet less frequently.The annual
holder of t he G8 presidency sets the summit
agenda in consultation with the other members,
hosts the summit and determines which ministe-
rial meetings will be held.In recent years, some
members have pushed to expand the group’s size,
and the Outreach Six (O6), which encompasses
Brazil, China, India, Mexico, South Africa and
Egypt, has been included in the G8 for talks. They
will also be joined this year by Australia, Den-
mark, Indonesia, South Korea, the Netherlands
and Spain, Berlusconi said.
Berlusconi, who is chairing the 2009 forum, said
the G8 will also be attended by representatives of
a number of international organizations, such as
the International Monetary Fund and World Bank,
and the African Union and representatives of some
African nations. Unlike many international orga-
nizations, such as the United Nations or NATO,
the G8 has no formal structure, no administrative
staff or international headquarters or even a mail-
ing address. It remains informal, but highly coop-
erative and focused on coordination of action.
The 2009 summit held in L’Aquila, a city in the
Abruzzo region of Italy, less than 100 kilometers
(60 miles) east of Rome. The city was badly dam-
aged by an earthquake in April, and the Italian
government decided to move the annual summit
there from La Maddalena on Sardinia to symbol-
ize the rebuilding of the region.
Section -1 (Article : 35th G-8 Annual Summit)
32 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
Section -1 (Article : 35th G-8 Annual Summit)
Fact File
G8 Countries:
The members of the Group of Eight, or G8, are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan,
Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. The eight members meet once a year at
Heads of State and Government level.
France, the United States and Russia are represented by their Heads of State, whereas the
United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Italy and Canada are represented by their respective Heads
of Government.
G5 Countries
Over the years, the G7/G8 duty Presidencies have begun inviting a number of emerging
countries to specific sessions of talks on an ad hoc basis, as the emerging economies’ increas-
ing weight on the world scene has made it necessary to involve them in identifying solutions
to the major global challenges.
The Group of Five (G5) comprises Brazil,People’s Republic of china,India,Mexico and South
Africa.
Other Countries
The purpose of the G8 – the main industrialised democracies’ forum for dialogue – is to come
up with fresh answers to the main global political and economic issues.
In addition to its traditional members, the Italian duty Presidency has invited to the G8 Sum-
mit the countries that make up the Major Economies Forum, the NEPAD (New Partnership
for Africa's Development) founder states, the representatives of the African Union and Spain,
Turkey and the Netherlands.
Other countries invited
» Egypt
» Hosni Mubarak, President
MEF (Major Economies Forum) countries
Australia: Kevin Rudd, Prime Minister
Republic of Korea: Lee Myung-bak, President
Indonesia: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, President
Denmark (the country hosting next December’s UN Conference on Climate Change):
Lars Lokke Rasmussen, Prime Minister
33 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
Aspirants Times Previous Issues
VOL.1 VOL.2
VOL.3
VOL.4
ht t p: / / gr oups.googl e.com/ gr oup/ upscpor t al / f i l es
34 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
India has planned to create the world's first ma r -
ket for trading credits for energy savings. Gov-
ernment expects to set mandatory energy-savings
targets by the end of 2009 for energy-intensive
sectors such as cement, aluminium, steel, power,
textiles, fertilizers, railway, paper and pulp. The
country's Bureau of Energy Effici ency is wo r ki ng
on a program to establish credits for industrial
plants that save energy beyond the government
requirement. The plan has been modelled after
emissions-trading markets at work in the EU.
In January 2009, Mumbai, India-based Multi
Commodit y Exchange
(MCX) launched futures
trading in carbon credits
in India. Under the en-
ergy-savings plan, sepa-
rate targets would be es-
tablished for each large
industrial unit and plant
in order to take into ac-
count the different sizes
and type of companies in
each sector. The manda-
tory reductions would
then go into effect three
years later. Companies
surpassing energy savings requirements would get
credits that can be sold through existing power
exchanges to companies that fail to meet their tar-
gets. Companies failing to meet targets that do not
buy credits would then be penalized by the gov-
ernment. The energy-savings market must be ap-
proved by the prime minister's climate council.
The move is part of India's National Action Plan
on Climate Change. Because the country has lower
emissions than industrialized countries, India has
decided one of its best contributions could be to
use less energy from polluting sources. India has
By Sangeeta Gupta
Aut hor is an Expert of Various Compet it ive Examinat ions
Carbon Emissions Trading
New Global Concept to Reduce Climate Change
generated about 30 million carbon credits and is
one of the largest benefici ari es in the carbon cr edi t
trade, according to MCX. Under the plan, private
companies would be responsible for measuring en-
ergy reductions.
Carbon Trading Scenario
Parties with commitments under the Kyoto Pro-
tocol (Annex B Parties) have accepted targets for
limiting or reducing emissions. These targets are
expressed as levels of allowed emissions, or “as-
signed amounts,” over the 2008-2012 commitment
per iod. Th e allowed
emissions are divided
into “assigned amount
unit s” (AAUs). Emis-
sions trading, as set out
in Ar t icle 17 of t he
Kyoto Protocol, allows
count r ies t hat have
emission units to spare -
emissions per mit t ed
them but not "used" - to
sell this excess capacity
t o count ries t hat are
over their targets. Thus,
a new commodity was
created in the form of emission reductions or re-
movals. Since carbon dioxide is the principal
greenhouse gas, people speak simply of trading in
carbon. Carbon is now tracked and traded like any
other commodity. This is known as the "carbon
market."
Trading Units: More than actual emissions units
can be traded and sold under the Kyoto Protocol’s
emissions trading scheme.
The other units which may be transferred under
the scheme, each equal to one tonne of CO2, may
be in the form of:
Section -1 (Article : Carbon Emissions Trading)
35 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
» A removal unit (RMU) on the basis of land use,
land-use change and forestry(LULUCF) activities
such as reforestation
» An emission reduction unit (ERU) generated by
a joint implementation project
» A certified emi ssion reduct ion (CER) gener at ed
from a clean development mechanism project ac-
tivity.
Transfers and acquisitions of t hese units are
tracked and recorded through the registry systems
under the Kyoto Protocol.
An international transaction log ensures secure
transfer of emission reduction units between coun-
tries.
Commitment Period Reserve: In order to address
the concern that Parties could “oversell” units, and
subsequently be unable to meet their own emis-
sions targets, each Party is required to hold a mini-
mum level of ERUs, CERs, AAUs and RMUs in its
national registry. This is known as the “commit-
ment period reserve.”
Relationship to Domestic and Regional Emis-
sions Tr ading Sch emes: Emissions t rading
schemes may be established as climate policy in-
struments at the national level and the regional
level. Under such schemes, governments set emis-
sions obligations to be reached by the participat-
ing entities. The European Union emissions trad-
ing scheme is the largest in operation.
Emissions Trading and CDM
Emissions trading is a way of introducing flexi bi l-
ity into a system where participants have to meet
emissions targets. These participants may be coun-
tries (as in the case of the Kyoto Protocol), or com-
panies (as in the case of a domestic emissions trad-
ing scheme). Participants can buy units to cover
any emissions above their targets, or sell units if
they reduce their emissions below their targets.
The presence of a market for these units creates a
value for emissions reductions which stimulates
investment in the most cost-effective areas. Emis-
sions trading leads to a reduction in compliance
costs compared to meeting the same target through
domestic/internal means only.
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the
Kyoto Protocol allows projects in developing coun-
tries to generate emission credits if they result in
emission levels lower than would otherwise be
the case; these credits can be marketed and even-
tually counted against a developed country's emis-
sion obligation. The IEA provides analysis on the
effectiveness of the different emissions trading
scheme options, both at international and domes-
tic level.
What is Emissions Trading?
Emissions trading is an administrative approach
used to control pollution by providing economic
incentives for achieving reductions in the emis-
sions of pollutants. It is sometimes called cap and
trade.
A central authority (usually a government or in-
ternational body) sets a limit or cap on the amount
of a pollutant that can be emitted. Companies or
other groups are issued emission permits and are
required to hold an equivalent number of allow-
ances (or credits) which represent the right to emit
a specific amo unt . The tot al amo unt of al lowa nces
and credits cannot exceed the cap, limiting total
emissions to that level. Companies that need to
increase their emission allowance must buy cred-
its from those who pollute less. The transfer of
allowances is referred to as a trade. In effect, the
buyer is paying a charge for polluting, while the
seller is being rewarded for having reduced emis-
sions by more than was needed. Thus, in theory,
t hose who can easily reduce emissions most
cheaply will do so, achieving the pollution reduc-
tion at the lowest possible cost to society.
There are active trading programs in several pol-
Section -1 (Article : Carbon Emissions Trading)
36 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
lutants. For greenhouse gases the largest is the Eu-
ropean Union Emission Trading Scheme. In the
United States there is a national market to reduce
acid rain and several regional markets in nitrogen
oxides. Markets for other pollutants tend to be
smaller and more localized.The overall goal of an
emissions trading plan is to reduce emissions. The
cap is usually lowered over time - aiming towards
a national emissions reduction target.
In other systems a portion of all traded credits must
be retired, causing a net reduction in emissions
each time a trade occurs. In many cap and trade
systems, organizations which do not pollute may
also participate, thus environmental groups can
purchase and retire allowances or credits and
hence drive up the price of the remainder accord-
ing to the law of demand. Corporations can also
prematurely retire allowances by donating them
to a non-profit ent ity and the n be el igi bl e for a
tax deduction.
Because emissions trading uses markets to deter-
mine how to deal with the problem of pollution,
it is often touted as an example of effective free
market environmentalism. While the cap is usu-
ally set by a political process, individual compa-
nies are free to choose how or if they will reduce
their emissions. In theory, firms wi ll choose the
least-costly way to comply with the pollution
regulation, creating incentives that reduce the cost
of achieving a pollution reduction goal.
Background
The efficacy of wh a t l at er wa s t o be cal led t he
"cap and trade" approach to air pollution abate-
ment was first demo ns trat ed in a ser i es of mi cr o-
economic computer simulation studies between
1967 and 1970 for the National Air Pollution Con-
trol Administration (predecessor to the United
States Environmental Protection Agency’s Office
of Air and Radiation) by Ellison Burton and Wil-
liam Sanjour. These studies used mathematical
models of several cities and their emission sources
in order to compare the cost and effectiveness of
various control strategies. Each abatement strat-
International Emissions Trading
Association (IETA)
The International Emissions Trading Associa-
tion (IETA) is a nonprofit business organiza-
tion created in June 1999 to establish a func-
tional international framework for trading in
greenhouse gas emission reductions.
Our membership includes leading international
companies from across the carbon trading
cycle. IETA members seek to develop an emis-
sions trading regime that results in real and
verifiable greenhouse gas emission reductions,
while balancing economic efficiency with en-
vironmental integrity and social equity.
As of March 2009, IETA comprises more than
160 international companies from OECD and
non-OECD countries. IETA has formed sev-
eral partnerships such as with, among others,
the World Bank, Eurelectric, the World Busi-
ness Council for Sustainable Development
(WBCSD) and the California Climate Action
Registry.
Vision: IETA is dedicated to ensuring that the
objectives of the United Nations Convention
on Climate Change and ultimately climate pro-
tection are met through the establishment of
effective systems for trading in greenhouse
gas emissions by businesses, in an economi-
cally efficient manner while maintaining soci-
etal equity and environmental integrity.
Legal Status and History: In 1999, IETA has
emerged from the United Nations Conference
on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Policy
Forums on greenhouse gas emissions trading,
resulting from a co-operation between
Section -1 (Article : Carbon Emissions Trading)
37 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
UNCTAD and the WBCSD.
IETA received legal non-profit status from the
government of Switzerland in June 2000, and
received United Nations Framework Conven-
tion on Climate Change (UNFCCC) non-gov-
ernmental organization accreditation in Octo-
ber 2000. IETA currently has offices in Geneva
(Switzerland), Ottawa (Canada), Brussels
(Belgium) and Washington DC (USA).
Features: IETA consists of a diverse, inter-
national membership of business organiza-
tions.
This ensures:
1. A wide range of expertise from representa-
tives of member companies including emitters,
solution providers, brokers, verifiers and le-
gal compliance;
2.Interaction with the most active and cutting
edge practitioners and stakeholders;
3.Representation of OECD and non-OECD
interest; and
4.The depth of the IETA network.
Goals and Objectives: IETA will work for:
1.The development of an active, global green-
house gas market involving all three flexibil-
ity mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol - the
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint
Implementation (JI) and Emissions Trading,
as well as those outside the Kyoto Protocol;
and
2. The creation of systems and instruments that
will ensure effective business participation.
To be the premier voice for the business com-
munity on emissions trading, the objectives for
the organization are to:
3.Promote an integrated view of the emissions
trading system as the solution to Climate
Change;
4.Participate in the design and implementation
of national and international rules and guide-
lines; and
5.Provide the most up-to-date and credible
source of information on emissions
trading and greenhouse gas market develop-
ments.
egy was compared with the "least cost solution"
produced by a computer optimization program to
identify the least costly combination of source
reductions in order to achieve a given abatement
goal.
In each case it was found that the least cost solu-
tion was dramatically less costly than the same
amount of pollution reduction produced by any
conventional abatement strategy. This led to the
concept of "cap and trade" as a means of achieving
the "least cost solution" for a given level of abate-
ment.
The development of emissions trading over the
course of its history can be divided into four
phases:
Gestation: Theoretical articulation of the instru-
ment (by coase, Crocker, Dales, Montgomery etc.)
and, independent of the former, tinkering with
"flexi bl e regul at ion" at the US Envi ronme nt al Pr o-
tection Agency.
Proof of Principle: First developments towards
trading of emission certificat es based on the "of f-
set-mechanism" taken up in Clean Air Act in 1977.
Prototype: Launching of a first "cap and trade"
system as part of the US Acid Rain Program, offi-
cially announced as a paradigm shift in environ-
Section -1 (Article : Carbon Emissions Trading)
38 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
mental policy, as prepared by "Project 88", a net-
work-building effort to bring together environ-
mental and industrial interests in the US.
Regime formation: branching out from the US
clean air policy to global climate policy, and from
there to the European Union, along with the ex-
pectation of an emerging global carbon market and
the formation of the "carbon industry".
Cap and Trade versus Baseline and Credit:The
textbook emissions trading program can be called
a "cap and trade" approach in which an aggregate
cap on all sources is established and these sources
are then allowed to trade amongst themselves to
determine which sources actually emit the total
pollution load. An alternative approach with im-
portant differences is a baseline and credit pro-
gram. In a baseline and credit program a set of
polluters that are not under an aggregate cap can
create credits by reducing their emissions below a
baseline level of emissions. These credits can be
purchased by polluters that do have a regulatory
limit. Many of the criticisms of trading in general
are targeted at baseline and credit programs rather
than cap type programs.
The Economics of Int ernat ional Emissions
Trading:It is possible for a country to reduce emis-
sions using a command control approach, such as
regulation, direct and indirect taxes. The cost of
that approach differs between countries because
the Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) the cost of
eliminating an additional unit of pollution differs
by country. It might cost China $2 to eliminate a
ton of CO2, but it would probably cost Sweden or
the U.S. much more. International emissions-trad-
ing markets were created precisely to exploit dif-
fering MACs.
Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto protocol is a 1997 international treaty
which came into force in 2005, which binds most
developed nations to a cap and trade system for
the six major greenhouse. (The United States is
the only industrialized nation under Annex-1
which has not ratified and the r ef or e is not bound
by it.) Emission quotas were agreed by each par-
ticipating country, with the intention of reduc-
ing their overall emissions by 5.2% of their 1990
levels by the end of 2012.
Under the treaty, for the 5-year compliance pe-
riod from 2008 until 2012, nations that emit less
than their quota will be able to sell emissions cred-
its to nations that exceed their quota.
It is also possible for developed countries within
the trading scheme to sponsor carbon projects that
provide a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions
in other countries, as a way of generating trad-
able carbon credits. The Protocol allows this
through clean development mechanism (CDM)
and joint implementation (JI) projects, in order to
provide flexi bl e me cha ni sms to ai d regul at ed en-
tities in meeting their compliance with their caps.
The UNFCCC validates all CDM projects to en-
sure they create genuine additional savings and
that there is no carbon leakage.
The Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change
has projected that the financi al ef fect of comp l i-
ance through trading within the Kyoto commit-
ment period will be 'limited' at between 0.1-1.1%
of GDP among trading countries. By comparison
the Stern report placed the costs of doing nothing
at five to 20 time s hi ghe r .
Renewable Energy Certificat es
Renewable energy certificat es, or "gr een tags", ar e
transferable rights for renewable energy within
some American states. A renewable energy pro-
vider gets issued one green tag for each 1,000 KWh
of energy it produces. The energy is sold into the
electrical grid, and the certificat es can be sol d on
the open market for additional profit. The y ar e
purchased by firms or indi vi dual s in or der to iden-
tify a portion of their energy with renewable
sources and are voluntary.
They are typically used like an offsetting scheme
or to show corporate responsibility, although their
issuance is unregulated, with no national registry
to ensure there is no double-counting. However,
it is one way that an organization could purchase
Section -1 (Article : Carbon Emissions Trading)
39 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
its energy from a local provider who uses fossil
fuels, but back it with a certificat e tha t suppor t s a
specific wi nd or hydr o powe r pr oj ect .
Market trend:Carbon emissions trading has been
steadily increasing in recent years. According to
the Word bank's Carbon Finance Unit, 374 mil-
lion metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent
(tCO2e) were exchanged through projects in 2005,
a 240% increase relative to 2004 (110 mtCO2e)
which was itself a 41% increase relative to 2003
(78 mtCO2e).
In terms of dollars, the World Bank has estimated
that the size of the carbon market was 11 billion
USD in 2005, 30 billion USD in 2006, and 64 bil-
lion in 2007.
The Marrakesh Accords of the Kyoto protocol de-
fined the int er nat ional tradi ng me cha ni sms and
registries needed to support trading between coun-
tries, with allowance trading now occurring be-
tween European countries and Asian countries.
However, while the USA as a nation did not ratify
the Protocol, many of its states are now develop-
ing cap-and-trade systems and are looking at ways
to link their emissions trading systems together,
nationally and internationally, to seek out the low-
est costs and improve liquidity of the market.
However, these states also wish to preserve their
individual integrity and unique features. For ex-
ample, in contrast to the other Kyoto-compliant
systems, some states propose other types of green-
house gas sources, different measurement meth-
ods, setting a maximum on the price of allowances,
or restricting access to CDM projects. Creating
instruments that are not truly fungible would in-
troduce instability and make pricing difficul t. Va ri -
ous proposals are being investigated to see how
these systems might be linked across markets, with
the International Carbon Action Partnership
(ICAP) as an international body to help co-ordi-
nate this.
Business Reaction:With the creation of a market
for mandatory trading of carbon dioxide emissions
within the Kyoto Protocol, the London financi al
marketplace has established itself as the center of
the carbon finance ma r ket , and is expect ed to ha ve
grown into a market valued at $60 billion in 2007.
The voluntary offset market, by comparison, is
projected to grow to about $4bn by 2010.
23 multinational corporations came together in
the G8 climate change roundtable, a business
group formed at the January 2005 World Eco-
nomic Forum. The group included Ford, Toyota,
British Airways, BP and Unilever. On June 9, 2005
the Group published a statement stating that there
was a need to act on climate change and stressing
the importance of market-based solutions. It called
on governments to establish "clear, transparent,
and consistent price signals" through "creation of
a long-term policy framework" that would include
all major producers of greenhouse gases. By De-
cember 2007 this had grown to encompass 150
global businesses.
Business in the UK have come out strongly in sup-
port of emissions trading as a key tool to mitigate
climate change, supported by NGOs. However, not
all businesses favor a trading approach. On De-
cember 11, 2008, Rex Tillerson, the CEO of
Exxonmobil, said a carbon tax is "a more direct,
more transparent and more effective approach"
than a cap and trade program, which he said, "in-
evitably introduces unnecessary cost and complex-
ity." He also said that he hoped that the revenues
from a carbon tax would be used to lower other
taxes so as to be revenue neutral.
The International Air Transport Association,
whose 230 member airlines comprise 93% of all
international traffic, position is that tradi ng shoul d
be based on “benchmarking,” setting emissions
levels based on industry averages, rather than
“grandfathering,” which would use individual
companies’ previous emissions levels to set their
fut ur e per mit allowances. They ar gue
grandfathering “would penalise airlines that took
early action to modernise their fleet s, wh i le a
Section -1 (Article : Carbon Emissions Trading)
40 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
benchmarking approach, if designed properly,
would reward more effici ent oper at ions . "
Measuring, Reporting, Verificat ion
(MRV) and Enforcement
Meaningful emission reductions within a trading
system can only occur if they can be measured at
the level of operator or installation and reported
to a regulator. There is an open source tool for
helping operators accurately measure and plan
their emissions. For greenhouse gases all trading
countries maintain an inventory of emissions at
national and installation level; in addition, the
trading groups within North America maintain
inventories at the state level through the climate
registry. For trading between regions these inven-
tories must be consistent, with equivalent units
and measurement techniques.
In some industrial processes emissions can be
physically measured by inserting sensors and
flowme t er s i n chi mn eys and st acks , but ma ny
types of activity rely on theoretical calculations
for measurement. Depending on local legislation,
these measurements may require additional checks
and verificat ion by gover nme nt or t hi rd par t y
auditors, prior or post submission to the local regu-
lator.
Another critical part is enforcement. Without ef-
fective MRV and enforcement the value of allow-
ances are diminished. Enforcement can be done
using several means, including fines or sanct ion-
ing those that have exceeded their allowances.
Concerns include the cost of MRV and enforce-
ment and the risk that facilities may be tempted
to mislead rather than make real reductions or
make up their shortfall by purchasing allowances
or offsets from another entity. The net effect of a
corrupt reporting system or poorly managed or
financed regul at or ma y be a di scount on emi ssion
costs, and a (hidden) increase in actual emissions.
India and Emissions Market
World wide trading in emissions added up to less
than $400 million in 2008. But it is early days yet.
Turnover is growing rapidly, as is the price at
which emissions are being traded. About 107 mil-
lion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e)
was exchanged in 2004 through ` Kyoto Protocol'
projects, mostly purchased by rich countries in
developing countries and in countries with econo-
mies in transition; up 38 per cent compared to the
78 million tCO2e traded in 2003. It is estimated
that 43 million tCO2e have been exchanged so far
this year. Prices for project-based emissions in-
creased by 20-25 per cent over the last year. Veri-
fied Emi ssions Re duct ions now trade at a we i ght ed
average price of $4.22. Certified Emi ssions Re duc-
tions command a premium of one dollar per
tCO2e.
To get at the total size of the emissions market,
one must add trading in ` allowance' markets to
the figur e for pr oj ect -based emi ssions . In thi s fast
growing market, a company can sell whatever it
saves from the total emissions quota allotted or
auctioned to it by a public regulator. For example,
under the EU's Emissions Trading System (ETS),
European Governments have allotted greenhouse
gas emission allowances to individual companies
and industries. If a company does not emit its to-
tal allowance, it can trade the balance. Volumes
exchanged on allowance markets have increased
dramatically this year as compared to 2004, and
are now reported to be comparable to volumes
exchanged through project-based transactions.
Apart from the EU ETS, three other active mar-
kets for greenhouse gas allowances have so far been
established. The UK Emissions Trading System,
the New South Wales trading system and the
Chicago Climate Exchange. The total amount ex-
changed on all allowance markets taken together
from January 2004 to March 2005 was about 56
million tCO2e. Thanks mainly to the coming into
force of the EU's ETS from January 2005, volumes
traded in the EU from January through March this
Section -1 (Article : Carbon Emissions Trading)
41 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
year were 3.5 times higher than the allowances
exchanged in the 12 months of 2004.
There is an increasing disconnect between the
prices of carbon reductions from Joint Implemen-
t at ion and Clean Development Mechanism
projects under the Kyoto Protocol on the one
hand, and on the other the prices at which allow-
ances are being traded under the EU's ETS. Trades
in the latter market were priced between 7 and 9
euros in 2004, but increased to 17 euros per tCO2e
in March and April 2005.
According to the joint World Bank-International
Emissions Trading Association (IETA) report re-
leased two weeks ago ` these two commodities are
so different that they cannot be compared'. The
price differential, the report says, "could be ex-
plained by a number of factors including thin vol-
umes traded in allowances - resulting in high price
volatility". The price differential could also reflect
the ` risk inherent in project-based transactions'.
Projects abating non-carbon dioxide emissions ac-
count for more than half of the total volume of
emissions put up for sale. These include HFC23
destruction (which is the dominant type of emis-
sions reduction project in terms of volumes sup-
plied), projects capturing methane and N2O from
animal waste, and hydro, biomass energy and land-
fill gas capt ur e pr oj ect s.
HFC23 comes into being as a byproduct in the
production of the hydrofluor ocar bon HF C2 2,
which is used as a refrigerant and as a raw mate-
rial for the production of fluor i nat ed resins . It is a
very potent greenhouse gas: the release of one
tonne of it in the atmosphere has the same long-
term effect on climate change as the release of
11,700 tonnes of carbon dioxide.
HFC23 destruction projects, all of which are lo-
cated in Asia according to the State of the Carbon
Market Report, are few in number but account
for very large volumes. It is mainly because of
these projects that Asia in general and India in
particular have such a large weight in total emis-
sion reductions in volume terms.
In the period from January 2003 to December
2004, the share of India in total emission reduc-
tion projects of different sorts worldwide was 26
per cent, with the rest of Asia having a share of
17 per cent. India's share has since gone up a few
percentage points. The share of the rest of Asia
has fallen slightly, but this has been offset by the
growth in total volume. In addition there are a
large number of unilateral CDM projects that are
under various stages of implementation in India.
Since credits relating to the 60-70 projects in this
category have yet to be sold they have not been
included in the figur es me nt ioned in the Ca r bon
Report.
The US, which backed away from its commitment
to the Kyoto Protocol, predictably accounts for
only a very small share of total project emissions
purchased, around 3 to 4 per cent. The largest
buyers are Japan and the Netherlands in that or-
der, which account for 29 and 22 per cent of total
purchases, respectively. The share of UK in total
purchases has doubled recently and now stands at
around 12 per cent. Other EU countries account
for 30-32 per cent of total purchases.
Emission trading rights: Developing countries in-
cluding India have been absolved of any responsi-
bility towards reducing emissions in the first com-
mitment period, 2008-2012, of the Kyoto Proto-
col. This is not surprising as India’s per capita car-
bon dioxide emission is very low — only 1.21
tonnes per annum, roughly one-fourth of the
world average per capita emission of 4.50 tonnes
per annum.
However, in aggregate terms, India is the fifth-
largest emitter of fossil fuel-derived carbon diox-
ide, and its total emissions are growing rapidly.
Not surprisingly, India is now under severe inter-
national pressure to accept binding commitments
for emission reduction in the post-2012 phase of
the Kyoto Protocol (KP). However, cuts in abso-
lute emissions are not only morally utterly unjust
to impose on the part of the developed countries,
but also practically suicidal for India to accept
them. But due consideration must be given to po-
Section -1 (Article : Carbon Emissions Trading)
42 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
tentially benefici al pol icy ins trume nt s, such as a
participation in an internationally tradable emis-
sion permits regime, or, what is alternatively re-
ferred to as, a global cap-and-trade system of emis-
sion permits.
As of now the KP restricts emissions trading (ET)
to occur within Annex B (developed) countries
only. The non-Annex B (developing) countries
have been mere bystanders so far. But, it is most
unlikely that the situation would remain that way.
Already, the developing countries are having a
major role to play in the ongoing PKP negotia-
tions on climate change, which would culminate
in the Conference of Parties-15 at Copenhagen in
December 2009.
If India were to participate in a global regime of
tradable emission permits, how would the conse-
quences be affected by the different modes of
emission entitlements? The two main types of
emissions allocation schemes are:
Gr andfat hered Emissions Allocat ion (GEA)
scheme in which permits are allocated on the ba-
sis of the aggregate emissions level of a predeter-
mined year, say, 2010.
Equal Per Capita Emissions Allocation (EPCEA)
scheme in which the aggregate emissions entitle-
ments for India in different years are arrived at by
multiplying the average global per capita emis-
sion (4.58 tonne per capita as estimated to be in
2010) with India’s population for the correspond-
ing years.
It is well known that the developed countries
favour the grandfathered emissions allocation
scheme, while the developing countries — par-
ticularly, China and India — advocate the EPCEA
scheme. We evaluated three policy scenarios for
India’s likely participation in a globally tradable
emission permits regime respectively under (1)
GEA, (2) EPCEA, and (3) EPCEA plus enhanced
energy effici ency imp r oveme nt for the pr ospec-
tive 30-year period, 2010-2040, with respect to a
business-as-usual or reference scenario, using a
well-known tool of economic analysis, namely, a
Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model.
In policy scenario 1, in which India takes part in
global emissions trade with a fixed quot a of emi s-
sion permits under GEA, it turns out to be a net
buyer of tradable permits, and, consequently, suf-
fers high cost through GDP diminution and pov-
erty accentuation. (GDP and consumption losses
in the various years are in the range of 2%-5%,
and the increases in the number of poor persons
are in the range of 3.0%-7.5%.) Cumulative CO2
emissions for the 30-year period decline by about
5%. Annual per capita emissions which were al-
ready (i.e., in the business-as–usual scenario) be-
low the world average per capita emission decline
further in this scenario.
Policy scenario 2 is concerned with India’s par-
ticipation in global emissions trade under EPCEA.
Under this scheme, India, because of its
increasing population, has an ever-increasing
quota of emission permits. However, it has sur-
plus emission permits to sell in the global market
only till 2036. Till that time, the sale of permits
results in flow of trans fer payme nt s from rest of
the world to India enabling an expansion in in-
vestment in the domestic economy, which, in
turn, induces large gains in GDP, consumption and
poverty reduction. (GDP and consumption gains
in the various years are in the range of 6%-14%,
and decreases in the number of poor persons are
in the range of 3%-12%.)
Cumulative emissions for the 30-year period rise
by 7%-8%. However, annual per capita CO2 emis-
sions remain below the 2010 world average of 4.58
tonne per capita but only up to 2036. Thereafter,
per capita emission surpasses the 2010 world av-
erage causing a cessation of the trading benefit to
India as it turns from being a seller to a buyer of
internationally tradable emission permits. How-
ever, GDP, consumption and poverty alleviation
continue to increase till 2040 though at a much
slower pace.
In policy scenario 3, India’s participation in glo-
bal emissions trade under EPCEA is commingled
Section -1 (Article : Carbon Emissions Trading)
43 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
with enhanced energy effici enc y i mp r oveme nt
(EEI) in the domestic economy. (It must be noted
that, India has an impressive track record for EEI
since 1980, and there remains substantial scope
for EEI in the next 2-3 decades.) This consider-
ably amplifies the gai ns achi eved in the scenar i o
2, and the trading benefit to Indi a ext ends till 2040,
possibly even beyond. More importantly, these
gains are now accompanied by a decline rather
than a rise in cumulative and annual per capita
emissions.
It is obvious that, India will never participate in a
future globally tradable emission permits regime
inclusive of developing countries based on GEA.
That would be tantamount to accepting manda-
tory emission reduction obligations — a sure
means to thwart our very developmental process.
Thankfully, the idea of predicating global emis-
sions trade on an EPCEA criterion is gaining
ground. Under EPCEA, India’s gains through in-
ternational trade in emission permits would be
substantial.
Further, if under a tradable emission permits re-
gime based on EPCEA, the pace of energy effi-
ciency improvement is also intensified concomi -
tantly, not only do these gains get considerably
augmented, but also there is a decline in carbon
emissions. In other words, by combining partici-
pation in a global regime of tradable emission
rights with faster energy effici ency imp r oveme nt ,
not only does India reap a handsome climate policy
dividend, but also contributes to mitigation of glo-
bal warming. This is truly a win-win policy sce-
nario. If India can work towards a scenario like
this, it can actually transform a crisis into an op-
portunity.
Criticism
There are critics of the methods, mainly environ-
mental justice nongovernmental organizations
(NGOs) and movements, who see carbon trading
as a proliferation of the free market into public
spaces and environmental policy-making. They
level accusations of failures in accounting, dubi-
ous science and the destructive impacts of projects
upon local peoples and environments as reasons
why trading pollut ion allowances should be
avoided. In its place they advocate making reduc-
tions at the source of pollution and energy poli-
cies that are justice-based and community-driven.
Most of the criticisms have been focused on the
carbon market created through investment in
Kyoto Mechanisms. Criticism of 'cap and trade'
emissions trading has generally been more lim-
ited to lack of credibility in the first pha se of the
EU ETS.
Critics argue that emissions trading does little to
solve pollution problems overall, as groups that
do not pollute sell their conservation to the high-
est bidder. Overall reductions would need to come
from a suffici ent and cha l lengi ng reduct ion of al -
lowances available in the system.Regulatory agen-
cies run the risk of issuing too many emission cred-
its, diluting the effectiveness of regulation, and
practically removing the cap. In this case, instead
of any net reduction in carbon dioxide emissions,
benefici ar i es of emi ssions tradi ng simp l y do mo r e
of the polluting activity. The National Allocation
Plans by member governments of the European
Union Emission Trading Scheme were criticised
for this when it became apparent that actual emis-
sions would be less than the government-issued
carbon allowances at the end of Phase I of the
scheme.They have also been criticised for the prac-
tice of grandfathering, where polluters are given
free allowances by governments, instead of being
made to pay for them. Critics instead advocate for
auctioning the credits. The proceeds could be used
for research and development of sustainable tech-
nology.
Critics of carbon trading, such as carbon trade
watch, argue that it places disproportionate em-
phasis on individual lifestyles and carbon foot-
prints, distracting attention from the wider, sys-
temic changes and collective political action that
needs to be taken to tackle climate change. Groups
such as the corner house have argued that the
market will choose the easiest means to save a
given quantity of carbon in the short term, which
Section -1 (Article : Carbon Emissions Trading)
44 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
may be different to the pathway required to obtain sustained and sizable reductions over a longer period,
and so a market led approach is likely to reinforce technological lock-in. For instance small cuts may often
be achieved cheaply through investment in making a technology more effici ent , wh e r e lar ger cut s wo ul d
require scrapping the technology and using a different one. They also argue that emissions trading is
undermining alternative approaches to pollution control with which it does not combine well, and so the
overall effect it is having is to actually stall significant cha nge to less pol lut ing technol ogi es.
The problem of unstable prices can be resolved, to some degree, by the creation of forward markets in caps.
Nevertheless, it is easier to make a tax predictable than the price of a cap. However, the corresponding
uncertainty under a tax is the level of emissions reductions achieved.
More recent criticism of emissions trading regarding implementation is that old growth forests, which
have slow carbon absorption rates, are being cleared and replaced with fast-growing vegetation, to the
detriment of the local communities.
Recent proposals for alternative schemes that seek to avoid the problems of Cap and Trade schemes in-
clude cap and share, which was being actively considered by the Irish Parliament in May 2008, and the
Sky Trust schemes.
Section -1 (Article : Carbon Emissions Trading)
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The Economic Survey 2008-09 presented to Parlia-
ment on july 2,2009 by the Finance Minister Shri
Pranab Mukherjee. According to it, the speed at
which the Indian
economy returns to the
high growth path in the
short term depends on
the revival of the
economy, particularly
the US economy and the
Government’s capacity
to push some critical
policy reforms in the
coming months. It said,
if the US economy bot-
toms out by September
2009 there would be
good possibility for the
Indian economy repeat-
ing its 2008-09 performance i.e. around 7.0 +/- 0.75
per cent in the fiscal 2009-10 (assuming a normal
monsoon). However, in the event of a more pro-
longed external economic downturn, the revival of
the global economy/US economy being delayed un-
til 2010, the growth may moderate to the lower end
of the range. The recovery is likely to be assisted by
the likely developments in the external sectors. The
declining trend in trade deficit suggests that with rea-
sonable invisible account surplus, which has been an
attribute of Indian economy for the last several years
economy may end up with a current account surplus
of 0.3 to 2.8 per cent of GDP in 2009-10.
The Survey said, the prospects of Indian economy
are somewhat different from most other countries. A
large domestic market, resilient banking system and
a policy of gradual liberalisation of capital account
have been key factors. A major concern at this stage
though not entirely unexpected is a sharp dip in the
growth of private consumption. Four factors seem
to have contributed to this slowdown. First, it could
be due to the wealth effect, resulting from decline in
the equity/property prices. Secondly, the uncertainty
Economic Survey 2008-09
India Showed Sign of Recovery in Recession Period
By Avadhesh Pandey
Aut hor is an Expert of Economic and polit ical I ssues and working as a Freelance Edit or
in the labour market and some decline in employ-
ment. Thirdly, cutbacks in consumer credit by pri-
vate banks, NBFCs and other lenders. Fourthly, dur-
ing slowdown a domi-
nance of precautionary
motive may induce con-
sumer to either defer
their spending decisions
or shift to unbranded al-
ternatives.
The Survey goes on to
note that there are early
signs of recovery in the
global economy mani-
fested in rising stock
prices and increasing
price of commodities. It
is however, debatable
whether rising prices are
an indication of green shoots of recovery or a result
of position taken by financial investors seeking to
benefit from global recovery expectations. Though
the financial crisis and the transmission of its impact
on the real economy is now better understood and
global financial conditions have shown improvement
over the recent months, uncertainty related to the
revival of the global economy remain. That makes it
difficult to forecast the short-to-medium term growth
prospects of the Indian economy.
According to Survey, counter the negative fall out
of the global slowdown on the Indian economy, the
Government responded by providing substantial fis-
cal expansion in the form of tax relief to boost de-
mand and increased expenditure on public assets. The
net result was an increase in fiscal deficit from 2.7
per cent in 2007-08 to 6.2 per cent of GDP in 2008-
09. The difference between the actuals of 2007-08
and 2008-09 constituted the total fiscal stimulus not
withstanding that some expenditure was on account
of implementation of the Sixth Pay Commission
Award and the Agriculture Debt Relief Scheme an-
nounced in 2008-09 Budget.
Section -1 (Article : Economic Survay 2008-09)
46 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
Despite the slowdown in growth, investment remained relatively buoyant growing at a rate higher than at the
rate of the GDP. The ratio of the fixed investment to GDP consequently increased to 32.2 per cent in 2008-09
from 31.6 per cent in 2007-08. This reflects the resilience of Indian enterprise, in the face of massive increase in
global uncertainty and risk aversion and freezing of highly developed financial markets. Domestic food price
inflation as measured by the Wholesale Price Index (WPI) food sub index, though declining remains much higher
Salient Features
» Economic growth decelerates to 6.7 per cent in 2008-09 compared to 9 per cent in 2007-08 and 9.7
per cent in 2006-07.
» Per capita growth at 4.6 per cent.
» Deceleration in growth spread across all sectors except mining and quarrying; agriculture growth falls
from 4.9 per cent in 2007-08 to 1.6 per cent 2008-09.
» Manufacturing grows at 2.4 per cent, slowdown attributed to fall in exports and a decline in domestic
demand.
» Global financial meltdown and economic recession in developed economics major factors in India’s
economic slowdown.
» Investment remains relatively buoyant, ratio of fixed investment to GDP increased to 32.2 per cent in
2008-09 compared to 31.6 per cent in 2007-08.
» Fiscal deficit to GDP ratio stands at 6.2 per cent.
» Credit growth declines in the later part of 2008-09 reflecting slowdown of the economy in general
and the industrial sector in particular.
» Increased plan expenditure, reduction in indirect taxes, sector specific measures for textile, housing,
infrastructure through stimulus packages provides support to the real economy.
» Merchandise export grows at a modest 3.6 per cent in US Dollar terms while overall import growth
pegged at 14.4 per cent.
» A large domestic market, resilient banking system and a policy of gradual liberalisation of capital
account to help early mitigation of the adverse effect of global financial crisis and recession.
» Sharp dip in the growth of private consumption a major concern at this stage.
» Medium to long-term capital flows likely to be lower as long as the de-leveraging process continues
in the US economy.
» Revisiting the agenda of pending economic reforms imperative to renew the growth momentum.
Section -1 (Article : Economic Survay 2008-09)
47 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
than overall inflation.
The Survey expressed, concern over the existence
of hunger and widespread malnutrition despite the
country achieving self-sufficiency in food produc-
tion and with mounting public food stocks at its com-
mand. It is time that various interventions at the State
and Central level addressing these issues are reviewed
and redesigned. India continues to retain its position
as a preferred destination for investments. A recent
study by UNCTAD found that India achieved a
growth of 85.1 per cent in foreign direct investment
flows in 2008, the highest increase across all coun-
tries. According to the study FDI investments into
India went up from US Dollar 25.1 billion in 2007 to
US Dollar 46.5 billion in 2008, even as global flows
decline from US Dollar 1.9 trillion to US Dollar 1.7
trillion during the period.
While fiscal policy plays a dual role as a short-term
counter-cyclical tool and an instrument to maintain
microeconomic stability and promote growth in the
medium term, the Economic Survey underlines the
need to restore Centre’s fiscal deficit to the FRBM
target of 3 per cent of GDP at the earliest. It says a
number of factors will make it possible. They include
reversal of much of the decline in business and cor-
porate tax collections when growth accelerates from
the second half of the year and the expected intro-
duction of GST in 2010-11. On the monetary policy
front the Survey says that high deposit rates have
now come in the way of cutting lending rates at a
pace which is consistent with the current outlook on
inflation and the need for stimulating investment de-
mands.
Reflecting on the high oil and other energy prices,
the Survey says that as long as domestic prices re-
mained below the cost of imports, demand would
continue to grow, accentuating the negative impact
of the terms of trade effect on national income. Re-
ferring to the volatility of global oil prices, it says,
the fall could be a temporary respite and provides a
golden opportunity to reform the pricing and con-
trol system. As the low prices of oil has provided a
temporary window for decontrol of petrol and die-
sel, this window must be utilised at the earliest. Other
elements of energy policy such as open access to
power, decontrol of coal also need to be addressed
to have a viable long-term solution to our depen-
dence on foreign oil and the debilitating effect of
power failure.
The Survey said although the economy continues to
face wide ranging challenges-the Indian economy has
shock absorbers that will facilitate early revival of
growth. The banks are financially sound and well
capitalised, foreign exchange position remains com-
fortable and the external debt position has been within
comfortable zone. The rate of inflation provides a
degree of comfort on the cost side for the produc-
tion sectors. Agriculture and rural demand contin-
ues to be strong and agricultural prospects are nor-
mal. The Survey says while there are indications that
the economy may have weathered the worst of the
downturn, the situation warrants close watch on vari-
ous economic indicators including the impact of the
economic stimulus and developments taking place
in the international economy. Taking policy measures
that squarely address the short and long term chal-
lenges would achieve tangible progress and ensure
that the outlook for the economy remains firmly posi-
tive.
Trade Sector in 2009: The Economic Survey for
2008-09 said that the outlook for the trade sector in
2009 is not very encouraging with IMF projecting a
negative growth in world output at -1.3 per cent and
world trade volume projected to growth at -11 per
cent. With import demand falling from major trading
partners from India’s export of goods and services is
expected to be impacted. The steep fall in petroleum
and commodities prices could have a positive im-
pact in the import side and for the industrial sector.
In 2010, recovery is expected with IMF projections
at 1.9 per cent for world output and 0.6 per cent for
World trade volume of goods and services.
The subdued global outlook calls for efforts at both
national and international levels to revive growth.
While efforts to promote exports are needed, the
Economic Survey emphasises the need to guard
against protectionist measures originating from our
trade partners. The Survey says, we also need to
desist from any protectionist tendencies and proceed
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48 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
on the reform path. Besides short-term relief mea-
sures and stimulus packages, some fundamental
policy changes are needed. For the merchandise trade
sector these include continuation of the reduction in
customs and excise duty to make our exports and
industry competitive, streamlining of existing export
promotion schemes, giving special attention to ex-
port infrastructure alongwith rationalisation of port
service charges, weeding out unnecessary customs
duty exemptions and checking the proliferation of
SEZs.
In the services sector a road map of specific policies
needs to be drawn not only to overcome the impact
of the current global crisis, but also to accelerate the
growth of our economy and the total exports as this
sector has been showing a steady and promising per-
formance with relatively lesser support.
Food grain production 2008-09: The Economic
Survey for 2008-09 has put the production of
foodgrains at 229.85 millions tones during 2008-09
in accordance with the third advance estimates for
the year. This is an improvement of 1.97 million tones
over the production estimated in the second advance
estimate for 2008-09. However, the output at this
level is marginally lower than the final estimates of
230.78 million tones for 2007-08.
The production of rice was 99.37 million tones in
2008-09 which is 2.8 per cent more than the pro-
duction in the previous year. The survey said that
increase in production of rice was mainly on account
of Kharif season output growth of 3.4 per cent over
the corresponding period of previous year. The pro-
duction of Rabi rice is estimated to be lower by about
0.9 per cent in 2008-09. The wheat production, ac-
cording to the Economic Survey, is expected to be
marginally lower by 1.2 per cent at 77.63 million
tones in 2008-09. The Economic Survey also under-
scores a growth in area sown under all Rabi crops
taken together as on 27th March 2009. Accordingly
an area of 638.33 lakh hectares has been reported to
be sown under Rabi crops in 2008-09 against 619.68
lakh hectares in the corresponding period of 2007-
08. The area sown under Kharif crops during 2008-
09 was however, lower by 2.3 per cent as compared
to 2007-08.
The credit flow to the farm sector kept up the mo-
mentum as envisaged in the Farm Credit Package
announced in June 2004. Accordingly, the farm credit
flow during 2008-09 increased to 2,64,455 crore,
up from Rs. 2,54,657 crore in 2007-08. The Survey
emphasizes number of steps taken by the Govern-
ment to enhance credit support to farmers. In this
context the Survey mentions role of Kisan Credit
Cards, revival of short terms rural co-operative credit
structure through signing of MOU between the States
and Government of India-NABARD, agriculture debt
waiver and debt relief scheme 2008 etc. Under reha-
bilitation package for distress farmers for 31 suicide
prone districts, in 4 States of Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka, Kerala and Maharashtra, Government of
India has released Rs. 15,889.02 crore as on 31st
March, 2009.
The Minimum Support Prices (MSP) for Kharif crops
were raised substantially in 2008-09 and similarly
MSPs of Rabi crops of 2008-09 ( to be marketed in
2009-10) were also raised. The higher MSP for Rabi
Marketing Season (RMS) 2008-09 lead to a record
procurement of 22.68 million tones of wheat. The
procurement of rice in the financial year 2008-09 too
was significantly higher at 32.8 million tones as com-
pared to 26.3 million tones in 2007-08. The Survey
points out that the procurement of foodgrains by FCI
continues to be higher in the States of Punjab,
Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. The
overall procurement of coarse grains in Kharif Mar-
keting Season till 31st March, 2009 has increased to
11.18 lakh tones from 2.04 lakh tones in 2007-08
due to highly remunerative MSPs. Elaborating per-
formance under decentralize procurement scheme
(DCP), the Survey observes that the States under
DCP operations have shown a healthy increase in
procurement of rice. The downward trend in pro-
curement of wheat has been arrested in RMS 2008-
09.
Food subsidy during 2008-09 has increased to Rs.
43,668 crore (provisional) during 2008-09 record-
ing an increase of 40 per cent over the subsidy of Rs.
31,260 crore in 2007-08. The Survey observes that
a total amount of subsidy as continued to rise at the
national level. It points out that a provision of mini-
mum nutritional support to the poor through subsi-
dized foodgrains and ensuring price stability in dif-
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49 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
ferent states are twin objectives of the food security
system. “ In fulfilling its obligation towards distribu-
tive justice, the Government incurs food subsidy”
the Survey adds.
Referring to the challenges and future outlook the
Economic Survey underlined a clear need for the
renewed focus on improving productivity in specially
in the light of limitations on increasing net sown area
and the shrinking farm size. It also calls for main-
taining current focus on developing rural infrastruc-
ture like rural roads for providing connectivity which
is essential for movement of agricultural produce.
Stating that the irrigation sector requires thrust in
terms of investment and modern management, the
Survey underscores a need for development of mi-
cro irrigation system and watersheds. It also
emphasises the need for narrowing kept between the
producer prices and consumer prices, development
of marketing infrastructure and storages and ware-
houses, cold chains and modern technology driven
spot markets.
The Survey also stated farmers needs to be facili-
tated for taking up value additions such as process-
ing of agricultural produce, horticulture, pisciculture,
poultry etc. In order to ensure benefits accruing to
the targeted population, the Survey called for a mis-
sion approach on promotion of Smart Cards with its
cross reference to ration cards and voter ID cards. It
also invited attention to the issues of sustainability
of agriculture in the light of environmental concerns
like soil erosion, water logging, reduction in ground
water level and decline in surface irrigation. The
Survey stressed that the consequences of climate
change on Indian agriculture needs to be factored in
the strategy for development of agricultural sector.
Industrial output 2008-09 : Though the growth of
the industrial sector started to slowdown in the first
half of 2007-08, the overall growth during the year
remained as high as 8.5 per cent. The industrial sec-
tor witnessed a sharp slowdown during 2008-09 as
a consequences of successive shocks, the most im-
portant being the knock-on effects of the global fi-
nancial crisis. The pace of slowdown accelerated in
the second half of 2008-09 with the sudden worsen-
ing of the international financial situation and the
global economic outlook. The year 2008-09 thus
closed with the industrial growth at only 2.4 per cent
as per the Index of Industrial Production. The slow-
down in manufacturing over successive quarters
started from Q1 of 2007-08. This was more or less
replicated by the mining sector and closely followed
by electricity. However, in the third quarter of 2008-
09, the manufacturing sector witnessed a sharp drop
in growth which turned negative in the fourth quar-
ter. Growth of the mining sector declined over suc-
cessive quarters of 2008-09 to reach a zero rate in
the fourth quarter.
The increase in the price of imported crude was
passed on into the domestic market in June 2008,
but, in a very limited way through a hike in the price
of motor spirit, HSD and LPG. However, the persis-
tent rise in the price of crude had started to impact
petro-based industrial inputs adding to fuel costs.
That apart, the rise in the price of other commodi-
ties, particularly metals and ores from the latter half
of 2006-07 to the second half of 2008-09 also had
its effect on the cost side of the manufacturing sec-
tor. Growth in production of capital goods contin-
ued at a robust pace reflecting perhaps the high in-
vestment rates. However, with the decline in the
growth of intermediate goods (with a weight of 26.5
per cent) from Q 1 of 2008-09, the growth in overall
Iip showed a sharp dip that got accentuated in Q3 of
2008-09 when the remaining groups also showed a
sharp drop in growth.
The broad growth correspondence between the two-
digit level industrial groups and the use-based in-
dustry groups can be established by juxtaposing the
former against the latter. The growth in consumer
non-durables has been boosted by the high growth
in beverages and tobacco products, while the other
major components-food products, chemicals and
leather products showed sluggish/negative growth.
The growth in basic goods is closely aligned to that
in electricity and mining that constitute substantial
part of the weight of basic goods; the most of the
rest are chemical products, rubber, plastic and pe-
troleum products and steel. Intermediate goods are
Section -1 (Article : Economic Survay 2008-09)
50 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
a more dispersed group dominated by chemical, tex-
tile, rubber, metal product intermediates, most of
which experienced negative growth in 2008-09.
While the high growth of machinery and equipments
bolstered the growth of capital goods, the poor to
average performance of transport equipments damp-
ened the overall growth of capital goods.
The growth in any industrial group is determined by
the level of production during the current period and
the base level. A simple classification of IIP groups
in terms of their growth rates reveals that only two
out of 17 industrial groups-beverages and tobacco
and machinery-grew at robust rates during 2008-09
despite a high base. Seven of the 17 groups showed
low growth ranging between 5 per cent to Nil. Of
these, three groups (miscellaneous manufacturing,
basic metals and alloys and chemicals and chemical
products) had a high base in the previous year. Of
the eight industrial gro8ups that witnessed a decline
in production during 2008-09, the high base factor
was significant only for three items- leather prod-
ucts, wood products and jute textiles. In general, it
can therefore be said that 2008-09 was character-
ized by a decline in growth largely on account of a
slowdown rather than due to a high base in the pre-
vious year 2007-08.
India ranks as the fifth largest producer of steel in
the world. The crude steel production grew at an
annual rate of 9.2 per cent during 2003-04 to 2007-
08. The increase in production came on the back of
capacity expansion, mainly in the private sector
plants, and higher utilization rates. Metal products
industry suffered from the second consecutive year
of decline; its index of production declined by 5.6
per cent in 2007-08 and further by 4 per cent in 2008-
09.
The machinery sector (except the transport equip-
ment) grew at 8.7 per cent during 2008-09, on the
top of five consecutive years of growth in excess of
10 per cent. In terms of contribution to the growth
of the sector, the bulk was accounted for by insu-
lated cables and wires, the production of which more
than doubles, as per IIP during 2008-09. The other
important items that recorded significant growth
during the year included TV receivers, diesel engines,
industrial machinery, turbines, hydraulic machines and
cylinders, boilers, power-driven pumps, electric gen-
erators, cooling towers, cutting tools and dumpers.
The year 2007-08 was marked by substantial growth
in the revenue of IT-ITeS industry, BPO, software
and services exports and software and services em-
ployment. However, the expected growth in 2008-
09 is significantly lower when compared to 2007-
08.
Production of the automotive industry grew at a
CAGR of 11.5 per cent over last five years. The in-
dustry has a strong multiplier effect on the economy
due to its deep forward and backward linkages with
several key segments of the economy. There are posi-
tive signs that the Indian industry may have weath-
ered the most severe part of the shock and is now
moving towards a recovery. Some of the positive
signs are the recent upturn in the generation of elec-
tricity, the improvement of cement dispatches and
rise in the offtake of bank credit.
India has a large domestic market with immense ab-
sorptive capacity for industrial goods as also inputs
for the development of the infrastructure implies that
the demand side provides scope for expansion. At
this juncture, when the prospect for industrial out-
put and prices in most industrial economies seem to
be grim, the configuration of prices, output and mar-
ket size makes the Indian industry one of the few
attractive destinations for investment, the Survey
adds.
Central Government expenditure 2008-09: The Eco-
nomic Survey for 2008-09 shows that the Govern-
ment has been increasing its outlays in the social sec-
tor substantively. The Economic Survey 2008-09,
tabled in Parliament today states that the share of
the Central Government’s expenditure on social ser-
vices including rural development in total expendi-
ture (plan and non-plan) has increased from 11.23%
in 2002-03 to 19.44% in 2008-09. Expenditure on
education as a proportion of total expenditure has
increased from 9.5% in 2003-04 to 10.8% in 2008-
09. However the reach of public and quasi public
goods and services supplied by the State to people
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51 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
still shows leakages in the schemes and the benefits
in full do not reach the targeted groups.
The Survey stated that the Government has approved
the constitution of UID Authority of India (UIDAI).
The initial UID database would be created using the
electoral rolls database of the Election Commission
of India. While some innovative measures have been
initiated in NREGS to bring in more transparency
and plug leakages, UID number would help greatly
in proper targeting and ensuring services reaching
the intended beneficiaries of the Government
programmes and hence serve as the basis of efficient
delivery of services. Based on a Unique ID number
(UID) and associated information all residents should
be entitled to a smart card containing specified un-
changeable data. Entitlements would then need to
be based upon the data contained in the smart card
and services/subsidies/entitlements received would
also be recorded against this card.
Social Sector Initiatives
The Economic Survey stated that in consonance with
the Government’s commitment to inclusive growth
and faster social sector development to remove dis-
parities, substantial progress has been made by the
Central Government on some of the major social
sector initiatives during the year. Bharat Nirman has
received an outlay of Rs. 40,900 crore in the interim
budget for 2009-10 as against Rs. 31,280 crore (in-
cluding NER component) in 2008-09. Up to March
2009, a total length of 2,14,281,45 kilometres of road
works has been completed under the Pradhan Mantri
Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) with a cumulative
expenditure of Rs. 46,807.21 crore.
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme:
The scheme has now been extended to all the dis-
tricts of the country. More than 4.47 crore house-
holds were provided employment in 2008-09. This
is a significant jump over the 3.39 crore households
covered under the scheme during 2007-08. Out of
the 215.63 crore person-days created under the
scheme during this period, 29 percent and 25 per-
cent were in favour of SC and ST population.
Rural Sanitation: There has also been tremendous
increase in the access to sanitation facilities by rural
households. The sanitation coverage among rural
households has increased from 21.9 percent in 2001
to 27.3 percent in 2004 and has more than doubled
since then to 63.91 per cent (of 2001 Census house-
holds) as on May 20, 2009. The total Sanitation
Campaign (TSC) is one of the eight flagship
programmes of the Government. TSC projects have
been sanctioned in 593 rural districts of the country
at a total outlay of Rs. 17,885 crore with a Central
share of Rs. 11,094 crore. Since 1999, over 5,56 crore
toilets have been provided for rural households un-
der TSC. A significant achievement has also been
the construction of 8.71 lakh school toilets and 2.72
lakh Anganwadi toilets. With increasing budgetary
allocations and focus on rural areas, the number of
households being provided with toilets annually has
increased from only 24,41 lakh in 2002-03 to 98.7
lakh in 2006-07.
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana: PMGSY
is funded mainly from the accruals of diesel cess in
the Central Road. Upto March 2009, a total length
of about 2,14,281,45 kilometres of roadwork has
been completed with cumulative expenditure of Rs.
46,807.21 crore.
Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana: It is the
only self-employment programme currently being
implemented for the rural poor. Up to March 2009,
34 lakh self help groups (SHGs) had been formed
and 120.89 lakh swarozgaris have been assisted with
a total outlay of Rs. 27,183.03 crore.
Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana: The fund
allocation for the scheme was Rs. 515 crore during
2008-09 and Rs. 540.67 crore has been released up
to March 31, 2009. With regard to the number of
beneficiaries during 2008-09 9,47,390 urban poor
were assisted to set up individual/group micro en-
terprises and 14,84,209 urban poor were imparted
skill training under SJSRY as per the progress re-
ports received up to the end of March 31, 2009.
Education: The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is be-
ing implemented in partnership with State Govern-
ments to address the needs of children in age group
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52 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
of 6-14 years The Economic Survey for 2008-09
tabled in Parliament today states that the achieve-
ments of SSA till December 2008 are opening of
2,76,903 new schools, construction of 2,25,383
school buildings, construction of 9,18,981 additional
classrooms, 1,82,019 drinking water facilities, con-
struction of 2,51,023 toilets, supply of free textbooks
to 8.40 crore children appointment of 9.66 lakh teach-
ers and in-service training for 23.82 lakh teachers.
There has been a significant reduction in the number
of out-of-school children on account of SSA inter-
ventions. Following are instances of some of the ex-
pansion of higher educational institutions as per the
Survey:
An ordinance has been promulgated under Article
123 of the Constitution for establishment of 15 Cen-
tral Universities including the conversion of three
State Universities into Central Universities – one in
each such state which does not have a Central Uni-
versity, except Goa, which has not been included at
the request of the State Government.
Six new Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), one
each in Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Orissa,
Gujarat and Punjab have been set up during 2008-
09. Classes have also been started from the academic
session 2008-09. One new Indian Institute of Man-
agement (IIM) namely the Rajiv Gandhi Indian In-
stitute of Management (RGIIM) at Shillong in
Meghalaya has started functioning from the academic
session 2008-09. Two new Indian Institutes of Sci-
ence Education & Research (IISERs) have been set
up at Bhopal and Thiruvananthapuram, which have
started functioning with the academic session 2008-
09.
A new Scholarship Scheme has been started to cover
top 2 per cent of the student population of Class XII
(equally divided between boys and girls on the basis
of Class XII results) by providing them with schol-
arship of Rs. 1,000 per month for 10 months in a
year for the first three years of undergraduate level
studies and Rs. 2,000 per month for 10 months in a
year for subsequent 2 years.
The Economic Survey also showed that the proposal
for the third phase of expansion of the ICDS scheme
for 792 additional projects, 2.13 lakh additional
Anganwadi Centres (AWCs) and 77,102 mini-AWCs
and a proposal for 20,000 AWCs on demand has also
been approved in October 2008 and administrative
sanctions have been issued to all states/Uts. This
would take the total number of Anganwadi Centres
to 14 lakh across the country with special focus on
coverage of SC/ST and minority population. The fi-
nancial norms for supplementary nutrition have been
revised from Rs. 2.06 to Rs. 4.21 per beneficiary.
Strengthening of Primary Health Infrastructure: The
National Rural Health Mission(NRHM) seeks to
strengthen the public health delivery system at all
levels in the country. It is being operationalised
throughout the country. The Economic Survey for
2008-09 tabled in Parliament today states that as part
of the NRHM 6.49 lakh ASHAs and link workers
have been selected upto December 2008 out of which
5,63 lakh have been given orientation training and
4.12 ASHAs have drug kits. Strengthening of the
PHCs for 24x7 services is a priority of the NRHM.
Of the 22,370 PHCs in the country, only 1,263 of
them were working 24x7 on March 31, 2005 (be-
fore the NRHM). The number of 24x7 PHCs today,
as reported by the states is 7,212 signifying a big
leap forward in getting patients to the government
system.
Over 159,92 lakh women have been brought under
the Janani Suraksha Yojana for institutional deliver-
ies in the last three years. So far, 8,645 other para-
medics have been appointed on contract. 9,073 doc-
tors, 1,875 specialists, 20,977 staff nurses have been
appointed on contract in the states so far, reducing
the human resource gaps in many institutions. In-
dian Public Health (IPH) Standards have been
finalised and a first grant of Rs. 20 lakh was made
available to all the district hospitals of the country to
improve their basic services, given the increased pa-
tient load due to JSY and other programmes. So far
243 Mobile Medical Units are operational in the
states.
As per the Economic Survey, in the National AIDS
Control Programme, major achievements during
2008-09 include scaling up targeted interventions for
high risk groups to 1,271, counselling and HIV test-
Section -1 (Article : Economic Survay 2008-09)
53 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
ing 101 lakh persons of which 41.5 lakh were preg-
nant women and providing ARV treatment to more
than 2.17 lakh patients.
Social Welfare Schemes
The Economic Survey stated that the Government is
committed towards social and economic uplift of the
weaker sections of society. As regards the Sched-
uled Castes a number of schemes are being imple-
mented to encourage Scheduled Caste students for
continuing their education from school level to higher
education. The earlier Centrally-sponsored scheme
of hostels for SC boys and girls was revised and re-
named as “Babu Jagjivan Ram Chhatravas Yojana’
w.e.f. January 1,2008. As part of this revision, Cen-
tral assistance for construction of girls’ hostels was
raised from 50 per cent. During 2008-09, the physi-
cal target under the scheme was to construct 64 hos-
tels for 4,938 girls and 45 hostels for 3,138 boys. An
amount of Rs. 84.26 crore was released under the
scheme during the year.
As regards Scheduled Tribes their economic empow-
erment continued through extension of financial sup-
port through National Scheduled Tribes Finance and
Development Corporation (NSTFDC). The Sched-
uled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers
(Recognition of Forest Rights) Act was notified for
operation with effect from December 31, 2007. The
responsibility for implementing the Act vests with
the State/UT Governments. As per information col-
lected from States till March 31, 2009 more than
20.50 lakh claims have been filed. More than 1,52
lakh titles have been distributed and another 1.93
lakh are ready for distribution.
As regards minorities, the corpus of the Maulana
Azad Education Foundation (MAEF) has been en-
hanced from Rs. 100 crore in 2005-06 to Rs. 310
crore in 2008-09 for expanding its activities for imple-
mentation of educational schemes for educationally
backward minorities. The authorized share capital
of the National Minorities Development and Finance
Corporation (NMDFC) has been raised from Rs. 650
crore in 2006-07 to Rs. 850 crore in 2008-09 for
expanding its loan and micro-finance operations to
promote self-employment and other economic ven-
tures among backward sections of the minority com-
munities.
Under the Aam Admi Bima Yojana, upto December
31, 60.32 lakh people have been covered. Another
major Governmental scheme for social protection,
the Rashtriya Swastha Bima Yojana was extended
to 22 states and Union Territories upto May 6, 2009.
Through this scheme, health insurance cover has been
given to more than 2.09 crore persons.
National Action Plan on Climate Change
The Economic Survey stated that India holds that
the planetary atmospheric space is a common re-
source. It says that in tackling the challenge of cli-
mate change, both production and consumption pat-
terns need to be addressed, with the willingness to
address lifestyle issues. Availability and/or dissemi-
nation of existing climate friendly technologies and
goods to developing countries as public goods and
at affordable costs is essential to enhance the actions
of developing countries towards pursuing sustain-
able development technologies.
India released its National Action Plan on Climate
Change (NAPCC) on June 30, 2008 to outline its
strategy to meet the challenge of climate change. This
Action Plan identifies measures that promote the
objectives of sustainable development of India while
also yielding co-benefits for addressing climate
change. Eight National Missions, form the core of
the National Plan.
Credit to Priority
Sector, Industry and Education
The Economic Survey said that expansion of credit
by the Banks moderated during the year. Credit by
the Scheduled Commercial Banks (SCBs) to the
Commercial Sector in the year 2008-09 expanded
by 16.9% as compare to 21.0% in 2007-08. Bank
credit to the Commercial Sector witnessed strong
growth in the first half of the year and decelerated
during the second half.
There was a moderation in the credit growth rate of
SCBs to 17.3% ( Rs. 408099 crore in 2008-09) from
Section -1 (Article : Economic Survay 2008-09)
54 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
a level of 22.3%(Rs. 430724 crores) in the corre-
sponding period of the previous year. The total credit
flow from SCBs as on March 27, 2009 was Rs.
27,70,012 crore, of which Rs. 20,11,591 crore was
from the Public Sector Banks (PSBs). PSBs regis-
tered a growth of 20.4% in 2008-09 compared to
22.5% in the previous year. Non food credit at the
end of March, 2009 grew by 17.5 percent as com-
pared to 23.0 percent growth at the end of March,
2008.
While loans to agriculture and allied activities grew
at the rate of 23.0% as compared to 19.5% in the
previous year, credit to industry grew at 21.6% dur-
ing 2008-09 as against 2.43% in the last year. Ad-
vances under personal loans for housing and con-
sumers durables witnessed deceleration. Loans to
commercial real estates and NBFCs remained high
in 2008-09 with a growth of 44.6 and 25.1% respec-
tively. The private sector lending was up by 22.5%
compare to 17.5% from year to year basis as did the
education lending with 39.2% growth in 2008-09
compare to 35.0% in the last year.
Though the growth in the different sources of funds
for the SCBs during 2008-09 was lower than for
2007- 08, the growth in deposits with the banking
system in 2008-09 was higher than the growth of
credit. The credit – deposit (C-D) ratio peaked to
75.2 as of October, 2008 but declined thereafter. It
stood at 72.3 as of March 27, 2009.
Capital Markets
A turnaround has been noticed in the performance
of Mutual Fund industry, which had remained sub-
dued during 2008, said the Economic Survey 2008-
09. Mutual fund investments (net) in equity markets
turned positive in March 2009 and were Rs. 2,320
crore during April-May, 2009 while they invested Rs.
36,791 crore in debt instruments during the same
period. There is scope for expansion of mutual fund
industry as only 7.7 per cent of total financial saving
was allocated to mutual funds in 2007-08. As per
the Survey, the retail participation, which is pres-
ently estimated at 15 per cent, is expected to increase
in the years to come as availability of products and
investor education improve and the industry takes
steps towards transparency and sound corporate
governance practices to generate investor confidence.
According to the Survey, assets under management
of mutual funds declined sharply from Rs. 5,49,936
crore at the end of 2007 to Rs. 4,13,365 crore at the
end of 2008. A perceptible shift was noticed from
growth-oriented scheme to income/debt oriented
schemes to income/debt oriented schemes. Assets
under income-oriented schemes in 2008 were almost
at their previous year’s level and accounted for 47.7
per cent of total assets under management at the end
of 2008. The decline in assets was seen across the
schemes, the exceptions being Gilt and Gold ETF
Schemes, which showed larger assets under manage-
ment in 2008.
The Survey has expressed satisfaction that perfor-
mance of the capital market has lately shown signs
of revival of investor interest and confidence – both
domestic and foreign institutional investors. Net in-
vestment by FIIs in equity instruments amounted to
US$ 5.4 billion during April-May 2009. This has re-
sulted on account of several policy initiatives taken
by the Government relating to the Primary Market,
Secondary Market, Mutual Funds, Foreign Institu-
tional Investments, Corporate Debt Market and
Regulatory changes, during 2008-09.
Monetary Policy
The Economic Survey laid focus on having a cali-
brated approach to using monetary policy measures
for an early return to the high growth path. At the
same time, efforts to build and preserve financial sta-
bility have to be high on the agenda.
The Survey said, the monetary policy in 2008-09 had
to address the emerging economic situation, wherein
the position in the second half of the year was sub-
stantially different from the first half. The policy had
to contend with the spill-over effects of the global
financial crisis, on the country’s growth path. The
liquidity situation had improved significantly towards
the end of 2008-09, in the wake of measures taken
by the RBI.
Taking into account the need to respond to sluggish
economic growth witnessed lately, the Survey says,
Section -1 (Article : Economic Survay 2008-09)
55 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
growth in money supply (M3) for 2009-10 was en-
visaged at 17.0 per cent as an indicative projection.
Consistent with this, the growth in aggregate depos-
its of scheduled commercial banks has been projected
to grow at 18.0 per cent and non-food credit by 20.0
per cent.
The monetary policy stance for 2009-10 is aimed to
ensure a policy regime that will enable credit expan-
sion at viable rates while preserving credit quality so
as to support the return of the economy of a high
growth; to continuously monitory global and domes-
tic conditions and respond swiftly and effectively
through policy instruments so as to minimize the
impact of the adverse developments and reinforce
the effect of the positive developments; and main-
tain a monetary and interest rate regime supportive
of price stability and financial stability.
Steps Taken to Enhance Domestic Rupee Liquid-
ity: The Economic Survey 2008-09 said, variation
in cash balances of the Central Government, capital
flows and the concomitant foreign exchange opera-
tions of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI)were the
key drivers of liquidity conditions during the year.
RBI continued its policy of active management of
liquidity during the financial year 2008-09 using CRR,
Open Marked Operations (OMC) including the Mar-
ket Stabilization Scheme (MSS) and the Liquidity
Adjustment Facility (LAF) to maintain appropriate
liquidity in the system so that all legitimate require-
ments of credit were met consistent with the objec-
tive of price and financial stability.
Accordingly, monetary and liquidity management
operations changed course beginning mid- Septem-
ber, 2008 in order to address the liquidity situation
emerging from the unfolding global financial crisis.
Special Market Operations (SMO) were conducted
by the RBI during the first week of June, 2008 to the
first week of August, 2008 to improve access of pub-
lic sector of companies to domestic liquidity and al-
leviate the lumpy demand in the foreign exchange
market in the context of the unprecedented increase
in international oil prices. The SMOs were, however,
liquidity neutral in nature.
For more effective liquidity management and to en-
sure that the market borrowing programme of the
Government was conducted in a non-disruptive man-
ner, the scope of the SMO was widened with effect
from February 19, 2009 by including purchases of
government securities through an auction based
mechanism in addition to purchases through the ne-
gotiated dealing system-order matching (NDS-OM)
segment.
The Economic Survey said that in order to enhance
domestic rupee liquidity, the cash reserve ratio (CRR)
as a percentage of the Net Demand and Time Li-
abilities (NDTL) was reduced by a cumulative 400
points from 9 per cent with effect from January
17,2009;the Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) as a
percentage of the NDTL was reduced by hundred
basis point from 25 per cent to 24 per cent with ef-
fect from November 8, 2008; a term repo facility for
an amount of Rs. 60,000 crore was instituted under
the LAF to enable banks to ease liquidity stress faced
by Mutual Funds (MFs) and Non-Banking Financial
Companies (NBFCs) with associated SLR exemp-
tion of 1.5 per cent of NDTL; an advance of Rs.
25,000 crore was provided to financial institutions
under the Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief
Scheme pending release of money by the Govern-
ment; provision of a reference facility for an amount
of Rs. 4,000 crore to the National Housing Bank
(NHB) was undertaken to provide liquidity support
to the housing sector and a refinance facility to the
EXIM Bank was provided with a view to mitigating
the pressures on Indian exporting companies.
Agro Sector Loan
As per the Economic Survey 2008-09, the total
amount disbursed by all Banks to the Agriculture and
Allied Activities Sector is Rs. 2,64,455 crores as
against the target of 2,80,000 crores registering
94.4% achievement. In comparison to the disburse-
ment of Rs. 254657 crore as on March, 2008, there
is a rise of Rs. 9798 crores to the sector. Of the total
disbursement Rs. 202856 crores were from Com-
mercial Banks, Rs. 35447 crores by Cooperative
Banks and Rs. 25,852 crores by Regional Rural
Banks.
Section -1 (Article : Economic Survay 2008-09)
56 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
During 2008-09( till February 2009), a total of 47.26
lakhs Kisan Credit Cards(KCC) amounting with lim-
its aggregating Rs. 26828 crores were issued. The
total number of KCC holders in the country as on
February 28, 2009 stood at 808.00 lakhs.
Under the Agricultural Debt Waver and Debt Relief
Scheme, the Government provided Rs. 25,000 crores
to the Commercial Banks RRBs and Cooperative
Credit Institutions as the first instalments Of this Rs.
17500 crore was provided to RRBs and Coopera-
tives as temporary liquidity support and Rs. 7500
crores to Commercial Banks.
Physical Infrastructure
Recognizing the importance of physical infrastruc-
ture on sustainability of growth and overall develop-
ment, the Economic Survey 2008-09 stated that
spending on infrastructure has larger multiplier ef-
fects. There has been some improvement in infra-
structure development in transport, communication
and energy sector in the country in the recent year,
there are still significant gaps that needed to be
bridged. The current economic slow down provides
an opportunities for countries like India that have a
substantial degree of unmet infrastructure require-
ments.
According to the Economic Survey, the capacity cre-
ation in infrastructure sectors presented a mixed pic-
ture in 2008-09. While telecom and petroleum sec-
tors performed well in 2008-09 as compared to the
recent years, the power sector exhibited consider-
able shortfall. Most infrastructure sectors too wit-
nessed subdued growth in production/services dur-
ing 2008-09 because of slump in economic activity
and commodity price, oil price shocks and overall
global economic crisis. The Port and Air cargo
growth slowed down considerably reflecting the slug-
gishness in import and export growth in second half
of 2008-09. The rail freight growth too slowed down
but to a lesser degree because the coal sector expe-
rienced robust production. In addition, the growth
in telecommunication stood as exception a midst the
general slowed down, the Survey adds.
In power sector, the Survey stated, the growth of
electricity generation by power utilities in 2008-09
was at 2.7 per cent which was much short of tar-
geted 9.1 per cent. During 2008-09, despite the sharp
decline in hydro and nuclear generation, the growth
in total electricity generation was positive due to 5
per cent plus growth in thermal generation. The Sur-
vey mentions that less inflow of water into reser-
voirs in the case of hydro stations and for other power
stations mainly due to fuel supply
Constraints as the reasons for negative growth in
power generation. Keeping in view the target set by
the National Electricity Policy 2005, a capacity ad-
dition of 78,700 MW has been set for the XIth Five
Year Plan, of which 19.9 per cent is in the hydel sec-
tors, 75.8 per cent thermal and the rest nuclear. The
Survey mentioned that a number of projects envis-
aged for the XIth Plan have made steady progress,
with most of these in a position to be commissioned
within the plan period. The Survey also listed out
major reforms initiated in order to help power utili-
ties to improve efficiency and commercial viability.
The Ministry of Power signed the MOUs with the
States to undertake time bound distribution reforms,
the Survey adds. With a view to provide impetus to
electrification of villages under the Rajiv Gandhi
Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana, the Economic Sur-
vey states that 59,882 villages have been electrified
during the XIth Five Year Plan and electricity con-
nections to 53.78 lakh BPL households have been
released up to 31st March 2009.
The Survey stated that during 2008-09, the petro-
leum sector has been affected by the wild swings in
the international oil prices. The production of crude
and its products witnessed slack growth in 2008-09
as compared to the previous year. The growth of 3
per cent in refinery production was mainly on ac-
count of impressive performance of private sector
production. In 2008-09, while the production of
crude oil declined but its consumption increased. In
comparison, production of petroleum products in-
creased by 3.9 per cent in the same year, while its
consumption declined. The growth in diesel con-
sumption declined to 8.4 per cent in 2008-09 as com-
pared to 11.1 per cent in 2007-08 because of indus-
Section -1 (Article : Economic Survay 2008-09)
57 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
trial and business slow down in sectors like automo-
biles etc. Giving details of the progress under New
Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP), the Survey
states that 203 Production Sharing Contracts have
been signed since 1999, thereby increasing the area
under exploration more than four times. As on April
1, 2009, investment commitment under NELP is
about 10 billion US dollar on exploration, against
which actual expenditure so far under the policy is
about 4.7 billion US dollar. In addition, 5.2 billion
US dollar investment has been made on development
of discoveries.
In the coal sector, raw coal production is provision-
ally estimated at 493.20 million tonnes in 2008-09
as against 457.08 million tonnes during correspond-
ing period last year, thereby registering a growth rate
of 7.90 per cent. The cooking coal production was
29.76 million tonnes during April-February 2009 as
against 29.70 million tonnes in the corresponding
period last year. The Survey mentions that due to
the enhanced production by all stakeholders, the
growth rate of raw coal production was increased to
about 8 per cent during 2008-09 as compared to 6
per cent in the corresponding period.
Regarding National Highways Development Project
(NHDP), being implemented by the National High-
ways Authority of India, the Survey states that 11,037
KM of National Highways has been completed by
31st March 2009, the bulk of which lies on Golden
Quadrilateral (GQ). Nearly 98 per cent works on
GQ have been completed by March this year and the
North-South and East-West corridors are expected
to be completed by December this year. The Survey
further added that the Government has given approval
for upgradation of 12,109 KM under NHDP phase
III at an estimated cost of Rs. 80,626 crore; two-
laning for 5,000 KM of National Highways under
NHDP Phase IV at an estimated cost of Rs. 6,950
crore; six laning of 6,500 KM of National Highways
under NHDP Phase V at a cost of 41,210 crore; 1000
KM express ways with full access control at a cost
of Rs. 16,680 crore under NHDP Phase IV and con-
struction of ring road grade separation intersection,
flyovers, elevated highways, underpasses and service
roads at a cost of Rs. 16,680 crore under NHDP
Phase VII.
For improving the road connectivity to the state capi-
tals, district headquarters and remote places in the
north-eastern region, a scheme Special Accelerated
Road Development Programme is being imple-
mented. The High Powered Inter-Ministerial Com-
mittee under the programme has approved the sub-
jects covering 1065 KMs at a cost of Rs. 3,378 crore
under Phase A of the programme. The Survey men-
tioned that the XIth Five Year Plan has projected an
investment requirement of Rs. 41,347 crore (at 2006-
07 prices) in rural roads. During the first two year of
the plan an expenditure of Rs. 25, 780.70 crore has
been incurred on rural roads under the Pradhan
Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana.
Regarding Civil Aviation Sector, the Survey stated
that the expansion of the sector continued. How-
ever, the sector showed signs of slow down due to
steep rise in cost of air turbine fuel and global eco-
nomic slow down. The number of domestic passen-
gers declined by 5 per cent during 2008 as compared
to 2007. The silver lining was a growth of 14.55 per
cent in the domestic cargo. The Surveys mentioned
about t he massive modernization/expansion
programme of International Airports at New Delhi,
Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. The Survey further
adds that the Airports Authority of India is upgrad-
ing and modernizing 35 non-metro airports in the
country in a time bound manner. Development of
Airports in the North-Eastern Region is being taken
up on priority basis.
The telecom sector continued to register significant
growth during the year. With about 414 million con-
nections till February this year, India’s telecommu-
nication network is the 3rd largest and the second
largest wireless network in the world. At the current
growth rate, the target of 500 million connections
by 2010 is well within reach. The tele-density also
increased from 12.7 per cent in March 2006 to 35.65
per cent in February this year. The Government has
taken several steps directed at reduction in entry
barriers, creation of a level playing field between in-
cumbents and new entrants and forward looking
regulation. With the special thrust given to rural te-
lephony, the number of rural telephones went up from
12.3 million in March 2004 to 112.71 million in Janu-
ary this year. Consequently the rural tele-density
reached 13.81 per cent. Since January 2000 to De-
Section -1 (Article : Economic Survay 2008-09)
58 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
cember 2008, the total Foreign Direct Investment is
Rs. 27,482.96 crore of which the inflow during 2008
is Rs. 11,595.48 crore. Recognizing the importance
of increase broadband connectivity for growth of
knowledge based society, several steps have been
taken to promote broadband in the country. As a re-
sult, the broadband subscribers increased from 0.18
million in March 2005 to about 5.69 million by Feb-
ruary this year.
Regarding Urban Infrastructure, the Survey stated
that under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban
Renewal Mission (JNNURM), an additional central
assistance of Rs. 50,000 crore for 7 years and an
equal amount from the State Governments and ur-
ban local bodies was provided to the Mission cities
for improvement in their civic services levels. Memo-
randum of Agreement for Urban Reform Agenda has
been signed with 62 mission cities and 6 urban local
bodies. The Mission cities have undertaken fresh ini-
tiatives under JNNURM with an objective to con-
tribute to sustainable functioning of local bodies.
Under a parallel scheme of Urban Infrastructure
Development Scheme for Small and Medium towns
for Non-Mission cities and towns launched in 2005-
06, 747 projects have been sanctioned at an approved
cost of Rs. 12,793.81 crore for 632 towns till March
this year. The year 2008 being International Year of
Sanitation, a National Urban Sanitation Policy was
launched in November 2008 for transforming all
towns and cities of the country into 100 per cent
sanitized, healthy and livable spaces and ensuring
sustained public health and improved environment
to its citizen.
Recognizing the importance of quality infrastructure
for sustainable growth, the Economic Survey em-
phasized the need of better coordination between two
approaches being followed for infrastructure build-
ing so as to promote its balanced development
through out the length and breath of the country.
The Survey mentioned that a tangible progress has
been made in attracting private investment infrastruc-
ture. However, such public initiatives are constrained
by factors like inadequate shelf of bankable projects
and shortage of long- term finance for projects.
Section -1 (Article : Economic Survay 2008-09)
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By Dr. Divya
Aut hor is Current ly Working as Assist ant Professor for Home Science
Section -1 (Hindi Article : Climate Change)
61 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
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·|‡· |r ·| + ·||·|~| ·| .·| ·|·||‡|·|| + | ·||·|·|| + · ·|| ·|< · r · r | r |
‡·|·|~|| + ·|~·| + | ·|·||~|·| ~·| ·| ~|·|-|·| .¨¨ |·| ·|· |·|| r | ·|~|| r ~|· ~||·|| + | ··||·| ~·| = ·|| + | ·|·|| + · ·| ||~| ·|~·||
+ | ~|· ·||·| ~|·|| r | ‡|„| + | ~·| r ‡· | ~·|·||··|| + | :|~|+ -|| ‡·|~| ·|+ | r | ¹ ª|· ·| .‡· ‡~|·|·|) · |~|· + | ·|·|| ||~||
¹¨¨ ‡|·||·| ·|··||~| ·| ·|·|· · |·· ·|·|||· ·| + |·|+ ·| ·|· ~·|·| r ·||-|· + · ‡· ·| r ~|· ·|·|·|||+ · ·||·| = ·|| + |· |·||· ·|
~|· ·|·|‡| ~||·| + ||·| ·|·|· · |·· + ·~||·|~| + |··|+· ‡·|‡·|·|~·| ·| ~|··|| · ª|·| ||~| ¬·|· · |·|| ‡·||„| + ‡~|·
·|·|·|||+ · ·||·| = ·|| + |· |·||· ·| ~|· ~‡·|+ ·|·|‡| ~||·| + ¬: „·| ·| = ·|| + |· |·||· + ‡~|· r ·||-|· ‡+ · ·|| ·|+ r ‡·|·|·|
ö¨ ~· ·| · |~|· + | ¬· |~| ~|·| + | ~|„|| r | .·|·| + |~| ‡|+ ‡·|| r | ·|r | ~‡·|| ·||·| ~|· -||· | ·|·| · „|| + | ·||·| = ·||-
·||‡~|| + ·|‡·|·|| -|| ·|‡··|‡~|| r |
||·||·| ª||¬ ·|+ · ~|·|‡| + | ~·|-|| ·|ª·||·|| ·|~·|| ·| ·|<| r ~| r | ‡·|· ~| ~|·|-|·| ¯¨ |·|| + · |· |·| ~··| ·|-|| |··|| +
~‡|‡· · ¬·||· ·| ·|« |·| ·|· ~·|‡·|+ ·||· ‡· ·|| ·|·|| r | ·|·|· ·| ~·|-||+ | + ·| ~|+·||·|·| ·|· -|~|| ·| -- ·|| -|~|| ·| .‡·|·|·|
·|· ‡~|·|| ·|| ~··| ·|·|· | ·|||-·|·| ·|| || + |~|-+ |‡~|| r | ·||| r ·|| ·|~||·|·| + · ·||| r ) ·||·| + ‡~|·| ¬|· + | +
· · ·|·||·| + + |· ·| ¬·|+ | ··|| ‡··|‡| r | ·|||| r |
·|· ~|| ·||·|·| + | ·|‡+ ·||~| + + |· ·| ª||¬|·| ¬·||· ·| ·|· ~·|· ·|<|| r |·|| + | ~‡·|‡„·|||| ·|·|· |~| + ‡|·||·
·|·|· |· |·| ||·|| ·|~| -|· |· ·| + ·|| ~|·| ·||« + | ‡|-||‡·|+ | ~|· |||||· ·| + | = ··|| ·|« ·| + + |· ·| ~·|+ ·|‡· ||·| ~|| r
| ~·|·|·| + ~‡·|+ |·|| ||~| |·|| |·|| ~|+ ‡· + · · | ·|·| ·|·|||· ·| ‡|‡|·||| ||~| -|~|| ·| ·|·|| ~|· „|·+ || + + |· ·| ~·|+
¬~~|ª|·||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·||·| ·|| · r r | ·|r |<| + ·~|‡„|·|· | + ‡·|P|~|·| ¬·|+ ~|· ·||· + | ~|· r · ·| ·|·|| ·||‡·|·|| ·||·| „|·+
|·|| ·| ·||. ·|||| r | + · ~||·|| + ‡~|· ¬··|+ ‡· ·|·||·| |·|| + | ~|„|·| + |~| ‡· ··|· ~|· ~|_ | + ‡~|· |-|-·|·|| |+ r | ·||‡·||
r | ·| |-| ‡|+ ‡·|| · „|| + + |·|·|-¬·|·|·| + | ~|„||·|·| + · | r | ·|‡· ¬·|+ | ·|·|·|| ~·|-||+ | ··|| ·|·|- ~|‡·|+ ·|·||~||
·| + · ‡·|·|·| ·|+ ‡| - |· | ·|· ·| + ~| ‡|+ |·| ¬·||· ·| ·|‡··|‡~|| r | ~|· ‡·|·|·| ·||· · + |· | · ~||‡|·|·| ·|· | |·||
+ + |· ·| ‡|„| ~·|·||··|| ·| ~·|‡·|+ ‡|P|· ·| ~|·|·|| -- ~||| |·|| ||·||·| + ¿|·|| + -|‡|··| ·|· + · -|| ~·|· ·|r | ·|<·||
| .·|+ ‡|·|· || ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·|·|·|| ~·|· „||·|+ |·| + |·|· ~| + ~·|·||·|| + ~·|·||· ¹¨ |·|| + | ~|‡·| ·| ‡|„| ·||· |·||
·|· + |~| ¨-¨. ·|‡|„|| + | ·||·|~|| ~·|· r | ·|< ·|+ ·|| |
‡|„| ·|·|||· ·| ‡· |·|
·||·|| ·|·|||· ·| ·|· ·· |+ r |·| ·|··|~|·| + | „|¬ ~|| + | · ª||‡+ | + · | r · ·|·|· · |·· ~|·| ·|-|| ·| ·¯. ·| ‡|„| ·|·|||· ·|
‡· |·| + | ··||·|·|| + | ·|| r · |·| ·||·| ·|·| + | ·|·||·|| ·|||| r | ‡|„| ·|·|||· ·| ‡· |·| ·|·|ª| ~|·||· r ‡·|·|+ ·||··|·| ·| ·|·|·
· |·· ·|· ‡|„| ·| ·|·|||· ·| + ·|‡| ·||·|¬ + || ·|· | + · || r ~|· · |·|·|‡|+ ··||·||+ ·|·| + | ·|« ||| r | ·¯. ·| r | ·|·|·
· |·· ·|·|||· ·| + |·|+ ·| + | ··||·|·|| ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| ·|| ·|| ‡|„| ·|·|||· ·| ‡· |·| + | ·|·|||· ·| + ·|‡| ·||·|¬ + || ·|· | + · ·| ~|·
~||·|| + | ·|r ~| + · ·| + ‡~|· ·||·||‡r | + · ·| ·| ¬·|·||·| + · || r |
‡|„| ·|·|||· ·| ‡· |·| + | ··|· | r ·|·|||· ·||·| ·|: | + | ·||·|||·| ·|r · | · ·|| ·||| ~|· ·|· |·|· | ||~| ‡|+ |·| + ‡~|· ~||·|| + |
~‡·|+ |· ·|··|·| + · ·|| ·|·|· |·|| ·| ·|r -||| ·|· | + · ·|| ‡+ | ·|·|||· ·| + ·|‡| ·|·|‡· · ·| ·|· ~||| ~||·| ~|· ··||·||·| -|~||·| ~|·
Section -1 (Hindi Article : Climate Change)
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· |·· |·| -|||·||~| ·| = ·|· ¬· + · ·||:|· |· | + | ·||·||‡r | + · ·| ·| ·|·|ª| -|‡·|+ | ‡·|-|| ·|+ | r ||‡+ ·|r ·|‡·|‡„·|| r | ·|+
‡+ ~||·| ·|r ~| ·| ··||· | ·|· ‡-|| ~|· ·|·|- -|‡|··| ·| + · ·| · ª| ·|+ |
‡|„| ·|·|||· ·| ‡· |·| .¨¨· + | ‡|·|·| r - ~|·|+ ·|r + | ·|¬ · | r ~|·|+ | - ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·| ~|<·| + | ·+ r | | .·|
‡|·|·| ·| ·|r ··|·· r | ·|||| r ‡+ ·|-|| · „|| + | ·|~|||·| + ·|·|·| ·| ·+ r |·| + | ·|¬ · | r | ·|r ·+ || .·|| ·||~| + |·|·|r ·|·|
·| ~|·||‡·|| r |·| ||~|| ·|~|||·| ·|·|·|| ·|· + ·| ‡· ª||·|| r |·|| | ·|r ·|· + ·|· |·|| ·| ·||· ·||·| ~|· |·| ·|·|·|·| ·| ·|·||· + ·||·|
·|| ‡· „|| r ¬·| ·|‡· ~|‡-|| + · || r | .·| |·| + ‡|„| ·|·|||· ·| ‡· |·| + | ·|r ·||·| · „| ·|‡+·|+ | r |
~|·||·| ·|· |
·|·| + | ·|+ |„| ~|·||·| ·|· | ·| · ·|+ · r | ·|·|| ·|· ·|r ·||| r | ·|r ª||· ·||+ ·|· |·|·|·|| ‡|‡+ · ·| + | ·|·|| + | ·||r ·|· ·|r ·|·|
·| · |+ || r ~|· .·|·| r ·||· ·|r ·|· ·|||·| ·|‡· -|| · r || r | ~|·||·| ·|· | + -|·| + ·|· · ·|· ·|r ~|| ·||· ·¯ö ·| ·|·|·
· |·· ·|·|||· ·| + |·|+ ·| + | ·|„||·|‡·|+ ·|‡· ·|· .·|··|.·||) ·| ‡|·||· -‡|·|„| ‡+ ·|| ·|·||| ~|·||·| ·|· | ·|· ‡|„|·|.|| + | ·|· + ·¯¯
·| ~|·||‡·|| + | ·|.| ‡·|·|+ ·||· ·|··|.·|| ~|· ‡|„| ·||·|·| ·|·|· ·| .· ·~·|··|~|) ·| ·|·|·|-·|·|·| ·|· ~|·||·| ·|· | ·| r |·| ||~|
-|·| + | ·||·|·| + ‡~|· ~|·||·| ·|· | ·|·|·|·| ·|‡·|‡| .·||·||~|·~|) + | ·|· ·| ‡+ ·|| | ~|·||·|--|·| ‡|·|·|| ·| ‡·|·|· ·| + ‡~|·
~|· |·· |·| ·|·|:||| r | ~|· -·|· + |· | ·|||·||| ·- ·| ·||· -| r . ~|· ·||·| ·-¯ ·| ~|·||·| ·|· | + ·|·||| + ‡~|· ‡|·|·||
·|··|~|·| + ¬ ·| ·| ·|·||·| r .| ·-¯ + ‡|·|·|| ·|··|~|·| ·| .·|·| ·|·|‡·|| ~·|·|·||·| ·|· ~·|· -·|· + |· | ·|r ·||·| ~|·||·| ·|· |
+ ·|·||‡··|| |· |+ ·| ‡·|· |-|·| ·||·+ ·|| ¬·||· ·| + | ‡·|·|· |·|| ~|· ·|·|·||~| + ~|· |·|-·|· |·| ·|·| ·|· · | + | ·||·||‡r |
‡+ ·||| ·|··|~|·| + ~·|·||· ·||·|| ·||···| ~|· ~|·||·| ·|· | ·| ·|‡· ||·| + · ·| ||~|| ·||·|||·| ·|‡|‡|‡·|·|| + ‡|¬ - |||||· ·|
·|·||·| ·|·| ~|·| ¬·||·|| + | ~·|·||·| ·|· · „|| ·| ·|‡|·|- || ·|· + | | ‡|·|·|| ·|··|~|·| ·+ « |·||·|| ·|·|:|||| r ~|· .·|·|
‡·|·|~|·| ~·||| ~|-·|| + ‡~|· + |·|·|| ·||·|·||| ·|r | r | ~|·||·| ·|· | + | + ·| + · ·| ||~| ‡|·|·|| ·|· ·||·· |·|~| ·||· |+ |~| + |
‡·||··|· ·-¯ ·| ·||+ |· ‡+ ·|| ·|·||| ~|·||·| ·|· | + -|·| + | · |+ ·| ||~| ~|·||·| ~·|+ ~| ¬·||· | ~|· ·||·|¬ + || ·|·||·|
+ ‡~|· ·||·· |·|~| ·||· |+ |~| ‡|·|·|| + + |·||·|·|·| + ·|r | + | ¬~~|ª| + · | r · ~|·||·| ·|· | + ·|· -|·| + ‡~|· ö ‡·||··|·
+ | ~|· |·· |·| ‡· |·| P||‡·|| ‡+ ·|| ·|·||| ·|-|| ·|· ··| · „|| + | .·| ‡|„|·| ‡· |·| ·|· ·||·· |·|~| ·||· |+ |~| + ¬· „·|| ·| ~|-·||
~|· .·|+ ·|„||·|·| + ·||·| · |·· |·| ·|· ·|· · |·| ·|‡|‡|‡·|·|| + | ·||·||‡r | + · ·| + ‡~|· ~|·|‡~|| ‡+ ·|| ·|||| r |
·|· + |· ·|·| |+ ·||· |+ |~| + ·||·|-·||·| ·|„||·|·|| + | ~‡-|·|‡·· ·|r | + · || |·| |+ .·|·| + |·|·|| ¬ ·| ·| ·|r | ·|·|||| · -||··|
·| ~·|+ ·|· + |· | ·| ·||· |+ |~| + | ~‡-|·|‡·· || + | r ·|·|· ·|„||·|·| ~|· ¬·|+ + < ‡·|·|~|·| ¬·||·| ~|-·| ·| ·||· r | ~|·||·|
·|·|:|||| ·|· ~|·| |+ ·¹ · „|| ·| r ·||-|· ‡+ ·| r |
·-¯ + ~| ·| · ‡-|·| w|| .·· |· + ‡· + ) + = ·|· ~|·||·| + | ·|· | ·| · · + | ·||| ·|~|·| + ·||· ·|· + |· | ·| +~||· |}~||· |+ |·|·|
.·||·+ ·||- . ¹ 4 ~|· ¯) ~|· ~·|+ r ~|··| .. ¹¨ .4¨.) + ¬·||· ·| ~|· ª|·|| + | + ·| + · ·|
+ + < ¬·||·|| + | ~||„·|+ || + | ·|r ·||·||| ·||· |+ |~| .·| |· r ·| |·||· ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r ||‡+ ·|·|·|-·|·|·| ·|· |.||‡·|+ ~|·
·||¬|‡·|+ | ~|+ ~|·|| + ~|·||· ·|· .·| ·|+ |· + | ·|·|| ·| ‡·|·||| ·||·| + ‡~|·| .·|·| ·|„||·|·| ‡+ ·|| ·|| ·|+ | .·| ·|+ |· +
~|+ ~|·|| + ·||· .·| ·|+ |· + | ·|·|| ·| · · + |· | ·||·| + | ·|‡+ ·|| + | |·| + · ·| + ‡~|·| ··¨ ·| ~|· ·| ··. ·| + |·|·|r ·|·|
··¯ ·| ‡|·|·|| ··¯ ·| ·||·· |·|~| ~|· ··· ·| ·|‡·|·| ·| ·|· ·|·|- ·|‡r ·+ · ·| ·| |·|| ~||·| + ‡~|· ·||· |+ |~| + | ·|·||·||‡·||
‡+ ·|| ·|·||| ~··| ·|+ |· + ‡·|·|~|·| ¬·||·|| + | „|¬ + · ·| ~|· .·| ·|·|| ·| ·|·| ‡·|·|~|·| ||| + | ·||<·| + ‡~|·| -|| .·|·|
·|„||·|·| ‡+ ·|| ·|·||| ··¨ ·| ~|· ·| ·|„||·|·| + |r | ~‡|‡· · +~||· | }~||· |+ |·|·| .·|| ·+ ·||-¹ . . ..
.¹ .4 .¯ .ö .¯) ~|· · | ‡|~||·|+ .·||~|· ) .+ |·|·| · · |+~||· |.· ~|· ‡·|·||.~| +~||· |+ |·|) + | „||‡·|~| ‡+ ·||
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·|·|| ·|·|‡+ ··. ·| + |·|·|r ·|·| ·|„||·|·| + |r | ‡·|·||.~| ·|#|·||.· ··|·||·+ ·|| ~|· ··|·||·+ ·|| + | ·||<| ·|·||| ··¯ ·|
·||·· |·|~| ·|„||·|·| + | ~‡|·| ¬ ·| ‡· ·|| ·|·|| ‡·|·|+ |r | ‡·|·||.~| ·||·||.· ·| ‡·|·||| ·||·| + | ·||·|·|| ·|·||·|| ·|·||| ··· ·|
·|‡·|·| ·|„||·|·| + |r | ·||·||+~||· |‡·|·|·| + ¬·|·||·| ·| |· | · · + |· | ·||·| .·|· ·|·|- « ·| ·| ·||r · + · ·|) + ‡~|·| .·| „||‡·|~|
‡+ ·|| ·|·||| .·| ·|„||·|·| + |r | ··|·||·+ ·|| + ¬·||· ·| ·|· ‡·|·|~|·| + ·||·|-·||·| ·|· -·|-|| + ·||·| .·|+ + |· |·||· ·|· ~|·||·|
~|·||·| + | ·||·|·|| -|| ·|·||·|| ·|·|||
~|·||·| ·|· | ~|·||·| + ~·|~| .~|-¹) ·| ~|+·||·|·| + ||·| ·|· ·||·| r || r | ·|r ·|r · |~|| ·|·| r ~|· |||||· ·| ·| ·|r |
· ~|-| r | ·|·|+ ¨ ‡·|‡~|·|·| ~·|~| ·| .·|+ ‡·|+ ¹ ~·| ·||·| ·||| r | ·¨ ·|‡|„|| ~|·||·| |||||· ·| + = ·|· | ‡r ··| ·||
·|·|||·|·|· ~| .·· |· |·+ ·|· ) ·| ·||·|| ·|||| r ·|| ·|·|| ·| ¨ ~|· ¯¨ ‡+ ~||·||· · .ö ·| ¹¨ ·||~|) = ·|· r | -||-|·|· ~|
.· |·||·+ ·|· ) + | |~|| ·| ·|·||·|| ·|· ·|· ~|·||·| r |‡·|+ |· + ·|· ·|+ r ·|| ~|· |·||·|.~| ~·|+ ·|·| ~|· ~··| »|||| ·| ·|· | r |||
r |
~|·||·| + | ·|· | ·|·| ·| ~|·| ||~| ··||· ||· r |‡·|+ |· + ·|· |·|·|·||- ·|| ‡|‡+ · ·| + | ~|„||‡·|| + · || r | ·|r P|||+ ·|· |·|·|·||
.·||| - ·||) ‡|‡+ · ·| + | ·|· | |· r · |+ · || r | .·| ·|+ |· ~|·||·| + | ·|· -|| + |·| r ·||· ·|||·| + ‡~|·| ·|r | ·|¬ · | r ~|·
·|r r ·| ·||·|| r | ~|·||·| + | ·|· | + | -|‡| ·| ·|· |·|·|·|| ‡|‡+ · ·| ~‡·|+ ·||~|| ·| ·|· || |+ ·|r ·||| r | ~‡·|+ ·|· |·|·|·||
‡|‡+ · ·| + | ·||~|·| r ~|· ~‡·|+ ·|~|·|·|| ~|· ·||·|·|~|·|·|| |·|| + ·|· ~|Ī|| + | ·||‡|·||‡·|· ~‡·|+ r |·|| ·||·|·| |~| ·|
+ ·|·||· | ·||·|| + | ¬·|·| P|· ·|| ·|·|· |·| ·||‡· |~| ·| -|‡| ~|· ·|·|·| ¬·||· ·| ·| + ·||| ·¯¨ ·| ·|·| ·||+ ·|· ·||~| + · ·|·|
·| ·| ·|+ | ‡· ·|| ‡+ ¬|· + | ~|· ·|·|· ·||‡·|+ ··|· + |·· ·| ‡·|+ ~|·| ||~|| ·||.· |·|·| ~|+·||.· ·| ~|·||·| + | ·|· | + |
·|+ ·||·| r |·| + | ~|„|+ | r || .·|+ ·||· ·| |.||‡·|+ ‡·|‡|| r ·| ·¯4 ·| ·||+ ·|· ·+ „|· |· · |~|· ~|· ·||‡· ·|| ·| ·||‡~|·||
·| ·| ·||| ~|·||·|| ‡+ +~||· |}~||· |+ |·|·| |||||· ·| ·| ‡|-||‡·|| r |+ · +~||· |·| + ·|· ·||·| ·||· | + · | r ~|· | ~|·||·| -|·| + |
+ |· ·| ·|·|| r | r ~|··| + ·|‡· · ·||· | r |·| ||~| ·||·||·| ·|· ·||·| -|| ··|| r | ·|· | ·|-||| · |~|| r | .·| ||·| |.||‡·|+ | ·| ~·|·|
·|r |·|·| + |·| + ‡~|·| ··¯ ·| · ·||·|·| ‡|.||·| ·| ·||·|~| ·|· ·+ |· ·||·| ‡+ ·|||
·-¨ + · „|+ + ·||· -| ·| ·|·| ·| .·|+ | ·||·|·| „|¬ r ~| |·| ·| · ‡-|·| w|| + = ·|· ~|·||·| + | ·|· | ‡··|· ¬ ·| ·| + ·|·||·
r | · r | r | ·|r · · · |||||· ·| ~|· w|||·| ·|·|||·| ·|· ~||·| ·||· ~|| + + |· ·| -|·|· ~| + .·| -||·| ·|· ·|·|··|| ~|· ·|-||· r |
~|·||·| + | ·|· | ·| -|·| ||~|| -|--|~| ‡··|· ¬ ·| ·| ·|: · r | r | ·|r ··¨ + · „|+ ·| .¨ ‡·|‡~|·|·| |·| ‡+ ~||·||· · ·| ~‡·|+
r | ·|·|| ~|· ¬·|+ ·||· ·|r .¨ ~|· .· |·| ‡+ ~||·||· · + · |·|· ·| + ~| ·|·||| ¬·||· | ·|#| + = ·|· ~|·||·| + | ·|· | ¹¨
·|‡|„|| ·|·|‡+ ·|· |·| ~|· ~··| ¬··| ~-||„| ||~| -|~|| ·| ~|·||·| + | ·|· | ·| -|·| + | · · ¯ ·|‡|„|| ·| ¹¨ ·|‡|„|| + ·||·| r |
··||·|·| ~|· ¬·|·| · · + |· | ·||·| + | + |·|+ ·|
·|| ·· |·|~| ·|| · | + | ~| + |r | ‡+ ~|r |~| ·ö · ·||·|·|| ·|· ‡·|·| ~|·| ~|·||·|| ·|·|| r ‡·|·|·| „||‡·|~| r - r ~|| + |·|·| ·||
+~||· |}~||· |+ |·|·| ~|· r ~|··| + ¬ ·| ·| ¬~~|ª|·||·| r | ·.- ·| +~||· |}~||· | + |·|·| + | ª||·| r . ~|· .·r ~|„·|·|·|·|+
·|·| ·||·|| ·|·|| +·||‡+ ·| ~|··| ·|·|·| |+ · r || r ~|· ‡|·|~|| ·|r | r ||| r | .·|·| ·|·| ·|r | ~|·||| .~·|-||· + ) ~|· ·|
~·|~|·|„||~| r ||| r | ·| ·|‡· ||·|„||~| r ~|· ·ö¨ + · „|+ ·| · + ‡· ·|· · · | ··|· + · |„|·|· | ··| + ·| ‡|~||·|+ | + |·|
~|· ~··| ~·|·|·||·|| ·| .·|+ | ¬·|·||·| ·|:|| ·|| · r | r | ·||·+ ·||- ·|·||·| |·|| |+ ||·|·|· ~| ·| · r || r ·||·+ ·||-. ·+
·|| · | |·|| |+ ~|· ·||·+ ·||-¯ ·|~|r ·|| |·|| |+ ||·|·|· ~| ·| · r || r | r ~|·|-¹¨ ·||·|‡·|+ ¬ ·| ·| ~|·| ·|:||·| ·|
¬·|·||·| + | ·|||| r ~|· ·|r ||·|·|· ~| ·| ö¯ ·||~| |+ · r || r |
Section -1 (Hindi Article : Climate Change)
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+ |·|·| · · |+~||· |.· ‡|~||·|+ + ¬ ·| ·| ¬·|·||·| + | ·|||| r ~|· ||·|·|· ~| ·| ‡|P|‡· | r |·| ·| + · |·| 4. |·| ~||| r |‡·|·||.~|
+~||· |+ |·| .-· |.+~||· |.·|·|) -|| ‡|~||·|+ + ¬ ·| ·| .·|·||~| + | ·|||| r ~|· ‡|P|‡· | r |·| ·| + · |·| ¯4 |·| ~|||
r |r |.· |·||·||}~||· |+ |·|·| .··|·||·+ ·||) + | ~‡·|+ .·|·||~| ·|r | ‡+ ·|| ·|||| r ·|· | ‡+ ·|| ·|·| .·|·||~| ·| ·|·|·| + ‡~|·|
.·|+ | -|| ·||· |+ |~| + |r | „||‡·|~| ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r |
r |.· |+~||· |}~||· |+ |·|·| .··|·||·+ ·||) ·||·+ ·|| + ··||·| ·|· ·|·|· + · ·| + ‡~|·| ·|r ~| ·|·|ª| ‡|··||·|+ + ¬ ·| ·| .·|+ |
‡|+ |·| ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| ·||| ·|r +~||· |}~||· |+ |·|·| + | |~|·|| ·| ·|r | + ·| ‡|·||„|+ r | ··|·||·+ ·|| -|| ~|·||·| + | -|·| ·| ·||·|· |·|
· || r ~|· ||·|·|· ~| ·| + · |·| 4 ·| ·¯ |·| |+ ‡|¬·||·| · r || r |
‡·|·||.~| ·||·||.· .·||··|-¹ ·||~|· ) ·|r ·|~·| + ·|~|| + |· ‡·|·|~|·| ~|· ‡·|·||| + ‡~|·| ·|||‡-|| + ‡·| ‡·|·|| + +|· ·· |.·|
¬·|·||· + ‡~|·| ·|ƒ|+ .}·|‡·|·|·· ) + ¬ ·| ·| .·|·||~| + | ·|||| r | ||·|·|· ~| ·| ‡|P|‡· | r |·| ·| .·| + · |·| ¨¯ |·| ~|·||
r |·||·||+~||· |·||·|·| .·||·||··|) ~|·||·| + | -|‡| ·|r ·||·| ||~|| ·|·|| || r ‡·|·| + · + ··|‡·|·|| ·| ··- ·| ·||·||· ·| ¬||· ·|
+ | ~·|·|‡| ·||·|| ·||| .·|+ | .·|·||~| ·| ·||r · + · ·| + ‡~|·| ··· + ·|„||·|·| ·| „||‡·|~| ‡+ ·|| ·|·|||
-||· | + | ·||· ·|·|ª| · ·||·|·|-+~||· |}~||· | + |·|·| ·||· |·|| r ~|··| ~|· r |.· |+~||· |}~||· |+ |·|·| .·|·||~| ·| ·||r · + · ·| ·|
‡·|·|·| ·| .¨¨¹ + ·||· -| ·| r ~|··| + | .·|·||~| ·| ·||r · ‡+ ·|| ·|·||| ~·|·| .¨¨- |+ ·||·+ ·|| + | -|| .·|·||~| ·| ·||r ·
+ · ‡· ·|| ·|·|| r | ·||· |·|| + | .·|·||~| .¨¨· + ~|‡ª|· |+ ·|· + · ‡· ·|| ·||·|·|| ~|· r |.· |+~||· | }~||· |+ |·|·| + | ·||r ·
+ · ·| + | ·|‡+ ·|| ~-|| ·||· | r | ·|-|| ·|-| ~|·||·| + | -|‡| ·|r ·||·| ||~| ··| ·|·| ||| + ‡|·|·|·| ·| ·|·|·| + ¬·||·|| ·|· ‡|·||·
+ · · r r ·|| ~·| |+ ·||· |+ |~| ·| „||‡·|~| ·|r | r |
‡|+ ‡·|| · „|| ·| r ~|··| ~|· +~||· |}~||· |+ |·|·| + |·|·| · · |+~||· |.· ‡·|·||.~| +~||· |+ |·| ~|· r |.· |·||·|| }~||· |+ |·|·| + |
.·|·||~| ·| ·||r · + · ·| + | ·|‡+ ·|| + ·|„| ··4 ~|· ··ö ·| ·|· | + · ~|| ·|·|| r ··· |+ ‡·|·||.~|·||·||.· + .·|·||~|
·| .¯ ·|‡|„|| + ·|| + | ·|·||| .¨¨ ·| ¯¨ ·|‡|„|| ~|· .¨¨¹ ·| ¯¨ ·|‡|„|| + ·|| + | ·|·||| .¨¨¯ |+ .·| .·|·||~| ·| ·|· |
|· r ·||r · + · ‡· ·|| ·|·||| .·| · |· |·| .¨¨4 |+ r |.· |+~||· |}~||· |+ |·|·| + .·|·||~| ·| ¹¯ ·|‡|„|| + | + ·|| ·|·|| ‡·|·|+
.·|·||~| ·| .¨¨ |+ ö¯ ·|‡|„|| |+ .¨¯ |+ ·¨ ·|‡|„|| ~|· .¨.¨ |+ ··¯ ·|‡|„|| + ·|| + | ·||·|| r | .¨¹¨ |+
‡·|+ · ª|-· ª||| + ¬: „·|| ·| r | .·|+ ¨¯ ·|‡|„|| .·|·||~| + | ~·|·|‡| r |·||| ··ö |+ r |.· |·||·|| }~||· |+ |·|·| ~|·
·||·||··| + | |· | .·|·||~| ·| ·||r · + · ·| + | + |·|+ ·| ·|·||·|| ·|·||| ‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| + | .·| ·|·|| + | .·|·||~| ·| ·||r · + · ·|
+ | + |·|+ ·| „|¬ + · ·| ·| ·|r ~| + · ·|·|·| + | · · · | ·|·||| .·|·| .·| ·||| + | ·||| ·|~||| r ‡+ ‡|+ ‡·|| · „| ||·|·|· ~| ·|
+ ~| ¬·|·|·| + ~‡·|+ |„| + ‡~|·| ¬·||· · |·|| r ~|· ¬·|+ ·||·| .·|+ ‡|··||·|+ | + | ~·|·||·| + ‡~|·| ~‡·|+ ‡|·|||·| ~|·
·||¬|‡·|+ | ·|·||·|·| r | ‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| + | + |·|+ ·| .·| ·|+ |· ·||-
» ··ö |+ r |.· |·||·||}~||· |+ |·|·| ~|· ·||·||··| + | |· | .·|·||~| ·| ·||r · + · ·|||
» +~||· |}~||· |+ |·|·| r ~|··| ~|· + |·|·|· · |+~||· |.· + | ·|~||. ··· |+ ··¯ ·| ·¯ + ~|·|| ·|· ~||·|| .¨¨¯ |+
¯¨ ·|‡|„|| + ·|| .¨¨¯ |+ -¯ ·|‡|„|| + ·|| ~|· .¨¨ |+ ·|· | |· r .·|·||~| ·| ·||r · + · ·|||
» .¨¨¹ |+ ‡·|·||.~| +~||· |+ |·| + .·|·||~| + | ··--.¨¨¨ + ~|·|| ·|· ·|· ~||·|| .¨¨¯ |+ ¹¨ ·|‡|„|| + ·|| ~|·
Section -1 (Hindi Article : Climate Change)
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.¨¨ |+ ¯¨ ·|‡|„|| + ·|| ~|· .¨¯ |+ ·|· | |· r .·|·||~| ·| ·||r · + · ·|||
» ‡·|·||.~|·||·||.· + .·|·||~| + | .¨¨. |+ ··¯ ·| ·- + ~|·|| ·|· ·|· ~||·|| .¨¨¯ |+ .·|·||~| ·| .¨ ·|‡|„|| + ·||
~|· .¨¯ |+ .·|·||~| ·| ·|· | |· r ·||r · + · ·|||
» .¨ö |+ r |.· |+~||· |}~||· |+ |·|·| + | .¨¯ + ·|· ·|· ~|· .¨4¨ |+ .·|·||~| ·| ·||r · + · ·|||
.·|·||~| ·| ·||r · + · ·| + + |·|+ ·| ·| ~|‡-|| ·|· |·|| + ¬·||· ·| ~|· ª|·|| · |·|| „||‡·|~| r | r |~||‡+ .·|+ ·||· -|| ‡|+ ‡·||
~|· ‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| ·| ~|‡-|| ·|· |·|| + ~||„·|+ .·|·||~| + | ·|· | + · ·| + ‡~|· ·||‡·|| ·||~|| ·| .·|+ ¬·||· ·| + | ~·|·|‡|
r ‡·|·|+ ‡~|· ~·| |+ ‡+ ·|| ‡|+ ~·| + | ·|r ·||·| ·|r | + | ·|. r !
·||· |+ |~| + ‡·|·|| |·| .¨¯¨ |+ ~|·||·| + | ~|-|·| ¬·|· | ·||~||- + ·|··| ~-||„| ·| + ·| ·| + ·| ¯¨ % ~|· · ‡-|·|| ·|··|
~-||„| ·| ¯¨ % ·|: ·||··|| ·|| ·||·|· | ·|· ·| ¨ ·|·|| ~‡·|+ ·|· | r |·||| .·|+ | ·|‡· ·||·| ¬·|· | ·|··| ~-||„| ·| ·|· || ·|·
· ·|·|| |·|| · ‡-|·| ·| ·||·|·|| ~~· | ||·|~|· -·|| .·|· |·|·|·||) ‡|‡+ · ·| + ¬ ·| ·| ‡· ª||. · ·||| ||·|·|· ~| ·| ~|·||·| + ~|-|·|
+ ‡~|· ‡·|··|· |· · ·||·|·|| + | ·||~|| ·||·| ·|·|| ~‡·|+ r |·||| .·|+ ‡·|‡r ||·| ~|· -|| · · ||·| ·||·|| ·||·|-·|~|·||·|| + ·|· + ·
‡·|‡~|·|·| ~‡·|+ ·||·|~| ·|~|·||·|| + ·|· + ¯ ‡·|‡~|·|·| ·||·|~| ~|· ~|ª| + ·||‡|·||‡·|· + ¹¨ ‡·|‡~|·|·| ~‡·|+ ·||·|~|| +
¬ ·| ·| ·||·|·| ~|··||
‡|„| ·|·|· |·| ·| ~|·||·| + ~|-|·| ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·|| ‡|‡|·||| ~|· ~|· |·· |·| ·||·|| ·|·|| ·|·||‡|·|| ·| ‡·|·|· ·| ·|
‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| + | ·|· · + · ·| + ‡~|· |‡„|+ ·|·|||· ·| ·|‡|·|| .·||.·+ ) + | ··||·|·|| + | ·||| ·||.·+ ·|‡· ||·|„||~|
~·|·||··||~| ||~| · „|| ·| ~|·||·| + ~|-|·| + ‡~|· ‡·|··|· |· ·|· |·|| + | .·|·||~| ·| ·||r · + · ·| + | ·|‡· ·||·|·||~| ~|·
‡+ ·||+ ~||·|| + | ·|:||| · || r ! ·||.·+ ·| .·| ·|‡· ·||·|·||~| ~|· + |·|+ ~||·|| + ~|·|| ··ö ~|· .¨¨¨ + ·||·|
‡·|··|‡~|‡ª|| ¯ · „|| + | ·|r |·||| + ‡~|· ö¨ ‡·|‡~|·|·| · |~|· ·| ~‡·|+ + | ·|·|· | · | r
~·|· ·|·||·| ·|~||¬ ·| ·|~|·||‡· ·|| ·|+ ·|·|· |··| .·· |‡·|·|| r ·|· | + ·||ª·||·| ~|||‡|·|| ‡~|·|~|‡·|·|| ·||~|·· ¬ ·|| ·| P|
·~||||‡+ ·|| ||‡·|‡+ ·||·| |+ ·|‡·|·||·| ·|+ ·| ~|· ¬··|‡+ ·||·|| ·||.·+ ·| r |.· |+~||· | }~||· |+ |·|·| ~|· ‡·|·||.~| ·||·||.·
+ | ~·|·||~| ·| ·||r · + · ·| ·| .·| · „|| + | ·|· · + · ·| + ‡~|· ö¨ ‡·|‡~|·|·| · |~|· + | ~‡|‡· · + |·| ‡·|‡¼·|| ‡+ ·|| r |
|.||‡·|+ | ·| ~·|·||·| ·|· ‡+ ·|| r ‡+ ~·|~| ·||·| |·|| + · |· |·| ~|·||·| -|·| ~·|·| ·|·|·| ·|· ·|· ·|· ·|r ·| ·||··|| ~|· ‡+ ·
·||· -·||· .·|·| ‡|·|· || ¬ :||·| ~|·|| „|¬ r |·|| ·| + · |·| .¨¯¨ |+ ~|·||·| ·|· | ·||·||··| ·|· ·|· ~| ·||··||| ·|r ~·|·||·| .·|
~|·||· ·|· ·|· ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r ‡+ ·||· |·|~| ·||· |+ |~| + | ·|· | |· r ~||·| ‡+ ·|| ·||··||| ~|·||·| ·|· | ‡+ ~|r |~| ·|r · ·||· ·|„||~|
~|··|| ·| r | +~||· |}~||· |+ |·|·| ¬·|·|·| ·| + ·|| + ·|||·|· ·|·|||·|·|· ~||·| ·||· ·| ~·| -|| ·|: · r | r .|·||‡·| ‡·|·|~|
||·|·|· ~| ·| | + ·| r | · r r ) +·||‡+ ~|··| ·|·|·| |+ ·|·| · r ·| ||~| +~||· |}~||· |+ |·|·| + | ·|| ¬·|·|·| r | ·|+ | r |r
·|·|||·|·|· ~| ·| ~·| -|| ·|:·|| ·||· | r | + · ‡·|‡„·|| +~||· | }~||· |+ |·|·| .·|·| ·||·+ ·||- ~|· ·||·+ ·||-¹) + |·|·|
· · |+~||· |.· ~|· ‡·|·||.~| +~||· |+ |·| + | ·|·|· || P|· · r | r | ··||· ||· r ~|··| + | ·|·|· || ·| |‡- ·||· | r | |·||
r |.· |+~||· |}~||· |+ |·|·| ~|· r |.· |}~||· |+ |·|·| .·||·| · ª|) ·|: · r r +·||‡+ | +~||· |}~||· |+ |·|·| .·|| .·|·||~| ·| ·||r ·
‡+ · ·|| · r r ) + ‡|+ ~·|| + ¬ ·| ·| .·|·||~| ‡+ · ·|| · r r | ~|·||·| ·|· -|| + | ·|+ ~||| ·|-|| r . r +·||‡+ ‡|.||·| ~|·
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¬¬|·| ~|·||·| + | -|·| + · ·| ||~| · ·||·|·|| + ‡|+ ~·|| + | ‡|+ ‡·|| + · ·| ~|· ¬·|+ | ·|||·||·||+ · ·| + · ·| ·| ·|+ ~| · r r |
‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| + ·|·|-| ·|·||‡|·||
-||· | ~|· ·||·| ·|·| ·|< ‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| + | ·||··|·|| ¬·|·|·| ·| + ·|| ~||·| + | ·|‡|·|- ||~| + · |·|· ·| ~||·| + ·|·||·| ‡+ ·
·|| · r r ·|| +·||· | ·||· |+ |~| + ~·|¬ ·| ·|r | r | -||· | + ~| ·~||·|~| ·||·| r |¬·| ¬·|·|·| ·| ·||~| 4 ·|‡|„|| ·||·|· |·| + · ||
r ~|· ·|‡| ·|‡+| ¬·|·|·| + ·||·|~| ·| -||· | + | ·||·|· |·| + ~| |‡„|+ ~|·||·| + | + · |·| .¹ ·|‡|„|| r | ·|r | |·|r r ‡+
~-|| |+ r ·||· | ·|r ¡ ‡·· + |·| · r | r ‡+ -||· | - |· | ·||·| r |¬·| ·|·| ¬·|·|·| ·| ·|·|‡·|| ‡+ ·|| ·|‡|·|- || + | ·||+ |· ·| ‡+ ·||
·||·| .·|+ ~‡|‡· · -||· | + | ¬·| ·|· |+ ·|r ·|·| ·| + . · „|+ ~|·|·| ‡·|·| ·|· ·|· ~|·| ‡|+ ‡·|| · „|| - |· | ·||··|·||
¬·|·|·| ‡+ ·|| ·|| · r | r | r ·||· | ~|·||· | + + · |·| ¯¯ ·|‡|„|| ‡r ··| + | ·|r ·| ~-|| |+ ·|||·||‡·|+ = ·|| |+ ·|r | r | ·|:|
·|||·| ·|· + | ·||·| ·|· | + · ·| ~|· ¬·| ~||·|| |+ ·|||·||‡·|+ = ·|| ·|r ·||·| ‡·|·|+ ·||·| .·|+ | ~-||| r + | + ||·|· ·| -||· |
~|· ~··| ‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| ·| ·||·| r |¬·| ·|·|| + | ¬·|·|·| ·|:·|| ~||‡·|·|| r | ·‡|r |‡·|+ ¡ ‡·· ~|· ¬·|·|·| + ·||·|· | ·|·
+ | · ª|| r · ‡|+ ‡·|| · „| ·|‡+ .·| ·|·|··|| + ·|‡| ‡·|··|· |· r .·|‡~|· ¬·r ·||··|·|| + ~·|·| ¬·|·|·| + | ·| + |~| ‡··|·
+ · ·|| r |·|| ·|‡~+ ¬·|·| + ·|| ~||·|| r |·||| .·| ·|+ |· ‡|+ ‡·|| · |·· | + | .¨. + ·||· ~|· -|| ·|· | ·|‡|·|- ||~| + ·||·| ~|·|
~|·|| ·||‡r ·| .·|·| ¬·| ·|·· ‡|+ |·| ·||··|| + ‡~|· ··|·· ‡· „|| |·| r | ·|+ ·|| ‡·|·|+ ·||··|·| ·| ‡|+ |·|„||~| · „| ¬·|·|·|
+ ·| + · ·| + ¬·||·|| ~|· ··||·|| ‡|+ |·| ·| -||·||· |· r | ·|+ | r | -||· | + | ·||·|·|| r ‡+ ·||··|·|| ¬·|·|·| ·| ·||:| |r ·| + · ·|
+ | ¬·|·|· -||·||· |· |·|·| + |·|~|| ·|·||·| ·|‡| ·|‡· ‡·|- || ·|· r | ~|·||‡· | r | ·|+ || r |
·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·|· ·||·||··|| ‡|+ ‡·|| · „|| + ·|‡· ¡ „·| ·| ‡|·||· ‡+ ·|| ·|||| r ~|· .·| ·|· |·|| ·||···| = ·|| ¬·|~|··|||
~|· ‡„|-|| ·|·|| ‡|+ |·||·|+ ·|¬ · || + ·||·| ·|r | ·||<| ·||||| -||· | ·|·|· · |·· ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| + ·||+ + ·|„|·| ~|· ~··|
~|· |·· |·| ·|··|~|·|| ·| .·| ·||| ·|· ·||· · || · r | r ‡+ ·|·· ·||¬|‡·|‡+ ·|| + | ‡|+ |·| ‡·|~|·|~| + · ‡+ ·|| ·||· ~|· ·||·|· |
·|·|||· ·| ~·|+ ~| ·||¬|‡·|‡+ ·|| + | |+ |~| r ·|||‡· | ‡+ ·|| ·||·|| ·||‡r ·| .·| ·||| + | ~|„|+ | r ‡+ ‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| + | ·|‡·
‡·|·|| -|‡|·|‡| ‡+ · ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| · ··|-||| + ·| + · ·| + ¬·||·| + · ·| + | + r | ·||··|| || ¬·|+ ~|‡·|+ ‡|+ |·| ~|· ·|· |·||
· · + · ·| + ·|·||·|| ·|· · ··|-||| ·|<·||| -||· | + | ·||·|·|| r ‡+ ‡·|··||‡+ | || ·|r ·||·|·| r
·|·· ·||¬|‡·|‡+ ·|| + | ~||„·|+ ||
‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| ·| ¬·|·|·| + ·| + · ·| + ·|·||·|| + ‡~|· ~·|‡-|| ·||¬|‡·|‡+ ·|| ·| ·|·|‡·|| ·||‡- + ·|·|· | ~‡·|+ |· | + ·||· ·|
·+ ·|·|:|||| + · ·| + | ~||„·|·|+ || r | ·|r ·|·|:|||| ·|r |·||‡· ·|| + | · |+ ·||·| + ‡~|· + |·||··|‡· + ~·| + | ~‡·|||·| ~||.·|‡·|·|
·|·|·|| ·|+ ~| ·|·|:||| + ·|·||·||·|· ‡+ ·|| ·|| ·|+ || r |
‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| + ·|··|·| ·|·||·|·|| .·|·| ·||·||·||·|) ·|· ~|·||‡· | ·||¬|‡·|‡+ ·|| + | ~-|| ~-||| r ~·||| | ~·|‡·|+ ·|r ·|| r |
‡|+ |·|„||~| ~|· ‡|+ ‡·|| · „|| + ~·|·|·||·| ·| ‡|+ |·| ·|··||·|| + ·||·| ·|r ·||·||·|+ ~·|·|·||·| ·| ‡|+ |·| ~‡·|||·| r ||‡+
.·| ~-||| + | · · ‡+ ·|| ·|| ·|+ | .·| ¬¬·| ·|·|| + |·| + ·||··|·| ·| ~·||·| ‡· ·|| ·|| ·|+ || r ‡·|·|+ | ··||·|·|| ‡+ ·|| ·|r ·|-||·|
‡|·||·| ·|··||·| ·| + | ·|| ·|+ || r ~|· ·|||·||·| ·|· | r |·| ||~| ·||‡- + ·|·|· | ~‡·|+ |· .·| + |·| - |· | ·||· ·| ‡+ · ·|| ·|+ |
r | .·|+ | ‡·|·||· ·| ‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| ·| ‡· ·||·||| ~||·|| ~|· ‡|+ ‡·|| · „|| ·| ||‡·|‡··|+ ~||·|| + ~|·||· ·|· ‡+ ·|| ·|| ·|+ ||
r | .·|+ ~‡|‡· +| -||·||· |· ~·|·|·||·| ·| ‡|+ |·| ·|··||·|| - |· | ·||‡- + ·|·|· | ~‡·|+ |· | + | -||·||· |· | + ·||·| ·|r ·||·||·|+
~·|·|·||·| ·| ‡|+ |·| ·|‡· ·||·|·||· ·|·||‡~|| + | ·|| ·|+ || r | ·|·· ‡|+ |·| ~|· ·|~|||·| + ·||· ·| ·‡„|·||-·|„||| -||·||· |· |
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.·| ‡· „|| ·| + · ¬· |r · ·| ·|„| + · || r |
‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| ·| ··||·|| ‡|+ |·| + | ·|:||| · ·| ·| ·|·· ‡|+ |·| ·||··|| .·||· |··|) ~·|·|| -|·||| ‡·|- + · ·|+ | r | .·|·|
‡|+ ‡·|| · „|| + | -|| + ·| ~||·|| ·|· ·||··|·|| ¬·|·|·| + | ~·|·|| ·|‡|·|- || ·|· | + · ·| ·| ·|· · ‡·|~|| r | ·|r ·||| ··|·· ¬ ·|
·| ··||·| ·| · ª|| ·||·|| ·||‡r · ‡+ + |·|·| ·||·||· + | ·|+ ~||| ‡|+ ‡·|| · „|| - |· | ·||··|·|| ¬·|·|·| + ·|· ·|·|·|| ·|‡|·|- ||·
·|· | + · ·| ·|· ‡·|-|· r | .·|+ ~‡|‡· · ·||· |··| + | ¬·| ª||‡·|·|| ‡·|·|+ | |·|r ·| r ·|||· ·| ~||·|| ·| ·|:||· | r ||| r + |
-|~||-||‡| ·|r ·||·| ‡~|·|| ·|·|| r ~|· ¬·r · · + · ·| + ·|·||·| + · ·| + | ~||„·|+ || r |
~·| ·|r ··|·· r | ·|·|| r ‡+ |‡„|+ ·|· ·|· ·||·| r |¬·| ·|·|| + | + ·| + · ·| + ¬·||·|| + ·|·||·| r | ·||¬|‡·|+ | ·|·|·|| ~·|·|·||·|
~|· ‡|+ |·| |·|| ¬·|+ | r ·|||· ·| -|| ·|r ·||·|·| r | ‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| ·| ~·|+ ~|·| + ‡~|· ~|‡·|+ ‡|+ |·| ~|· ·|· |·|| ¬··|~|·|
·| ··|·+ ~|. ~|· ~|· |· ·|·||·|·|| + | ‡|·|·|·| ·|·|··|| + | ·|·||·||·| ·|r | r | -||· | + | ·||·|·|| r ‡+ ·|r |· ‡|+ ~·| ·|r r |·||
‡+ .·| ·|·||·|·|| + | ·|·|·| + |·|·| ·||·||· ·| ·||·| ‡+ ·|| ·||· ·|·|| ‡+ ·||· |··| ·| ·||·| ~|·| ·|· · | ·|‡|„|| ~||| ·| · |· ·|·||·|
·|· r |‡·|~| ‡+ ·|| ·|| · r | r |
-||· | + ·|·||·|
-||· | ·|· + |· ·| r |~| + |·|| ·| ~·|+ ··| ¬·||·| ‡+ · r ‡·|·|+ | ·||·|| ~·|· ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| + | ·|·|··|| + ·|·||·||·| ·|·
·|<|| r | .·|·| = ·|| ·|· -|·| ~|· = ·|| + ‡+ + |·||| .·|·||~| ·| ·|·||· ~|· = ·|| ·|-|·||| ··|· | + | ··||·|·||; ‡·|·|~|| -|~|
·| ·|·||· ; ·|·|‡·|·|~|| ~|· ~-|·| = ·|| »|||| + | ·||·||r ·|; ·|·· + |·|~|| ·||¬|‡·|‡+ ·|| + | ·|:||| · ·||; + |·|~| + | ·|~||. ~|·
+ |·|~| + | ·|-|·| ¬·|·||·|; |·||· |·|·| ~|· |·|| + | ·|· -|·|; ·|·| + ·|·||· ·| + ·||; ·||||·||| + ‡~|· ·|·· ·| + ·| + |·|·| ||~|
.·|·| + | .·|·||~|; ·||·| · ‡·|· · |·|·||· ·|·||‡~|·|| + | ·||·||‡r | + · ·||; ·|·|||· ·| ·|·||·|| ·|·|·|·| ·|·| ¬·||·| ·|·|ª| r |
.·| ·|-|| ¬·||·|| + | ·|r ·|‡· ·||·| ‡·|+ ~|| r ‡+ ·|+ ~| P|· ~| ¬·||· + ·|· -| ·| -||· | + | = ·|| ·|r ·||| ·| + ·|| ~|·|| r ·||
·¯. ·| ·||·||·|| ·|· -| ·| ·||· |·|| + ·|‡| · |~|· ¨¹¨ + ·||~|. ·|| ~|· .¨¨¹ ·| P|· + · ·||· |·|| + ·|‡| · |~|· ¨·
+ ·||~|. · r ·|·||| ·|r ·|·|·|| + ·|·||·| r | · „| ·| = ·|| -|~| + ‡|+ |·| + | ~|‡·|+ ‡|+ |·| ·| ~~|·| · ª|·| + ·|-|||+ |· | ¬·||·|
‡+ · ·|· r | ‡+ ~|r |~| ·||·|‡·|+ = ·|| -|~| + | ‡|+ |·|· · .¯ö ·|‡|„|| ||‡·|+ r ·|·|‡+ ·|+ ~| P|· ~| ¬·||· + | ‡|+ |·| · ·
- ·|‡|„|| ·| ~‡·|+ r | = ·|| + | ·|r ·||| ||~| ·|-|| ·|·|ª| -|~|| ·|·| .··||| ·~·|·||‡·|·|·| ¬|· + + |·|·| ·||·|· ~|‡· ·|
= ·|| + ‡+ + |·||| ¬·|·||·| + | ·|· |‡„|+ ·|· + ·|·||·| r | ‡|„|·| ¬ ·| ·| ·||·|· -|~| ·| -||· ||·| ·|·|~|| + | = ·|| ‡+ + |·||
‡|„| ·| ·|·|·| ~‡·|+ r | + ~| ·||·|‡·|+ = ·|| ·| ~-|·| = ·|| + | -||·||· |· | ~-|| -|| ¹4 ·|‡|„|| r |
-||· | ·| ~|‡·|+ ‡|+ |·| + ‡·|· ~| ¯¯ |·|| + · |· |·| ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·|·|·|| ‡|‡-|·| ·|·|··||~| + r ~| + ‡~|· ·|·|ª| + |·|+ ·|
~·|·||· r | .·|+ ~|·|| ·|+ ||| ·||||·|| ~|· ·|· -|·| |· |·| ·|· -|·| ·||: ·| ·|ª|| ‡·|·|~|·| |·|| · |r | ·|<| ·| ~|P| ‡·|·||.
·|‡· ·||·|·||· ·|~|‡· ·|| ‡·|·|~|·| ª||¬ ·|· -|| ¬·||·| ·|ª|| ·|‡|· |·|| + ·|~| ~|· + . ~··| ¬·||·| „||‡·|~| r | .·| ·|-|| + |·|+ ·||
+ | ·|+ ~| P|· ~| ¬·||· ·| r · |·| + . ·|‡|„|| ·||·|· |·| · r || r | ‡|·| ·|~|| ·| .¨¨¯ + ~·|·| ·|·|· -||·|·| ·| ¬~~|ª| ‡+ ·||
·| ‡+ ·|·|||· ·| ~|· |·| ·|~||~|·| ·| ·+ ‡|„|·|.| ·|‡·|‡| + ·|· ·| + | ·|‡+ ·|| „|¬ + · · | r ‡·|·|·| ‡|‡-|·| -|~|| ·| ·|~|||·|
·|‡· ||·| + ·|·|ª| ~|· -|· |·|·|· ‡|„|·|.| „||‡·|~| ‡+ · ·|| · r r | ·|r ·|‡·|‡| -||· | ·|· ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| + ·|-||| + | ~··|·|·|
+ · ·|| ~|· ¬·| ¬·||·|| + ·||· ·| ·|:||| · ·|| ·|| r ·| -|‡|··| ·| ¬· |·| r |·||
Section -1 (Hindi Article : Climate Change)
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|·|||· ·| ~|· ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·||·||
-||· | ·| ·||·|| · |·|·| ¬·| ·||~|·|| ·|·||·|| ~|· ¬·|+ | ·|· -|·| + · ·|| ·|r | ·|· |·|| ·|· ·|· | ~|·
¬·|+ | ·‡|r |‡·|+ ·|r ·| -|| r | + · ·|·|· |·|| ·| ·|< + | + |· ·| ·| ·|r ~| ·||·|·|| + | ·|||| r
~|· ·|< ·| -|·||| ·||·|| ·|||| r | ·|· -||· | ·| :|· ·|· | + | ·|‡|~| ·||·|·|| ~|·| r ·|r | ·||·||
~|· ·|<| + :|· ·|· | + | ·|· -|| + | ·|||| r ~|· ·|·|‡- + ‡~|· ¬·|+ | ·|·|| + | ·|||| r |
‡r ·· ·|·| ~|· ·||- ·||·|| ~|· ·|<| + | ·|··||·| + · | r ~|· ¬·r ·||‡|| ·||·|| + | |· r ·||·||
r | ·||- ‡-|-| ·|| ¬·|· „| · ·| + ‡~|· ·|· | ·|~||·|·||·| · r | r | -|| |·|| + |~| ·| ·||~||
··|‡·|| + · · | r ||‡+ ·||·| ~|· ~+ ‡· | ·||·| ·|·· ·| r | ·||· | ·|·| ·|·| ·| ~+ ‡· | · |·||
ª||·|| ·|·|| r +·||‡+ ·|·| ·|·|· |·| · |·| + | ·|·|·||| ·|||·| ·||·|| r ‡·|·| ·|« ·| + | ~·|·|‡| r |·||
·||‡r ·|
· |·· |·| |·|||· ·| ·| ·||‡· ‡··|‡|+ | ·||·
·|·|||· ·| ·| |·| ·|~||~|·| ·| · |·· |·| |·|||· ·| ·| ·||‡· ‡··|‡|+ |·| ‡|+ |·| ·||· + | · „| ·| |·|||· ·| + | ·||·||r ·| ·||·|| · |·|·|
·||‡· ‡··|‡|+ |·| ·|·| ··||·|·|| ~|· ·||‡· ··|‡|+ |·| ‡|+ |·| ·|‡|‡|‡·|·|| ·|~||·| + | ‡·|··|· |· | r | .·|+ |r | ¬·||< |·| -|~|| |·||
|·|| · |·· |·| ¬¬|·|| ~-|·||· ··|| ~|· ~··| ·|· ‡-|| -|~|| + ·||·|-·||·| ·||‡· ‡··|‡|+ |·| ¬ ·| ·| + ·|·||· ·|‡„·|·|| ‡r ·||~|·|
~· ||~|| ~|· ·|‡„·|·|| P||· | ·|· ‡|„|·| ··||·| · ·|| -|| ·||· + | ‡·|··|· |· | r |
· |·· |·| |·|||· ·| + |·|+ ·| ·||·|·||
· |·· |·| |·|||· ·| + |·|+ ·| · |·· |·| |·|||· ·| ·| ·||‡· ‡··|‡|+ |·| ·||· + | ~·|·|| ·||·|·|| r ·|| |·| ‡|+ |·| ··|‡·|·|| + | ||·|‡|+
~|· ·||··||‡·|+ ·|·|·|·| · || r ·|| ·|·|· |·| ·|·|·|·| + ·||··||‡·|+ |+ · ·| + | ‡· „|| ·| ¬· |·|| ·|·|| ·|<| + · ·| r | |·| ‡|+ |·|
··|‡·|·|| + | |·| ¬·|ª|· ·|· ·|· ·|·|· |·| ·|·|·|·| ·|‡·|‡|·|| + ·| P| + ¬ ·| ·| + ~·|·|| ~|· ··||·|·|| + | ·|·|| r ||‡+ ·|·|||
+ | -||·||· |· | + ·||·| |·|| + | ~|·|~| ‡|+ |·| r | ·|+ | ·||·|·|| + ~|-·| r -
» ·| ·| · | ·| | + | ·| ‡ + ·| -|| ·| | · | · | + ·| ‡ · · · | | + ‡ | + ·| ·| | ·| ·| | + | · -| | ~| · ·| · -| ·| + · ·| | |
» ·| ·| | ·| | + | ª| · | · | r | · | | ·| | + ¬·| <· | ~| · ·| | - ‡ | ‡ | · | | | + · | + ·| | ·| + | · | + ·| |
» · | | ‡ · ‡ ··| ‡ | + | + | · | ·| ¬ - | · · | ·| | | · ·| + | ·| · -| ·| ~| · · | | ‡ · ‡ ··| ‡ | + | ·| - ‡ | + | ·|
» ·|||| ·| ~|· ¬·|+ ~|·| ·||·| ·||+ ‡|+ ·|·||·|·|| + ·||| ·|·|·|·| + ‡~|· ·||| ·|· |·| ·|·|· ·|| + | -|·||| ·|« |·|| |
» ~|·| ·||·||·| + ‡~|· ¬·||· + || ·|·||·||| ~| · · |P| + |~||·||| + ·||·|+ ¬: „·|| + | ·| · | + · ·|||
» | ·| | + -| | | · ~| · ~| ·|· | |·| · r · r ~| | ·| | + ·| | |·| ~| · ·| | ‡ | + | + ·| · ·| ·| ·|| · ~| ·
» ·||·||·| ~||·|| + | · |·|·||· -|·||| ·| ·|·||· + ‡~|· ¬·|+ | ·|‡|-|| -|·||| ~|· · -||| + | ·|« |||
·||·|·|„||·|| ·|r |<| ‡·|~|| ·|‡r | ·|-|| .- · |··|| + |·|·|||·| -|~|| + | .·| + |·|+ ·| ·| „||‡·|~| ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r | ·|·|r |· | + |
·|·|||·| + ‡·|· ‡r | -|~|| + | + ‡·| -|~| ·|·||·|| ~|· ~|·|·||·| ·||·|| + | ·|·|¬·||· ·| + | -|| ·||<| ¬· |·|| ·|·|| r |
Section -1 (Hindi Article : Climate Change)
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¬·|~|‡··|·||
.¹ ·||·| .¨¨·) + ~| ¯¯·¨ ~||ª| r +· ·|· -|~| + | · ª|-||~| + ‡~|· .ö¯¯.ö + · |< ¬ ·|·| + | ~||·|| ·| .¨¨¨-¨ ·|
·+ · |· ·||··|| + | „|¬ ~|| + ·||· ·| ¯·¯ ·+ · |· + |·||‡·|| + | ·|| ·|+ | r | .·| + |·|+ ·| + ~|·|| + ‡·| -|‡·|·|| +
·|·|||·| ·|· ‡|„|·| ··||·| ‡· ·|| ·|·|| r ~|· ·|||æ·|· · |··|| ~|· ~|‡<„|| ·| ¹4 ·|··|·|··| ·|‡· ·||·|·||~| + | ·|·|· | · · | ·|·|| r
|
¹ ·||·| .¨¨· + | · |·· |·| |·|· |·|·| + |·|+ ·| + + |·||·|·|·| + ‡~|· |·| .¨¨--¨· + · |· |·| ·+ · |· + | ¹4¯ö. + · |<
· ·|·| ·||· | ‡+ · ·|· | ~·|·||·|| + · |< .¨ ~||ª| ·|r ·||‡·|·|| + | ~||-| ·|r ·||| r · · + · |< ¯¨ ~||ª| + |·| ‡· |·|| + | ·|·|·|
‡+ ·|| ·|·|| | .·|·| .. ·|‡|„|| ~·|·|‡·|| ·||‡| ~|· ¹- ·|‡|„|| ~·|·|‡·|| ·|·|·||‡| „||‡·|~| ·|| |
·|‡· ·||·|·|| ·||·|| ·| + · |·| ¯¹ ~||ª| ·|r ·||‡·|·|| ·| .¯ ·|‡|„|| ~·|·|‡·|| ·||‡| ~|· . ·|‡|„|| ·|·|·||‡| + | „||‡·|~| ‡+ ·||
·|·|| | ·· | ·||.· ·|‡|‡|‡·| + | ~||-| + · |·| · ~||ª| .¨ r ·||· ·|r ·||‡·|·|| + | ‡·|~|| ‡·|·|·| .¹ ·|‡|„|| ~·|·|‡·|| ·||‡| ~|·
.¯ ·|‡|„|| ~·|·|‡·|| ·|·|·||‡| ·| ·| |
·||‡· ‡··|‡|+ | ‡|+ |~| ·|~| ..· |·+ ) ·||·|·||
·||‡· ‡··|‡|+ | ‡|+ |·| ·|~| ..· |·+ ) ·||·|·|| ·-. ·| · -|| ·|~||~|·| - |· | ·||· -| + | ·|·|| ·|| | .·|+ | ¬: „·| |·|· |·|·| ‡·|^ |
·|· -|·| ~|· ·|~| ·|·||·|·| ·|·|·|·| + ·||··|·| ·| ·||‡· ‡··|‡|+ | |~| + | ‡+ · ·| ·|·||· ·| + ‡~|· · · -· · |·| + -|~|| ·| |·|· |·|·|
~|· ·||‡· ‡··|‡|+ | ‡|+ |·| ·| ·|||‡·||‡·| + ·|·||‡· ·|| + | „||‡·|~| + · ·|| r | ·|r ·||·|·|| ‡·|· ~|| ·||· ·||·|·||~| ·| + |·||‡·|| r
|
||·||·| ·| ·|||‡·||·| + ·|·||‡· ·||-|~||·| ·|··|+ ‡·|·|| + ·||··|·| ·| · ·||‡· ‡··|‡|+ | + |·| ·|~| ·|· |‡~|·|·| r | ·| ‡„|||‡~|+
¬·|· |ª|·· · |·|··||·| + ·||~| ·|··| ·|··| ~|· + „·||· ‡·|·||· |·|« ¬·|· |ª|·· ·||‡·||·|· .·|‡„·|·|) ~|· ~·|·| + r ~||·|||
·| + |·| + · · r | r |
·|·||‡|| ·||·| |·| ·||·|·|| ·+ |·|
·+ ·|. ·|·||‡|| ·+ |·| r ·||·|·|·||·|| |·| ·||·|·|| | ·|| ·|·||·||| · |·| ·|··||·|| + | |·| · |·|·| ~|· |·| · ‡r | -|‡·|·|| ·| ·||·||· |·|·|
+ ‡~|· „||‡·|~| + · ·|| | -||· | ·| ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·|· ~·|·|| · ·|·||‡| + ~|·|| ¹¨ ·|·| .¨¨- + | ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·|·
~·|·|| · |·· |·| + |·| ·||·|·|| + | ·||· | ‡+ ·|| | · |·· |·| + |·| ·||·|·|| ·+ ··|| · ·|·||‡| + | |+ |~|| + · || r ·|| ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·|
~|· -||· | + ‡|+ |·| ·|·| + | · |P|+ |~||·||| + | ·||·||‡r | + · || r |
·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·|· ~|· · |·· |·| ~‡-|·||·|
· |·· |·| ·||· ~‡-|·||·| + | ¬: „·| ·||· ·||¬|‡·|‡+ ·|| + ~~|||| ~··| ·|||+ · ·| ~|· ·|· ·||·| = ·|| ||·| = ·|| ·| ·|‡|+ ·|·| ·|·
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·||||„·| ‡|+ ~·|| + ·||··|·| ·| + ~| = ·|| ·| ·||· = ·|| + ~„| + | ·|« |·|| r | = ·|| · -||| + | ·|« |·| + · |·· |·| ~‡-|·||·| ·|
= ·|| + | ¬·|·||·| + · ·| ||~| ·|< ¬¬|·|| ~|· ·|‡|·||~| ·| ~‡·|+ | = ·|| ·|·|| ·| ·||·||·| + ‡~|· ·+ ·||·||· ~|·||‡· | ·||··||
‡·|·||‡· | -|~|| ·| = ·|| + „|~||| ¬·|+ · ·|| + | ·|« ||| -|‡|··| ·| = ·|| ·|·|| + | ·||·|·|| + - |· | ·|-|| -|~|| ·| ·||·| ~·|¬ ·| ·|·|·|·|
+ |·|+ ·| ~|· = ·|| + „|~||| + ·||·||r ·| + ‡~|· ‡|·||·| ·||·|·|| + | ‡|+ |·| ·|·|| ·||· ·|. ·|r ~| „||‡·|~| r | -||·|| · |·| + ·|·
+ | ·|·|·|·| ·| = ·|| + „|~||| ~|· ·||-· |·|~| ·| r |.· |·|·| ·|· ~|·||‡· | ·|‡· |r ·| ‡|+ ~·|| ·|‡r | ·|||·|‡·|+ ·|‡· |r ·| + ·||· ~|
·| ·|· ~||| + | ·||·||r ·| · ·| ||~| · |P|+ |~||·| ·|·||·|| ·|· · |·· |·| ~‡-|·||·| | · |·· |·| ·|~| ~‡-|·||·| + | ¬: „·| ·|~| ·|· -|·|
· ¬ ·|·||·| + | ··|·||·| + · ·|| ~|· · |··|| ·| ~|· ·+ ·| · ·|· · |··|| ·| ~‡·|+ ·|·||·| ‡||· ·| + | ·|‡·|‡„·|| + · ·|| |
‡r ·||~|·| + ·||‡· ‡··|‡|+ | |~| + | ·|·||· · ª|·| + ‡~|· · |·· |·| ~‡-|·||·| + | ¬: „·| ‡r ·||~|·| + ‡r ·|·|· | ~|· ·|r |<| + |
·||‡· ‡··|‡|+ | ·||··|| + | ·|· -|| ~|· · |P|+ |~||·||| r | ·|·|·|·| ¬·||·| + · ·|| r | r ‡· | -||· | + ‡~|· · |·· |·| ~‡-|·||·| |··| -|‡·|
·|· |·||·· |· ·| + · + ·||‡· ‡··|‡|+ | ·|·||~|| ·| ·|·|‡·|| ·|||~| + | ·|« |·| ·|· ·||· · || r ||‡+ · |·· |·| ·||‡| + ~·||·| ‡·|·||‡· |
· „| + + ~| -|--|~| + ¹¹ ·|‡|„|| -||·| + | |·||·· |‡· | ‡+ ·|| ·|| ·|+ | · |·· |·| ·||· ·||·| + ‡·| ‡·|„|·| -||· ||·| + ‡·| + | ·|~|||·|
·|‡· ||·| + ·|‡| ~|· -|| ~‡·|+ ·|‡|· |·|+ ·|·||·| r | · ·|·||‡|·|| ‡|+ ‡·|| + · ·| ·| ·|· · ·||· r |·|| ·|| |·|| + + |· ·| ·|·· r |·|
||~|| + ‡·| + | ||·| ¬·||· + || ||~|| ·|. ·|·||‡| + ·||··|·| ·| ·|-|| r | ·|+ || r | ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| + ‡~|· · ·|·||‡|+ .||·|
·|· ~|·||‡· | · |·· |·| ‡·|„|·| + | ~|-·| ~·|·|·||·| ~|· ·||¬|‡·|+ | ‡|+ |·| + ·||·| r | ·|·|‡·|| ‡·|‡·| ·|‡·|‡„·|| + · ·|| |·|| ·|~|||·|
·|‡· ||·| + ‡|‡-|·| ·|r ~|~| ·| ·|<| ·|·||‡|·|| + | ·|r ·||·| + · ·|| ~|· |· ·|·||· + |·| + · ·|| r |
||·| ·|· ·|·|
||·| ·|· ·|·| + | ~·| r ·||·||| ·|<-·||·|| ~|· ·||| ·|·|~| + ·|||·| + ‡~|· ª||· ·||+ ~·||| ¬·|+ | ·|·|||| · ·| ||~| ·|· |·||
.|·||) + | ·|·||·| ·||~|| ·| ·|·||·| ·|·|·| + ‡~|· ||·|·|· ~| ·| ·|·| · r ·|| | ||·| ·|· ·|+ ·||·|| ‡·|‡·|| ~|· ·||+ ‡|+ ·|·||·|·|| · |·||
·| ·|· | r || r | ||·| ‡·|·|~|| P|· ~|¬|‡·|+ ||‡··|| .·||·|~|·|) ·||· · ||r ·| + ‡·| + |·| ~|‡· ·|-|| ||·| ·|· ·|·| + »||| r |
||·| ·|·||·|| ·||‡·|·||
‡·|· ~| + · |·|| ·| · „| ·| ··|~| . .·|~+ · · |.~|+·||.· ) + ·|· ·| + ·|| ~|. r | + ·|| + | ·|r ·||‡·| ·|-||| r |~| + |·||
·| · |·|~| ·| ·|~+ · + | ·||~|| ·| + ·|| ~|· ·|||·|‡·|+ ·|‡· |r ·| + -|~| ·| ·||··|·|| ·|·| ·|·· .·|·| ¬·|·||·| + + |· ·| ~|.
r | .·|+ ·||·| r | ¬·|| .·|·| ·|·||·|| + ~·|+ ~| ·|·| ||r ·|| + ‡~|· ·|„||‡·|| ¬·|·|·| ·||·|+ | + | -|| ·|r ·|·|·| ·||·|· |·| r
| ·|·|·| · „| ·| ··|~| . .·||.· |·|·| ~|+·||.· ) ~|· ~|· ··|·||··|-~|‡··|| „|·|·|·||··| + ·||·| ·|· |·|| + ·|· | ·| ¬||· -·|« ||
+ | ·||‡·| ‡· ª||·|| · || r |
·|„|·|~| ·‡··|·|· ··|· +||‡~|· | ·||·||· |· ·| ·||·||·|
~·|·| ~|·|-·||·| + | ||·| ·|·||·|| ·|· ‡·|·|· |·|| · ª|·| + ‡~|· · |·· ·||·|| ·|„|·|~| ··|· +||‡~|· | ·||·||· Ë· ·| ·||·||·| .··|···|·||) „|¬
‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r | + |·|+ ·| + ~|·|| · „| + .ö · |··|| ~|· 4 + ·· „||‡·|| -|~|| + .¯ „|r · |-+ ··|| ·| ¹4. ·|·||~|·| + ··
.~|·|· Ë· ·| ·· „|·|) ·|·||· ·|· r | ··|···|·|| + | ·|ª·| ¬: „·| ‡|‡-|·| ··||·|| ·| ||·|·|· ~| + | ·|·||·|| + | ‡··|‡| ~|· ·||‡·|·||
+ | ‡·|·||· ·| + · ·|| r |
Section -1 (Hindi Article : Climate Change)
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··|···|·|| + ~|·|| ·||· ||·| ·|· ·|+ | ·|·|| ·|~+ · · |.~|+·||.· ·||.· |·|·| ~|+·||.· ~|‡··|| + ·||·| ·|· |·| .··|·||··|)
~|· „|·|·||·| ~|‡··|| + ·||·| ·|· |·| .~|· ··|·||··|·||··|) + | ·|r ·||·| ·|-|| ··||·|| ·|· ‡·|·|‡·|| ¬ ·| ·| ‡·|·|· |·|| · ª|·| + ‡~|· + |
·|. r | ||·| + | |·| ~|· ‡· „|| ·||·|-| ~|· || ~|· ||·|·||·| ·|·| ·||·|·| ·|·|·|| ·|·||~|+ | + | ‡·|·|· |·|| + | -|| ||·| + | ·|·||·||
+ | ‡·|·|· |·|| + ·||·| r | ·|·|‡+ | + · ‡· ·|| ·|·|| r | ·|· ·|+ | + | ‡·|·|· |·|| ·||·||·| P|· ·||· | · r || r | ·|·|+ ·||· P|· ·|· ·|·||·|
·|· ·|+ | + | ~|· ·|·|+ ~|· P|· ·|· + ·||·| ·|· |·|| + ·|·|·| ‡~|· ·||| r | r · ·|·||r · | ·||· ~|· + ~| ‡·|~||+ · |·| -|· ·|
¨4 ·|· |-|·| ‡+ · ·||| r | ··|···|·|| + ~|·|| ||·|·|· ~| + | · |·· ·||·|| ·|·||·|| ·|· ·|·|· · ª|·| + + |·| ·| + ·· |·| ·|· ·|·|
‡·|·|~|·| ·||· + -|~||·| + |·||~|·| ‡|‡-|·| · |··|| + ·|· ·|·| ‡·|·|~|·| ·||· + ·· „||‡·|| ·|· „|| + | ·|· ·|·| ‡·|·|~|·| ·|‡·|‡|·||
·||·|·|· ‡··|| · |·· |·| ·|·|||· ·| ~‡-|·||‡~|+ | ~·|·|·||·| ·|··||·| .·||· | ··|..~|· ~|.) ·||·||·|||| .+ ·· |·| ·|· ·|·| ‡·|·|~|·| ·||· )
+ ·||·| ·|< r · r | ·||·||·||·|| ||·|·|· ~| ·|·||·|| + ~|+ · | + ·|+ ~|·| ·| ·|·|‡| ~|· ·+ ¬ ·||| ·|·||· · ª|·| + ‡~|· .·|
··|‡·|·|| + ·||·| ·|·|·|·|·| + | + |·| + · || r ~|· ·||·||· Ë· ·| + ·· | + ·|‡· ·||~|·| + ‡~|· |+ ·||+ | ~|· ‡|·||·| ·|r |·||| ·|· |·|
+ · || r |
||·| ·|· ·|·| ‡·|·|~|·|
||·|·|· ~| + | ·|·||·|| + ~|+ ~|·| + ‡~|· ··|···|·|| + ~|·|| + ·· | + | ·|· ·| ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r ~|· .·|+ | ‡|‡-|·| · |··|| + ·|· ·|·|
‡·|·|~|·| ·||· | .··|·||-·||·||) ·| ·|· ·|·| ‡·|·|~|·| ·|‡·|‡|·||.·||·||·||) ·| ·||·| ~|+ <| ·| ·|·|‡··|| + · ·|·|||· ·| · |· | ·|+ +
·|‡· ·| + ·· |·| ·|· ·|·| ‡·|·|~|·| ·||· .·||·||·||·||) + |·|·||.· ·|· · |~|| ·|||| r | ||·| ·|· ·|·| + ‡·|·|~|·| + ‡~|· · |·· |·|
||·|·|· ~| ·|·||·|| ·||·|+ | + | ‡·|·||· ·|+ · ||·| ‡|¬| ·|·|~|| ·||·|· + |· ª||·|| ~||r ·| .··||| ¬¬|·| ~~·|‡·|‡·|·|·| ¬¬|·|
·|· |‡~|·|·| |~| „||·|‡·|·|| ~|‡· ·|·|| ~‡| ·|· ·|·|+ |· | ¬¬|·|| + ¬·|·|·| ·||·|+ | + ·||·| r | ~‡·|·|‡·|| ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r | .·||
¬: „·| + ‡~|· ·|· ~|· .·|·||~| ·| ~| · r ||r ·|| + ‡~|· -|| ||r ·| ·|·|·|| ‡·|+ |·|| ·||·|+ | + | ‡·|·||· ·| ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r | .·| ·|·|·|
·| ·|· ||r ·|| + ‡~|· ·||·|+ | .-||· | ·· ·| ~|· ·||·|+ ) + | ‡·|·||·| ·|· ·|· r | ~||·| ‡+ ·|| ·|||| r | .·|·| ·|·|·|| ·|·||·|| .·|· |~|
· |·|~| ·|·|·| |~|) + ·||·|+ | + | -|| ‡·|·||· ·| + · ~‡·|·|‡·|| ‡+ ·|| ·|| ·|+ | r | ~‡| ·|· ·|·|+ |· | ¬¬|·|| + | ¯ ¸|‡·|·|| ·|
r |·| ||~| ||·| ·|· ·|·| + | ‡·|·|‡~|| + · ·| ||~| ·||·|+ | + | ~·|·||~|·| -|| ··|·||·||·|| ~|· ·||·||·|| + ·||··|·| ·| r | · r | r | .·|+
·||·| r | „|·|·||·| ~|‡··|| + ·||·| ·|· |·|| + ‡~|· »||| ·|-||·|·| ~··|·|·| .··|···|) · „| + ö „|r · | -- ‡· ~~|| ·|··|. ·|·|.
+ |·|·|· ·|·|~|¬ ~|· ·|·| ·| „|¬ r | ·|·|| r | · |· ·|· ·|· ||·| ·|· ·|·| + ~||·| ||~| ¬¬|·|| .·|·| .· -|_ ·· |·|+ „|·| ··|·|
~||r ·|·|~| ~|‡· ) + ‡~|· -|| ·|· ·|·| ‡·|||· ·| ·|·|·|| ·||¬|‡·|‡+ ·|| ‡· „||-‡·|· æ„|| ~|· ·||·|+ | + | ~·|·||·| ·|· ·||· ‡· ·|| ·|| · r |
r |
||·| ·|· ·|·| ‡·|·|~|·| r | ·|·||‡|| ~|-·|
··|···|·|| + |r | ||·| ·|·||·|| ‡·|·|· |·|| + ·· | + | ·|ª·|| || ·|·||·||·| ·||·|·|| + · |· |·| ¹4. ·| ·|« |+ · ¯¨¨ + · ‡· ·||
·||··|| | ·||·| r | ·|·|·|| + | ¬‡·|| ¬ ·| ·| ·||·|-·|· ª| + · ~|+ <| + | ·|·||·|| + | -|| ~|·||||· ·|·||· ·| + | ·|‡+ ·|| ·||· | r |
·|·||·|| + ·|‡| ‡|„||·| ·|·||· · ª|·| ~|· ·|·||·|| ‡·|·|~|·| .+·|·+·|·||) + ·||·|-·||·| + ·|·||‡· ·|| + ·|‡„|-|·| ~|‡· + | -||
·||·||‡r | ‡+ ·|| ·|| · r | r | + |·|+ ·| + ~|·|| ·|-||· ¬ ·| ·| ·|· ‡·|| -|~|| + ·||·|-·||·| ·+ ~||ª| ·| ~‡·|+ ~|·||· | ||~|
„|r · | ·| ||·|·|· ~||·| ·|·||·|| ‡·|·|· |·|| ·|· |+ ··||‡·|| + · ·| + | ·|·||| r |
· „|-|· ·| + ~| ‡·|~||+ · ¹¹ ·||| ||·|·|· ~| ·|·||·|| ‡·|·|· |·|| + ·· .·||··+·|··|·) ··||‡·|| ‡+ ·| ·|| ·|+ r | ·| + ·· ‡· ~~||
.¯) ·|·|~|¬ .¯) ·|·|. .¯) „||~||·|· .) r · · |·||· .) + |~|+ ||| ..) ·|··|...) ·|·· ·|· .) · ·||·|· .) r ‡~· ·|| .)
r ||<|.) ~r ·|· |·||· .) ·|·|.) ·||‡·|·||·||· . ) ~|· ·|· |· · | .) ·| ··||‡·|| ‡+ ·| ·|· r | ··| r | ~|· + ·· ··||‡·|| + · ·|
Section -1 (Hindi Article : Climate Change)
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+ | ·||·|·|| r ‡·|·|+ ~|+ < ¬·|| ·|·|·| |·|·||.· ·|· · |~| ‡· ·| ·||··| | ··||· r || ·||·|·|| + · |· |·| ·||·||·||·|| - |· | ‡·|‡¼·||
·|-||· ¬ ·| ·| ·|· ‡·|| -|~|| ~|· ¯· ·|· | „|r · | ~|· · |··|| + | · |·|·||‡·|·|| ·| ·||··+·|··|··| ··||‡·|| + · ·| + ‡~|· + · ·| ¬· |·||
·||·|| ·|·||‡|| r | ||·| ·|· ·|·| + · ·| ||~| ||·| ‡|¬| ·|·|~|| ··|·| ~||r ·|·|~|| ·· ··| + „|·| .· -|_ | + |·|~|| ·|·||·| ||~||
-|‡^ ·|| .+ |+ ~||·| ·~||· ·|) ~||r ‡·|¸| ·||| ·|·|~|| .+ · |-·~||·| ·~||Ä· ·|) ~|‡· ·| ¬·|·|·| + ·||·|+ | + | ·|-|||| « ·| ·|
+ |·||·|·|·| + | ·|·||| -|| r | .·|| ·|· -| ·| ~|P| ·|· ·|· ||·| ·|· ·|·| + ~||·| ||~| ¬¬|·|| .·· |·| + „|·| .· -|· · ‡· -· | Ë~|·|
‡·|~·| ~|‡· ) ·| -|| ·||·|+ | + | ~·|·||~|·| ·|‡·|‡„·|| + · |·| ·|· ‡|„|·| ··||·| ‡· ·|| ·|| · r | r | ª||· ·||+ ||·| ·|· ·|+ | + ‡·|·|~|·|
.··|··||) + + |·| ·||·|·|| + ‡+ ·||·|·|·| + | ·|-||||·||· + || + ·|~·||+ ·| + | -|| ·|·||| r |
||·| ·|· ·|·| ‡·|·|~|·| + | + |·|·||·|·||·|
||·|·|· ~| + | ·|·||·|| ·| ·|·||· + | + |·| ·||·|·||· |·||· + · ·| + ‡~|· ö ·|·|· | + | ·|r ·||·| + | ·|. r | .·|·| ·| ·||| ·|·|· |-
~r ·|· |·||· + |·|·|· ·||~||·|· ~|ª|·|= ·|·|~|¬ ·|·|. ~|· r · · |·||· + | + |·|·||·|·||~| + | ·|·|||· ·| ·|· ·|·| .‡·|||· ·| ·|
‡·|·|~|·|) ·||‡·|+ · ·| ..·||·||·) - |· | ·|·||-|| + | ·|| · r | r | + |~|+ ||| ~|· ·|··|. + | + |·|·||·|·||~| + | ·|··|‡·|| ¬··|
··||·||~|·||· |··| ·|· ·|·| ‡·|·|~|·| ·||· | - |· | ·|·||-|| + | ·|| · r | r | „|·| ·||| ·|·|· |--~|·|· | :|‡· ·|| ||· |·|·|| + · |· |·||· ·|· ·||
·||·|·|· ~|· ·|·| + | + |·|·||·|·||~| + | ·|·||-|| ·|·|||· ·| ~|· |·| ·|~||~|·| + · · r | r |
·||·||·||·|| ·| ||·|·|· ~| + | ·|·||·|| + | ‡·|·|· |·|| + ‡~|· ‡· „||-‡·|· æ„| ·|+ |‡„|| ‡+ · r | ‡· „||-‡·|· æ„|| ·| ||·| ·|· ·|+ | + | ·||·|·|
+ | ‡|‡·|·|| ··|~| .~||+ „|·|) ‡·|·|· |·|| + ·· | + ‡~|· ·|- ‡|·|| + | ‡||· ·| ‡· ·|| ·|·|| r | ‡·|·|· |·|| ·|·||~|| ·| ·+ ¬ ·||| ·|·||·
· ª|·| r | ·|-|| ‡·|·|· |·|| ··|‡·|·|| + | ‡· „||-‡·|· æ„| ·||· | ‡+ · ·|· r |
·||·| ··||„|·|·|· ·· · |
»||| ·|-||·|·| ~··|·|·| .·||·| ··||„|·|·|· ·· · |) |~| + ¬: „·|| ·| ¬·|·|·| ||‡~|+ | ¬·|·|·| + | ¬ ·|· ª|| ||·|·|· ~| ·|·||·||
+ | ‡·|·|· |·|| ~|+ · | + | ·|~·|+ ·| ~|· ¬·|+ | ·||·||‡·|+ || ‡·|- + · ·|| |·|| P|· + ‡|„~|·|·| ~|· ~‡·|·||r | ·||· „| + | .·|·||~|
+ · | r · ·||· |+ ·|·|~|· ··|·||··| + | »||| ·|-||·|·| ·|‡··|‡~|| r | ~··|·|·| ·| · |·||·|‡·|+ ·|‡· ·||·| ·||~|·| ~‡-|·||r | ·||· „| ~|·
~|.··|·|| ‡|·|·|·| ·||· „| + ¬·|·||·| + | -|| „||‡·|~| ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r | ·|r ~··|·|·| ·|·|‡·|| ·|·|· | + ‡~|· ¬·|·|· ||·| ·|·||·||
·|·|·|·| + | |+ ·||+ ‡·|·||‡· | + · ·|| ~|· · |·· |·| ||·|·|·||·|| ·|·|·|·| ·||‡| + | ·|·||·| ·| ‡· „||-‡·|· æ„| + | ~|·||· |·||· + · ·|| |
+ |·|‡·|+ · ·||·|·| + + ·||·| ·|· |·|| + ·|‡· ~|-‡·|~|·| + ‡~|· ·+ ~··|·|·| ~~|·| ·| ‡+ ·|| ·|| · r | r | .·|+ ·||·|-·||·| ||·|·|· ~|
·| + ·||·| ·|· |·|| + ‡|‡-|·| »|||| + ·||·|· |·| + ·|‡|„|| + | ·||| ~|·||·| ö „|r · | + ||·|·|· ~| ·| ·||·|· ·||· |+ + ·||·| ·|· |·||
+ »||| ·|-||·|·| .··|·) + | ‡|·|| ~··|·|·| -|| „|¬ ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r | ||·| ·|·||·|| ·| ‡|‡-|·| »|||| + ·||·|· |·| + | ·|~·||+ ·| + · ·|
+ ‡~|· ~·|·| .¨¨¹ ·| |~| + ·|‡·|·|| ·| »||| ·|-||·|·| ~··|·|·| + | ·|r ~| + | ·|| | .·|+ ‡~|· -||· ||·| |~| ‡·|·|·| .~|.~|·||)
~|· · |·· |·| ·|·|||· ·| ~‡-|·||‡~|+ | ~·|·|·||·| ·|··||·| .··|..~|· ~|.-·|· |) + ·||·| ‡· ~~|| ·| ~··|·|·| + ‡~|· ·+ ·|·|:||||
.||·|·| ·|· r ·||-|· ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| ·|| | ·||· ·| .·|+ | ‡|·||· + · .·|·| ‡|‡-|·| ·|··||~| + ·||·| · r ~|· „|r · | + | -|| „||‡·|~|
+ · ‡~|·|| ·|·|| | .·| ·|·|·| + |·| ·|· .¨ + · |< · ·|·| ª|·| r |·| ·| | .·| ~··|·|·| + | ·|·|·|·| + ·· |·| ·|· ·|·| ‡·|·|~|·| ·||·
.·||·||·||·||) + · · r | r |
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P|· ·||~|-·|·| ~| ·|~|·| ~|· -||· | |·|| r |·| + | ~||‡| ~|‡·| ~|· ||µ||| ·| ·|· ~||| ~|· r | ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·| ·||·||
·||···| + | · |·|||r + | .·|·· · ~|‡· ) ·| + ~|·| ||~|| ·||·||‡· ·|| + | ª||· | -|| ·|: ·||··||| ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| + | ‡|+ |·|„||~| · „||
·|· ‡|·|·|||·|·| · ··|-||| ·|<·|| ~|· .·|·| ·||···| -|~| -||·|·| ·|·· ·|~| ~|· ~··| ·|·||·|·|| |+ ·|r ·| + ·||·|~| ·| ·|r ~| ·|
·||· | ~·|·||·|||· ~|· -|| ·|: ·||·|·||| -||· | ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| + ·||·|~| ·| ‡|„|·| ||· ·|· ·|-||· ¬ ·| ·| ‡·|‡|| r +·||‡+ |r
·|~|||·| + | ¡ ‡·· ·| ~|·||‡|+ | + ‡~|· + ‡·| ·| ·||‡·|+ | ·|·| -|~|| ·|· ‡·|-|· r ·|| ·|~|||·| + | ¡ ‡·· ·| ~·|| ·||· ·|„||~|
r |
~··|·|·| + · |· |·| ·|~·||+ ·| ~|· ‡· ·· „|·| + ‡~|· ·|‡·|| |·| ·| ·|·|||· ·| ..·· ·+ ) + | ~··|-||| ·| · |·· |·| ·|· + | ·|·||~|·|
·|‡·|‡| + | ·|· ·| ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r | |+ ·||+ | ·||·|+ |· | ·|· |·| + · ·| + ‡~|· ·||·||·||·|| + ~··|-| + | ~··|-||| ·| ·+ |+ ·||+ |
·|‡·|‡| + | ·|· ·| ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r | .·|+ ·|· ··|| ·| ‡|‡-|·| |+ ·||+ | ·|··||~| ~|· ·|·|· ·|| + ‡|„|·|.|| + | „||‡·|~| ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r
| |+ ·||+ | ·|‡·|‡| ·| ‡|‡-|·| ~··|·|·|| ·||æ-|·|| ¡ ‡·· + |·| + |·|‡|‡·| + |·| ·||·|·|| ~|· ~··| ~||„·|+ ·|·||‡~|·|| + ‡~|· „|||
+ | ~·|·||· ·| + · ‡· ·|| r |
·||·||·||·|| ·| ·|··|. ·|·|. ~|· + |·|·|· + »||| ·|-||·|·| ~··|·|·| + ‡~|· + ·|„| ·||· | .··|..~|· ~|.) ~|.~|.· |-·|··|. ~|·
~|.~|.· | + |·|·|· + ·||·| ·|r ·||·| + ·|·|:||| .··|~|·||) ·|· r ·||-|· + · ·| + ·||·| r | ||r ·|| + ~~|||| ~··| »|||| + | ·||·|
·||+ |.Ë~|·| + ‡~|· ~|.~|.· | ·|··|. + ·||·| ·|·|:|||| ‡+ ·|| r | -||· ||·| ||r ·| ~·|·|·||·| ··||‡·|·|„|·| .·~|· ·~|.) ·|·| ·|
~··|·|·| ·| ~||„·|+ ·||·|+ |· | + ||· ·|· ||r ·|| + ‡~|· ¬·|·|·| + |· + | ·|· ~··|·|·| ‡+ ·|| r | .·| ~··|·|·| ·| ·||·| ‡·|·+ ·||
+ | ·|~·||+ ·| |+ ·||+ | ·|‡·|‡| + · ·|| ~|· ~·|· · |·· |·| ·|· + | ·|·|+ -| ·|‡·|‡| ·| .·|+ | ·|·||-|| + · |·| ·||·| + | ·|·||| r |
.·| ¬·||·|| + | ·|·||| .·|‡~|· ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r +·||‡+ .·| |· r + | »||| ·|-||·|·| ~··|·|·| -||· | ·| ·|r ~|| ·||· ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r ~|·
.·| ~··|·|·| + | ‡·|·+ ·| -|||| ·||‡|·|| ‡·|·|·|| + | ~|·||· |·||· + · ·|| |
||r ·|-.·|·| ·||‡|
·|· |‡~|·|·| ~|· ·||+ ‡|+ ·|·| ·|~||~|·| ·| ·+ ||r ·| .·|·| ·||‡| .~|· | ·|= ·|~| ·||‡~|·||) + | ·|‡|·||· ·| ‡+ ·|| r ‡·|·|+ | ¬: „·|
||r ·| ·|·|·|| ¬·|·|·|| ||r ·| ·||¬|‡·|‡+ ·|| ~|· ||r ·| .·|·| ·|·||·|| + | ·|·|··||~| + | + ·| ª|·| ·|· ·||·|+ ~|· ·|·|·| ¬ ·| ·|
~··|·|·| + · ·| + ·||·|-·||·| .·|·| ~|·|‡| + | ·|· -|| ·|‡·|‡„·|| + · ·|| r | ·||‡| + ¬: „·|| ·| .·|·| + | ··||·|| ·|· ‡-|| + ·|
ª|·||~|| ~|· ‡·|·||·| ~|·|‡| ·|‡·|‡„·|| + · ·|| + ··| |~| ~|· + ··| |~| + ¬·||· | + ~|·||| + | ·|· ·|·|| + | ~‡·|+ |·| ¬·|·||·|
·|·|·+ · ·| ~|· ¬·||· ·| -|· |· ·| ~|· ·|‡· |r ·| ·|||·|‡·|+ ·||···| + | ¡ ‡·· ·| ¬·|·|·| ~|· ||·| ·|·||·|| ~||„·|+ ||~| + |
-|||| ·||‡·|·|| + | ~|+ ~|·| |·|| ||r ·| ¬·|·|·| + ··| ·||·|+ | + | ~·|·||·|| „||‡·|~| r ·|| ||·| ·|·||·|| ·|· ‡·|·||·|+ ·|-||| · |~|
·|+ | ·||‡| ·| ·|· ||r ·|| + ‡~|· ¬·|·|·| ·| + ·|| ~||·| + ·||·|-·||·| .·|·||~| r | · r ||r ·|| + ¬·|·|·| ·| -|| + ·|| ~||·| + |
¬ ·|· ª|| · | ·|. r | .·|·| .·|·| + | ·|·||·|| ~|· ~··| ¬·|+ · ·|| + ‡~|· -|| ·||·|+ ‡·|·||‡· | ‡+ ·| ·|· r |
-|‡|.||·| + |· ·|
-||· | ·| ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·|· ‡|‡|·| ‡r |·||· + | + ·||·| ·|·|·|| + | |||||· ·| ·|·||·| + ‡~|· ~|· ‡|‡|·| ·|‡|‡·|‡·|·|| + | ·|||æ·||·|
·|‡+ ·||~| + | ~|·|·| ·| ·||· + · ·| ·+ -· ·|· |+ ·|r Ä·||+ · ·+ ·||·| + |·| + · ·| + ‡~|· ·||·||‡r | + · ·| + ‡~|· ‡|.||·| ·|
·||¬|‡·|+ | ·|~||~|·| ~|· -|‡|.||·| ·|~||~|·| ~|· ··|··|·||·|| .‡· ·|| ·| "-|‡|.||·| + |· ·| + ·||·| ·| .||| ·+ + |· ·| + | ‡·|·||·|
+ · | r · ‡· ~~|| ·| ·+ ·|r ·|‡| ·|~| ·|· r ·||-|· ‡+ ·|| r |.·| + |· ·| + |r | ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·||| ·|‡· ·|· ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·|
+ | + |·| ·|·||·| + ‡~|· ·+ |·| ·| + ·| ·| + ·| · | ·||· ‡·|~|·|| ~|· .·|·| ¬¬|·| ·|· + |· ‡„|-|| ~|· ·|· ·|· + |· | ·|·|· ·|| +
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·|‡|‡·|‡·| „||‡·|~| r |·|| „|r · | ·| ·|||‡·|+ ¬¬|·| ‡|‡„|·· ·||·|+ |· | + |·|„||~||· ~|·||‡·|| + | ·||··|| ~|· ·|ª·| ~|-·| ¬+ ·|·|
¬¬|·| .|~| ª|·|·|) ‡· ·|~| .·· · ·|·|·|| ·||¬|‡·|+ | ~|· ·+ ··|·||·|| ·|·| + |·|·| .· ‡·|| ¬¬|·| r |·||·|r + |· ·| ·|~|||·|
·|‡· ||·| ·||| ·|‡· ·|· + | + |· ||.·|| ~·|·|·||·| ·|·|·|| ¬¬|·| ‡|‡„|·· ‡·|··| + |·|·| · ·|·||‡|·|| ‡|·|·| |·| ·|~|| ~|· · „| + |
·|~|||·| ‡· ·||· | + | ·|·||· + · ·||| .·|+ ~‡|‡· · ·|r + |· ·| ~|·| ·|·||| ·|··|| ·| ·|||~| + ·||·| ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·|·
·||·|· + || ~||·| + ‡~|· ·|||·||| + | |||||· ·| |·||· + · ·|||
·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·|·|·|| ~·|·||·|| ·| ·|+ | ‡·|~||| r ‡+ ‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| ·|· + . |· r + · ··|-||| ·|< · r r ‡·|·|·| ~‡|||· |
·|·· ‡|+ |·| ·||··||
·|·|+| · |·· ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| + ·||+ + ·|„|·| .·|··|·+ ·||·||·||) ·| ·|·|- +·||· | ·||· |+ |~| + ~|·|| ·|·· ‡|+ |·| ·||··||
.·||· |··|) ~|·||~| ·|·|·|| ·| ·| ·+ r | .·|·| ‡|+ |·|„||~| · „|| ·| ··||·|| ~|· ·|·|||· ·| ~·|+ ~| ·||¬|‡·|‡+ ·|| + + |·||·|·|·| + |
·|·|·|·| ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r ~|· ~|¬|‡·|+ · |·· | ·| ¬··||· + | ·|·|| r ‡+ | ~||·|| ·| ‡+ + |·|| + ¬·||·| + · | r · ¬·|·|·| ·| + ·||
~||·| + ~·|·| · |‡·||| + | ·|· | + · ·|| -||· | + | ·|·· ‡|+ |·| ·||··|| .·||· |··|) -|·||| |‡„|+ ·||· |··| ·||·||· + | ·+
·|r ·||·|·| P|· + r | .¹ ·|. .¨¨¯ + | ·||· |··| + |·|+ |· | ·||· - |· | ·|·||+ | + ~| ö¯4 ·|‡· ·||·|·||~| ·| ·| .¹¯ -||· | ·|
·|·|- r | ·|r ·|ª·|| ‡|„| + ‡+ ·|| -|| ~··| · „| + | ·||· |··| ·|‡· ·||·|·||~| ·| ~‡·|+ r | ·|„|·|~| ·||· |··| ~|·||‡· · | ~-|| |+
ö¯ ·|‡· ·||·|·||~| + | ·|·|· | · ·|+ | r ‡·|·| ·|· ¯4¯¹ö + · |< · ·|·| ‡·||„| ‡+ · ·||·|·|| ·| ·|‡· ·||·|·||· = ·|| + ‡+ + |·|||
.·|·||~| .·|·| ·| ·|· ~||| ~|¬|‡·|+ ·|‡+ ·||~| „|r · + · |·| + ·|· ~|· ~-|·| = ·|| »|||| ·| ·|·|- r |
~|· |·· |·| ·|r ·||·|
·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·|· ·|·|· · |·· ¬·|·|‡·| + ~|·|| ~|· |·· |·| ·|·|· |·| ·| ·|r ~·|-|| + | ·|||| r ‡+ |r · |·· |·| + |·|·||·|·||
+ | -|· ·|· ·|r ·||·| · ·||| .·| + |·|·||·|·|| + |r | -||· | ~·|·|| ·|‡|·|- || · |r · ||| r ‡+ |r "·||:|| ·|· | |·||+ | · |‡·||| |
~·|·|| ~·|·|| -|·|||~|" + ‡·|- || + ~|·||· ·|· ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·| ‡·|·|· ·| + ·|r ·|· |·| ·|r ·||·| ·| ~·|·|| -|‡·|+ | ‡·|-||·| +
‡~|· |·||· r |
+ |·|·||·|·|| ·| ·|r ·||+ |· ‡+ ·|| ·|·|| r ‡+ ‡|+ |·| + | · |< ·| ·|| ~·|·||··||· ··||· | + |·|·| + | ¬·|·|·| + · || r ¬·| + ·|
+ · ·| + ‡~|· ·||¬|‡·|+ | + | ~r ·| -|‡·|+ | r | .·|+ ‡~|· ··| ||· |· |+ | ~|· · |·|| + | ª||·|·|| r |·|| ‡·|·|+ ·|‡· · ·||¬|‡·|+ |
·+ r |·| ·| · ·|· r |·| ·| ·|| ·|+ | .·|+ ‡~|· ¬‡·|| ·|·| ·||··|| + | ·|¬ · | r | .·|+ ~~|||| ·|·|||· ·| + | ·||+ · ª|·| +
¬·||·| + · ·| r |·| ~|· ‡|+ |·|„||~| · „| + | ~|„||·|| -|·||| ·|« |·|| r |·||| + |·|·| + ·||·||· ·| + · ·|·||· + · ·| r |·| ·|·| ·|· Ë~|·|
| ·||·||·|‡· + ·||· |··| + | · · ·| + · ·|| -|| ·|¬ · | r ~|· .·| ·|r ·|· ·|· ‡+ ·|| ·||·|| r |·|||
¬·|·|· ~·|+ ~|·| ¬·||·|| + ·|‡· · ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| + ·|+ |· |·|+ ·|-|||| + | + ·| + · ·| + ‡~|· ·|··|·+ ·||·||·|| + + |·||·|·|·|
·| |·|| ~||·| + ||·| ~|· |·· |·| ·|r ·||·| + | ·|·||·| + · ·|| ·||‡r ·| ·| ·|·||·| + |· ||.·|| | ¬·||·|| + ·|· -| ·| .·||·|· |· |·|| |
·|· |·|· | + ~|·||· ·|· r |·| ·||‡r ·| .·|+ ‡~|· ‡|+ ‡·|| · „|| + | ‡|·||·| ·|· · ·|· |·|· · ·|| ·||‡r · ~|· ~··| · „|| + |
·||¬|‡·|‡+ ·||Ä ·|·|| · · | ·|· ¬·|~|··| + · |·|| ·||‡r ·|-||· | + | ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ·|·|·|| · |·· |·| + |·|·||·|·|| |.||‡·|+ | |+ ·||+ |
Section -1 (Hindi Article : Climate Change)
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.||·| ·|· ~|·||‡· | r |·||| ·|r ·|r ·|· |·| ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| ‡·|·|·|| + ~·|¬ ·| r |·|| ‡·|·|·| ~|· |·· |·| ·|r ·||·| + | ·||| -|| „||‡·|~|
r |
·~||·|~| ||‡·|·|
|.||‡·|+ | + ~·|·||· |||||· ·| ·| ·||·|· ·||·|r |¬·| ·|·| ~||· ·| ||~|| ~‡|‡· · ¬··|| + | ·||ª| · r | r ‡·|·|·| ·|· || + | ·||r
+ | ||·|·||·| ·|« · r | r | ··|| ~|„|+ | r ‡+ .|| ·|· | + ·||||-·|||| ·|·|| + ~|·|| ||·|·||·| ·| ·| ö4 ‡· ·|| ·|· |·|·
+ | ·|« ||· | r | ·||··|| | -||· | ·| ·|·||~| + | ª||<| + ~|·|·||·| ·|r |‡- . ‡· ·|| |+ r |·|| ·|·|‡+ ‡r ·||~|·|| -|~|| ·| ·||· | 4
‡· ·|| |+ ·|« ·||··|| | ·|ª|| ~‡||‡·· ·|+ ||| ~|· ·|·|· | r ~|·|~|| + | |.||‡·|+ ||·|·||·| |‡- + | ·|||·|| ·|||| r |
|.||‡·|+ | + ~·|·||· ||·|·||·| |‡- + + |· ·| ·|·|· ·|· ·| ·|| |‡- r |·|| |r · ‡·|·|| + |· |·| .~||+ | ·| + r · ·|· ·|| · ·|| |
·‡„|·|| ·|r |- |·| .·|‡~|· ·|||‡·|+ ·|-||‡|| r |·|| ‡+ .·| ·|r |- |·| ·| |· |·| .~||+ | ·| · r ·| ||~| ~||·|| + | ·|ª·|| ·|r | ~‡·|+ r |
·||·| -||· | ·||·~||· „| ‡|·||·||·| .· |·|‡„|·|| ~|· ·||·||·| ·| ·|||‡·|+ ·|·|-·|·| + | r |‡·| r |·||| |· |·| -|~|| ·|‡r | ‡|‡-|·| -|~||
·|· ·|~|||·| ·|‡· ||·| + ·|-|||| ·|· ·|·|||· ·| ·| |·| ·|~||~|·| - |· | + · |· ·|· ·+ ~··|·|·| + ~·|·||· ·|·|· -·|· ·| ·+ ·||· ·
|‡- ·| -||· | + ¯¯ö4 |·| ‡+ ~||·||· · |· |·| -|~| · ·|·| + | ·|-|||·|| r ‡·|·|·| ~·|·||·|| ¯ ‡·|‡~|·|·| ~||·| ‡|··||‡·|| r |·|
|
·~||·|~| ||‡·|·| + ·|« | ª||· ·| ‡·|·|· ·| + ‡~|· ·|+ |+ ·| .¨ · „|| + | ·|· + r . | .· · ·||·|·|· ~| ·|·|~| ~|·| +~||.·|· ·|·|
.~|.·||·||·||) + | ‡· ·||· + ~·|·||· ~·|· · ‡·|·|| + | + ~| ~|·|· ·|| + | ||·| ·|‡|„|| ‡r ··|| -|| ·~||·|~| ||‡·|·| ·| ‡·|·|· ·| ·|· ª|·|
‡+ ·|| ·||· || .¨¹¨ |+ ||·|·||·| |‡- + | · | ‡· ·|| ·|‡~·|·|·| |+ ·||‡·|| ‡+ ·|| ·|| ·|+ || r |
·||‡· ·|| + | -|‡·|+ |
.·| ·|· || ·|· ~·| |+ ·| ·||·| ‡+ |·|| r | ·|-·|||· ¬‡· | ~|· ·|·· r ..·|+ | ··||· | -|| ~-|| |+ ·|·|··| ·|r | « « ·||·|| r |
r ·| ¬·| ·|-·|||~| + | « « |-« « | ·|·| -|| ¬·|| · |·| ·|· ·|~| · r r | ·|·|||· ·| ·|· -|·| ·|·|||· ·| ·|·|·|·| ·|·|||· ·||·|
·||·|· + || ·|·|||· ·| ‡„|-|| ·| ·||·|+ ·||·|| ~||·| ·| ·||‡· ·|| -|| ¬~~|ª|·||·| -|‡·|+ | ‡·|-|| ·|+ || r | ·|·|||· ·||·| ·||‡|·|| +
‡·|·||· ·| ~|· ‡·|·||·|·| ·| ·|·|·||·||··| + | ·|r -||‡·||| |-|| ·|-|||| r | ·|+ || r ·|·| ¬·r ·|·|||· ·||·| ·|: | + | ·|·||·| ·|·|·|| ·|
·||·|+ |· | ·|·|·|-·|·|·| ·|· · | ·||· | ·||‡· ·|| ·| ~·|-|| + | ·|||| r ‡+ | |‡„|+ -|~||·| ·| · |·· |·| ·|· ·|· ·|··|·| r |·| ||~||
·|·|||· ·||·| P|· ·||~| ·|·||·||· | ~|· ·|·|·||~| + | ·|·|·||·||··| |+ .·| « ·| ·| ·|r ·||· ‡+ | |··|| + | ·|r | ‡|„~|·|·| + · ~·|·||
· |·| ·|·|| ·|+ | ·||‡· ·|| + | ~|-·| ·|·|||· ·||·| ·|·|··||~| + ‡·|· |+ · ·| + ¬: „·| ·| ·|‡· + | ·|·|:| ‡||+ ·|||r |‡· + -.||·|
+ |„|~| ·|· |·| + · ·|| r |·|| ·||‡r · | ·|‡· ·|·||·| · „| ·| · |·· ·| ·|·|||· ·| + ·|‡| ·| + |~| ·||·|· + || ·||·|| ·| · ‡·| ·||·||
+ · ·|| r |·|| ·||‡r · ·|‡~+ ·|·|||· ·| ·|· -|·| + ·|‡| ·|‡· | + · ·|| -|| r |·|| ·||‡r · |
Ë·|· ·||‡· ·|| + | -|‡·|+ | Ë·|· ·||‡· ·|| .·|‡· | ·||··|·|) ·|·|||· ·||·| ·|·|·|·||· + | ·+ ·|„|· ~|· ·||·|+ ·||··|·| r | -||· | ·|
· ·|·|ª| -||·||~| ·|‡r | ¨¨ ·| ~‡·|+ -||·||~| ~|· ·||‡~|·|| ·| ·|·||·||· ·|~|-·|‡~|+ |· ·|+ |‡„|| r | · r | r | ·|r ·||··|·|
~||+ ||‡~|+ ·||··|| + ~·|¬ ·| ·|||‡·|+ ·|||·| ·||··|·| r | ·|·|||· ·| ·|· -|·| ·| .·|+ | -|‡·|+ | ·|r |·|·| r | ·|+ || r ·|„||æ ‡+
·||‡· ·||+ ·|| ¬: „·|·|· + ¡ ‡·· + |·| ~·|·||· | .·| ·||··|·| + - |· | ·|·|||· ·||·| ·|·|·|| ·|·||· ·| ·|·|||· ·| ·|· -|·| r | ~·|+ ~|
|||||· ·| + | ‡·|·||·| ·|·|||· ·||·| ·|·||·||· | + |·|+ ·|| ~|ª|| + |·|· | ·||-||+ |· | + | ·|+ |„|·| ·|·|·|| ‡·|·||·| + · ·| ·| ·|r |·|+
‡·|- r ||| r | ·||·· · | ~|· ‡·|~|| + ·||··|·| ·| ·|·|||· ·| ·|· -|·| r ·||· | ·|·|||· ·| ·|·|||· ·| ·|·||~| ·|·|||· ·| + ·|‡| ·|·| ·|<
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~|·||~| ·|·|||· ·| ~|· ·|· ·|·| ~|‡· ·| ·|·|‡·|| ·|‡-|·| ‡+ ·| ·|-|||„||~|| ·|· „|| + | ·|·|·||·||··| + ·|··| ·|··|‡·|| ‡+ ·|| ·||
·|+ || r |
.~|+· |‡·|+ ·||‡· ·|| + | -|‡·|+ | .~|+· |‡·|+ ·||‡· ·|| + ~|·|| · ‡· ·|| · ~||‡|·|·| ‡+ ~·| ·|~· | ·||‡· ·|| ~|· ~|‡· ·||-||‡· ·||
·~||.· ‡·|~|·| ·||.·| ~|| r |
· ‡· ·|| + ·||··|·| ·| ‡„|-|| ·|·|·|| ~|· ·|·||· ·|·| ·|··|‡·|| r ||| r | .·| ·||··|·| ·| ·||·||··| ·|·| |+ ·|·|||· ·| ·|·|||· ·| ·|· -|·|
·|·|||· ·| ·|· ·|·| ·|·|||· ·| ‡„|-|| |··| ·||| ·|· -|| ·| ·|· -|·| ·|< ~|·||~| ~‡-|·||·| + |·|+ ·|| ·| ·|·|‡·|| ·||·|+ |· | ~|·||·|| ·|
-|·|| ·|| ·|+ || r | -||· | ·| ·|··|. ·| · ‡· ·|| +~|·| - |· | ·|·| ·.¹ ·| ·|·|·| ·||· ·|·||· ·| r ~| ·|| | ~|+ |„|||·|| ·| ‡|‡|·|
·|+ |· + ·|·||· ·| ‡+ · ·||| r ‡·|·|·| ·|·|·|| ‡„|-|| ·|·||· ·|·| ·| ·||·||‡· + ‡|.||·|·| ~|‡· ·|ª·| r | r ‡· | + |‡| + | ~|·|
·|« |·| ·| · ‡· ·|| ·|·||· ·|| ·| ·|r |·| -|‡·|+ | ‡·|-||. ·|| | ·|·|||· ·| ·|· -|·| ·|·|·|| · |·· |·| ·||‡|·|| ·| + |·|+ ·|| ·|· ·|·| ‡·|||· ·|
+ ¬·||·|| + ‡·| ~|· ~|¬|‡·|+ ‡|+ |·| ·||| ‡|+ |·| ~|· ·|·|||· ·||·| ·||·|· + || ·| ‡„|-|| + |·| ~|‡· ·| ·|·|‡·|| ·|· „|| + |
·|·|-·|·| |+ ·|r ·||·| ·| · ‡· ·|| + | ~·|·|| ·|„|· -|‡·|+ | r |
· · · „|·| + | -||· | ·| ¯ ‡·||··|· ·¯· + | „|-|‡·|+ ¬: „·|| + ·||·| ~|· -| r ~| | · · · „|·| ·|·||| + ·|r | + · |·| r |
·|·|||· ·||·| ·|·|··||~| + | + ·| + · ·| ·| .·|+ | -|‡·|+ | + |+ | r · |+ ·|r |·|+ r | ·|+ || r | + ·|· ·| ~·|‡„|·· + | ·|·|·|·|
·|· ·|·| ‡·|·|~|·| ·||·||‡·|+ ||‡·|+ | |··| ·|||·| ·|· -|·| + ‡·| ‡|+ |·| ·|~| ~|· -|‡·| + ·|· -|·| |·|| ·|·|||· ·| ·|· -|·| + + |·|·||
+ | · · · „|·| ·| ~··| · ~||‡|·|·| ·|·|~|| + ·||··|·| ·| ·|·||· ·| - |· | ·|r |·|·| -|‡·|+ | ‡·|-||. ·|| ·|+ || r |
·~||·|~| ||‡·|·| ~|·| ·+ ·|·|||| + ¬ ·| ·| ·|·|··| + ·|··|ª| ª|<| r | .·| ·|·|||| + | ·||+ |· + · | r · ·||‡· ·|| ~|·| ·|·| ·|
·||·|· || ·|· | + · ·| + | ·|·||·| + · · r | r |
‡+ ~·| ·|·|| + | -|‡·|+ | ‡+ ~·| ¬¬|·|| + | .‡|r |·| ¨¨ |·| ·|· |·|| r | ‡+ ~·| ·|·|·||·||··| + | ‡„|-|| ·|·|·|| ~|· ·|·||· ·|·|
·|· |·| + · ·| + | ·+ ~·· | ·||··|·| r | ‡+ ~·| ~|· ·|~|‡·|~| + ·||··|·| ·| ·|·|||· ·| ·|·|||· ·| ·|· ·|·| r ·||· ·|·|||· ·| |·| ·|
|··| ·||| ·|· -|·| ~|‡· + | ·||·|+ |· | ~|·||·|| ·| · | ·|| ·|+ || r | ·|·|||· ·| ·|· · |+·|·|· | ·| + |·|· ‡+ ~·| -|| ·|·||. ·||||
r | ·|·|||· ·| ·|· -|·| ·|·|||· ·| ·|· ·|·| |··| ·||| ·|· -|·| ~|‡· ‡|·|·|| ·| ·|·|‡·|| ~‡·|+ ·| ~‡·|+ ‡+ ~·|| + ‡·|·||·| + |
~||„·|+ || r ||‡+ ·|·|·||·||··| + | ·||·|+ ·||·|+ |· | ·| .||·| ·|· |·| ‡+ ·|| ·|| ·|+ |
·|·|·|| ·||¬|‡·|+ | + | -|‡·|+ |
-||· | ·| .· · ·|· + | ·|··| ¯ ~·|·| ··¯ ·| r ~| ·|| | |·| ·| ~|+ · ¬·|·||·|+ ||~| + | ·|ª·|| ·| ‡·|· |· |‡- r | · r | r
| ·|·|||· ·| ·|·|·|·| + -|~| ·| .· · ·|· + | ¬·|·||·| ‡|„|·||·|| |··||·|+ ·||·|+ |· | ·|· |·| + · ·| + | ¡ ‡·· ·| ¬·|·||·|| r | ·|·|||· ·|
+ ‡|‡|·| ·|-|| + | ·||·|+ |· | ·| ~|+ < .·· · ·|· ·|· ~|·||·|| ·| ·||·| ‡+ · ·|| ·|+ | r | ·|·|||· ·||·| ~·|·|·||·| ‡·|·||·|·|
~|· ·|·|·|·| ·| .·|·| ·||·| ·||·|+ |· | ~·|| ¬·|·||·|| ‡·|- r |·|||
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Section -1 (Hindi Article : Climate Change)
77 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
··||·|„|·| „||‡·|~| r | .·|+ | ¬: „·| ~||·|| + | ·+ ‡·|·|‡~|| « ·| ·| ·||·|+ |· | ‡„|-|| ~|· ·|·||· ·|·| ·|· |·| + · ·|| r | .·|+
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Section -1 (Hindi Article : Climate Change)
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The Arihant class submarines are nuclear-powered
ballistic missile submarines of the Indian navy. The
lead vessel of the class, INS Arihant, was launched
on July 26, 2009. The Arihant Class of submarines
may carry the Sagarika submarine-launched ballistic
missile (SLBM)
or the BrahMos
supersonic cruise
missile.
The Arihant class
vessels were de-
signed as a part
of the Advanced
Technology Ves-
sel project,
India's US$2.9 billion project to design and build
nuclear-powered submarines. The Arihant class is
India's first indigenously designed and built subma-
rine. 3 submarines of the class are expected to be in
commission with the Indian navy by 2015.
Evolution
The Arihant class submarines were designed and
constructed as a part of the Indian navy's Advanced
Technology Vessel (ATV) project. The ATV project
started with the intent to design nuclear-powered fast
attack submarines, though over time the project was
re-aligned towards the design of a ballistic missile
submarine in order to complete India's nuclear triad.
The vessels are powered by an 80 MW pressurized
water reactor (PWR) with enriched uranium fuel. The
initial design of the miniaturized naval-version of the
reactor developed by the Bhabha atomic research
centre (BARC) had technical challenges, after which
Russian help was sought to resolve the design
glitches. The final production version of the reactor
was built at the Indira Gandhi center for atomic re-
search (IGCAR) at Kalpakkam.
The hulls for this class are built by L&T’s Hazira
shipbuilding facility. Tata power built the control
systems for the submarine. The systems for the steam
turbine integrated with the PWR were supplied by
Walchandnagar Industries. Reports have suggested
Arihant Class Submarine
Indian Navy’s Advanced Technology Vessel
that the hulls for two more vessels were completed
at the L&T facility at Hazira and will be transported
to Visakhapatnam as INS Arihant has been moved
from the dry dock.
Inside Information
The Arihant class may
possibly be armed with the
750 km Sagarika, subma-
rine-launched ballistic mis-
sile and Agni-3(missile),
an SLBM under develop-
ment.
The Arihant class hull features twin flank-array so-
nars. Although it was widely speculated, the subma-
rine does not sport either a "bulb" like towed array
sonar, or a low blended sail. This lays rest to the
assumption that the design was inspired by the Rus-
sian Akula (NATO) subs. The glimpses of the sub-
marine provided to the media seems to indicate a
design closer to the Charlie I class, with a blended
hump behind the sail for the vertical launchers. The
class also features a broadband expendable anti-tor-
pedo countermeasures developed by RAFAEL of
Israel. It is likely that the vertical launchers, 4 in num-
ber, will be fitted with 3 K-15 missiles each, making
the submarine capable of carrying a total of 12 weap-
ons. The larger and longer ranged Agni III SLBM is
under development, of which the Arihant will carry
4.
Description
A nuclear-powered submarine is a much more com-
plex platform than any other vessel and India build-
ing one on its own is a great achievement. What en-
hances the scale of the achievement is that INS
Arihant, India’s nuclear-powered submarine, will be
fitted with India’s own K-15 ballistic missiles that
can be launched from under water. The K-15 mis-
siles, which are already under production, can carry
both conventional and nuclear warheads. They have
a range of 700 km. They are 10.4 metres tall and
weigh 6.3 tonnes each.
Section -2 (Hot Topics : Arihant Class Submarine)
80 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
It means India can launch missiles with nuclear war-
heads from ground, drop nuclear bombs from air and
also fire them now from under water.A nuclear-pow-
ered submarine bestowed on India the status of a
nation possessing a blue-water navy because the boat
can travel far and wide. While the Navy designed
INS Arihant, the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
(BARC) built the mini-nuclear reactor that powers
the submarine, the DRDO developed the K-15 mis-
siles. The K-15 missiles have been test-fired several
times from submerged pontoons off the coast of
Visakhapatnam. A missile emerging from the water
without losing its fire was a technology in itself.
A distinct advantage of a nuclear-powered subma-
rine is that while it can remain under water for a long
duration, a diesel-fired submarine has to rise to the
surface every day for ejecting the carbon-dioxide
produced by the diesel-generator. Otherwise, the
boat’s crew will face problem.
In a nuclear-energy system used in a submarine, there
is no emission of carbon-dioxide. It is a clean form
of energy. The turbine operating on enriched ura-
nium in INS Arihant is a clean system. But a diesel-
generator emits carbon-dioxide. It is can not dis-
charge it into the water. So the submarine has to be
brought up to the surface every day to eject the car-
bon-dioxide into the atmosphere.
India, now joined a select group of five countries,
which possess the capability to build a nuclear-pow-
ered submarine. That the construction of a subma-
rine was a highly demanding task in itself was known,
but for a country to develop its first nuclear subma-
rine was a special achievement.
The formal launch for sea trials of the platform called
a cryptic ‘S2’ lifted the secrecy around the Advanced
Technology Vessel Project cleared for implementa-
tion by Indira Gandhi in 1984 and whose first step in
steel cutting commenced in 1998. To date the project
is estimated to have cost Rs. 30,000 crore.
Indian Current Capabilities
The Indian Navy currently deploys 16 submarines,
which are based at Vishakhapatnam on the east coast
and Mumbai on the west coast. A third base is being
built on the west coast at Karwar as well. The most
modern vessels are four Shishumar-class Type 209/
1500 units designed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche
Werft(HWD). Ten Sindhugosh-class Type 877EM
vessels form the backbone of the submarine force
and are being upgraded to launch Klub/3M-54E Alfa
cruise missiles. Two aging Foxtrot-class boats are in
the process of being decommissioned and will be
replaced with six Scorpène-class boats. India expects
to float a tender on six more diesel submarines in
2009.
For the past two decades, India has also been work-
ing on the development of an indigenous nuclear-
propelled submarine, referred to as the advanced
technology vessel (ATV). The ATV submarine, work
on which began in the 1970s, is a complex project
that has faced multiple difficulties. Although there
have been few signs of progress as of late, one ves-
sel is reportedly now under construction at Mazagon
Docks Ltd., with sea trials expected in 2009.Some
sources indicate that construction of as many as five
nuclear submarines is planned. For the time being, it
remains unclear whether the ATV will be fitted with
ballistic or cruise missiles; India’s submarine-launched
missile program includes development of both.
The Indian Navy's area of operation includes the
Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Bay of Ben-
gal. These waters include numerous sea lines of com-
munication (SLOC) chokepoints, such as the Strait
of Hormuz, Bab El Mandeb, and the Malacca
Straits. Almost 97% of India's foreign trade by vol-
ume and 60% of the world's sea-borne trade and
energy resources are transported through these stra-
tegic bottlenecks. This share of critical global trade
is likely to be amplified by the growing energy de-
mands and industrial exports of East and Southeast
Asia.
Section -2 (Hot Topics : Arihant Class Submarine)
81 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
Consequently, one of the Indian Navy's fundamental
tasks involves the establishment of sea control to
protect its vital SLOCs. It has traditionally paid par-
ticular attention to Pakistani Navy developments, as
India and Pakistan have had numerous hot and cold
conflicts over the years. Gradually, though, the fo-
cus of the Indian Navy is shifting to the Chinese Navy,
as acknowledged in the recently publicized Indian
Maritime Doctrine. This document reiterates earlier
calls for a stronger deterrent capability against for-
eign intervention by non-littoral navies. With this in
mind, India has been modernizing its fleet and has
been continually interested in procuring nuclear at-
tack and diesel submarines, establishing two aircraft
carrier groups, and developing new cruise missiles.
Indian officials have repeatedly indicated their con-
cerns over China’s progress on nuclear submarine
construction. Deterrence against non-littoral navies
is not limited to China, however. The recent and
planned acquisitions of naval vessels by a number of
ASEAN nations are also mentioned in the doctrine.
In addition, the deployment of a US carrier task force
to the Bay of Bengal during the 1971 Indo-Pakistani
war is unlikely to have been forgotten. As such, the
continued US presence at Diego Garcia and Bahrain
may represent a concern to the Indian Navy as well.
Aside from sea control and denial roles, the Indian
Navy executes counter-terrorism, anti-drug traffick-
ing, and anti-piracy operations within its area of in-
terest. These roles are complicated not only by the
great amount of shipping traffic, but also by the size
of India's exclusive economic zone of 2.02 million
square kilometers, to which 1.5 million square kilo-
meters will be added in 2004 in accordance with in-
ternational treaties. The aforementioned choke
points, in particular, represent attractive targets for
potential terrorist attacks.
India's ambitions for a sea-based nuclear deterrent
were acknowledged in 1998. After executing a num-
ber of nuclear tests, the government declared that its
future minimum nuclear deterrent (MND) would be
based on a triad: a combination of airborne, naval,
and land-based platforms. The recently released mari-
time doctrine clarifies this still further, calling spe-
cifically for the establishment of a submarine-based
MND. The triad could be completed with the suc-
cessful conclusion of India's ATV program, with a
lease of nuclear submarines, or perhaps, to a lesser
extent, with the acquisition of air-independent pro-
pulsion (AIP) submarines. India has had experience
leasing a nuclear-powered submarine: from 1988 to
1991 it leased a Project 670 Skat (NATO name
Charlie I) class nuclear-powered cruise missile sub-
marine from the Soviet Union, the K-43 (renamed
Chakra while in Indian service). The reactors were
operated by a Soviet crew and the vessel was re-
turned to the Soviet Union. Press reports have indi-
cated since 1999 that Russia and India have been
negotiating lease of a Project 971 Shchuka B (NATO
name Akula II) submarine, likely the K-152 Nerpa,
as a follow-on to the K-43 lease.
Given the various tasks and increasing role assigned
to the Indian Navy, an earlier strategic review and
Project 75, a 30-year procurement plan, have alleg-
edly called for the procurement of 24 submarines to
"maintain adequate operational force levels." These
boats should be comprised of two locally built sub-
marine classes. On October 6, 2005, India signed a
contract with France's Armaris (a joint venture be-
tween France's DCN and Spain's Navantia, formerly
Izar) for six Scorpène-class vessels with an option
for an additional six units, to be constructed at the
Mazagon Shipyard in Mumbai. The first boat is to
be delivered in 2012, with the rest following over
the course of five years. India is reportedly consid-
ering the installation of MESMA, the French AIP
system, beginning with the third boat/It has been
suggested that the second main production line could
be a version of the Russian Amur-class; six to eight
Amur-1650s are on the Indian Navy's list of pro-
spective acquisitions as part of its 30-year subma-
rine procurement plan.
Types of Submarines
Diesel Submarines: The Indian Navy currently main-
tains a fleet of 16 diesel powered submarines. These
are primarily of Russian and German origin. India
signed a deal for six Scorpene submarines with
MESMA air-independent propulsion, and construc-
tion has begun. These submarines will join the In-
dian Navy from 2010-11 onwards. The Indian Navy
Section -2 (Hot Topics : Arihant Class Submarine)
82 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
may arm its Kilo class submarine fleet with the
BrahMos cruise missiles after successfully complet-
ing test launches from the submarine. India will is-
sue request for proposals for another six submarines
in financial year 2008-09.
Unmanned Submarines: The National Institute of
Oceanography has developed the Autonomous Un-
derwater Vehicle(AUV) that has applications in the
field of Oceanographic research. Also an Autono-
mous Surface Vehicle (ASV) has been developed.
Nuclear Powered Submarines: In January 1988 In-
dia leased for three years an ex-Soviet Charlie class
nuclear powered guided missile submarine with eight
Ametist (SS-N-7 Starbright) anti-shipping missile
launchers. In the Indian Navy, the ship was chris-
tened INS Chakra, and the submarine was manned
by an Indian crew. Upon expiration of the ship leas-
ing term in 1991, the submarine was returned to
Russia and joined the Pacific Fleet of the Russian
Navy. India's indigenously designed and built nuclear-
powered ballistic missile submarines of the Arihant
class are expected to be commissioned starting in
2011.
Planned Acquisitions
The Navy is in negotiations with Russia to acquire
the Kiev class aircraft carrier Admiral Gorshkov(INS
Vikrmaditya), however negotiations are stalled due
to escalating price demands from Russia.
the Indian Navy is also negotiating with Russia for
the acquisition of an Negotiations are also under-
way for the acquisition of an updated version of
Talwar class frigates, and the Scorpène class subma-
rines.
India started a program in 1985 to develop indig-
enous technologies for building a nuclear-powered
submarine, known as the Advanced Technology Ves-
sel (ATV) project .The first Advanced Technology
Vessel is called INS Arihant, was launched on July
26, 2009. The hull for the vessel has been built by
Larsen& Toubro at its A naval version of a nuclear
reactor has been developed at the Indira Gandhi
Centre For Atomic Research , Kalpakkam, and will
be deployed on the submarine's hull after miniatur-
ization. The Prototype Testing Centre (PTC) will be
used to test the submarine's turbines and propellers.
A similar facility is operational at Vishakhapatnam
to test the main turbines and gear box.
Once the vessel is completed, it may be equipped
with Sagarika/Agni-3 ballistic missiles and advanced
Indian made sonar systems. According to defense
sources, the ATV is expected to be launched in 2009
and commissioned in 2010. Each unit will cost one
billion U.S. dollars. Government has given approval
for constructing the follow on SSBN's which will be
larger than the Arihant class submarines. Approval
has also been given for the construction of SSN's
which will escort the SSBN's.
India is reportedly paying two billion dollars for the
completion of two Akula-2 class submarines which
were 40-60% completed. Three hundred Indian Navy
personnel are being trained in Russia for the opera-
tion of these submarines. India has finalized a deal
with Russia, in which at the end of the lease of these
submarines, it has an option to buy them. According
to report, the first submarine will be commissioned
into the Indian Navy in September, 2009. The first
submarine will be named INS Chakra, it is currently
undergoing trials in the Pacific ocean.
Section -2 (Hot Topics : Arihant Class Submarine)
83 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
Bank Statement: A record, usually sent to the ac-
count holder once per month, summarizing all trans-
actions in an account during the time from the previ-
ous statement to the current statement. The opening
balance from the prior month combined with the net
of all transactions during the period should result in
the closing balance for the current statement.
Consumers should
carefully review
their bank state-
ments and retain
them for their own
records. In recon-
ciling their own
record of transac-
tions with the
bank's records, ac-
count holders
should be on the
lookout for incor-
rect or transposed
numbers as well as
u n a u t h o r i z e d
transactions. Discrepancies should be reported as
soon as possible, in writing if possible.
Bankruptcy: A legal proceeding involving a person
or business that is unable to repay outstanding debts.
The bankruptcy process begins with a petition filed
by the debtor (most common) or on behalf of credi-
tors (less common). All of the debtor's assets are
measured and evaluated, whereupon the assets are
used to repay a portion of outstanding debt. Upon
the successful completion of bankruptcy proceed-
ings, the debtor is relieved of the debt obligations
incurred prior to filing for bankruptcy.
Banknote: A negotiable promissory note issued by
a bank and payable to the bearer on demand. The
amount payable is stated on the face of the note.
Banknotes are considered legal tender, and, along
with coins, make up the bearer forms of all modern
money.
Economy Special
Terminology and Concept
Also known as a "bill" or a "note." Originally, objects
such as gold and silver were used to pay for goods
and services. Eventually, they were replaced by pa-
per money and coins that were backed by precious
metals.
Currently, banknotes are backed only by the govern-
ment. Although in earlier times commercial banks
could issue banknotes, the Federal Reserve Bank is
now the only bank in the United
States that can create banknotes.
Promissory Note: A written, dated
and signed two-party instrument
containing an unconditional prom-
ise by the maker to pay a definite
sum of money to a payee on demand
or at a specified future date. The
only difference between a promis-
sory note and a bill of exchange is
that the maker of a note pays the
payee personally, rather than order-
ing a third party to do so.
When a bank is the maker promising to repay money
it has received plus interest, the promissory note is
called a certificate of deposit (CD).
Treasury Note: A marketable U.S. government debt
security with a fixed interest rate and a maturity be-
tween one and 10 years. Treasury notes can be bought
either directly from the U.S. government or through
a bank.
When buying Treasury notes from the government,
you can either put in a competitive or noncompeti-
tive bid. With a competitive bid, you specify the yield
you want; however, this does not mean that your bid
will be approved. With a noncompetitive bid, you
accept whatever yield is determined at auction. Trea-
sury notes are extremely popular investments as there
is a large secondary market that adds to their liquid-
ity. Interest payments on the notes are made every
six months until maturity. The income for interest
payments is not taxable on a municipal or state level
but is federally taxed.
Section -2 (Hot Topics : Economy Special)
84 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
Hard Currency: A currency, usually from a highly
industrialized country, that is widely accepted around
the world as a form of payment for goods and ser-
vices. A hard currency is expected to remain rela-
tively stable through a short period of time, and to
be highly liquid in the forex market. Another crite-
rion for a hard currency is that the currency
must come from a politically and economically stable
country. The U.S. dollar and the British pound are
good examples of hard currencies.
Hard Loan: A foreign loan that must be paid in the
currency of a nation that has stability and a reputa-
tion abroad for economic strength (a hard currency).
For example, a loan agreement between a Brazilian
company and an Argentinean company where the
debt is to be paid in U.S. dollars.
Hard Money: 1. Funding by a government or orga-
nization that is repetitive, rather than a one-time
grant. Examples include ongoing government daycare
subsidies or firms that pay annual scholarships to
post-secondary students.
2. Describes gold/silver/platinum (bullion) coins. A
government that uses a hard money policy backs the
value of the currency it uses with a hard, tangible
and lasting material that will retain its relative value
over time.
Governments and organizations prefer hard money
because it provides a predictable stream of funds. For
example, in the early 1900s, the U.S. dollar was
backed by the value of gold. Today, most countries
use fiat money, which is made legal tender by gov-
ernment decree but has no intrinsic value of its own.
Gold Standard: A monetary system in which a
country's government allows its currency unit to
be freely converted into fixed amounts of gold and
vice versa. The exchange rate under the gold stan-
dard monetary system is determined by the economic
difference for an ounce of gold between two
currencies. The gold standard was mainly used from
1875 to 1914 and also during the interwar years. The
use of the gold standard would mark the first use of
formalized exchange rates in history. However, the
system was flawed because countries needed to hold
large gold reserves in order to keep up with
the volatile nature of supply and demand for cur-
rency.
After World War II, a modified version of the gold
standard monetary system, the Bretton Woods mon-
etary system, was created as its successor. This
successor system was initially successful, but because
it also depended heavily on gold reserves, it was aban-
doned in 1971 when U.S president Nixon "closed
the gold window".
Bullion: Gold and silver that is officially recognized
as high quality (at least 99.5% pure), and is in the
form of bars rather than coins.
Traditionally, bullion has been a good hedge against
inflation.
Inflation: The rate at which the general level of prices
for goods and services is rising, and, subsequently,
purchasing power is falling. Central banks attempt
to stop severe inflation, along with severe deflation,
in an attempt to keep the excessive growth of prices
to a minimum. As inflation rises, every dollar will
buy a smaller percentage of a good. For example, if
the inflation rate is 2%, then a $1 pack of gum will
cost $1.02 in a year.
Most countries' central banks will try to sustain an
inflation rate of 2-3%.
Consumer Price Index – CPI:A
measure that examines the weighted average of
prices of a basket of consumer goods and services,
such as transportation, food and medical care. The
CPI is calculated by taking price changes for each
item in the predetermined basket of goods and aver-
aging them; the goods are weighted according to their
importance. Changes in CPI are used to assess
price changes associated with the cost of living.
Sometimes referred to as "headline inflation".
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics measures two
kinds of CPI statistics: CPI for urban wage earners
and clerical workers (CPI-W), and the chained CPI
for all urban consumers (C-CPI-U). Of the two types
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of CPI, the C-CPI-U is a better representation of the
general public, because it accounts for about 87%
of the population.
CPI is one of the most frequently used statistics for
identifying periods of inflation or deflation. This
is because large rises in CPI during a short period of
time typically denote periods of inflation and large
drops in CPI during a short period of time
usually mark periods of deflation.
Consumer Price Index For All Urban Consumers
(CPI-U): A measure that examines the changes in
the price of a basket of goods and services purchased
by urban consumers. The urban consumer popula-
tion is deemed by many as a better representative
measure of the general public because most of the
country's population lives in highly populated areas,
which represent close to 90% of the total popula-
tion. CPI is the most frequently used statistic for
identifying inflation or deflation. The CPI-U only
considers the prices paid for goods and services by
those that live in urban areas. Rising CPI-U figures
means that the prices of goods/services within the
urban population are becoming more expensive
and can be a sign of rising inflation.
All variants of the CPI are similar to cost of living
indexes as they assess prices in the market based on
the goods and services needed to achieve a given
standard of living. Different measures of CPI differ
from cost of living indexes because they do not ac-
count for changes in other facets of standard of liv-
ing, such as changes in environmental factors.
Deflation: A general decline in prices, often caused
by a reduction in the supply of money or
credit. Deflation can be caused also by a decrease in
government, personal or investment spending. The
opposite of inflation, deflation has the side effect of
increased unemployment since there is a lower level
of demand in the economy, which can lead to an eco-
nomic depression. Central banks attempt to stop se-
vere deflation, along with severe inflation, in an at-
tempt to keep the excessive drop in prices to a mini-
mum.
The decline in prices of assets, is often known as
Asset Deflation.
Declining prices, if they persist, generally create a
vicious spiral of negatives such as falling profits,
closing factories, shrinking employment and incomes,
and increasing defaults on loans by companies and
individuals. To counter deflation, the Federal Reserve
(the Fed) can use monetary policy to increase the
money supply and deliberately induce rising
prices, causing inflation. Rising prices provide an
essential lubricant for any sustained recovery because
businesses increase profits and take some of the de-
pressive pressures off wages and debtors of every
kind.
Deflationary periods can be both short or long, rela-
tively speaking. Japan, for example, had a period of
deflation lasting decades starting in the early 1990's.
The Japanese government lowered interest rates to
try and stimulate inflation, to no avail. Zero interest
rate policy was ended in July of 2006.
Disinflation: A slowing in the rate of price inflation.
Disinflation is used to describe instances when the
inflation rate has reduced marginally over the short
term. Although it is used to describe periods of slow-
ing inflation, disinflation should not be confused with
deflation. Disinflation is commonly used by the Fed-
eral Reserve to describe situations of slowing infla-
tion. Instances of disinflation are not uncommon and
are viewed as normal during healthy economic times.
Although sometimes confused with deflation,
disinflation is not considered to be as problematic
because prices do not act ually drop and
disinflation does not usually signal the onset of a
slowing economy.
Reflation: A fiscal or monetary policy, designed to
expand a country's output and curb the effects of
deflation. Reflation policies can include reducing
taxes, changing the money supply and lowering in-
terest rates.
The term "reflation" is also used to describe the first
phase of economic recovery after a period of con-
traction. Reflation policy has been used by Ameri-
can governments, to try and restart failed business
expansions since the early 1600s. Although almost
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every government tries in some form or another to
avoid the collapse of an economy after a recent boom,
none have ever succeeded in being able to avoid the
contraction phase of the business cycle. Many aca-
demics actually believe government agitation only
delays the recovery and worsens the effects.
Price Inflation: An increase in the price of a stan-
dardized good/service or a basket of goods/services
over a specific period of time (usually one year).
Because the nominal amount of money available in
an economy tends to grow larger every year relative
to the supply of goods available for purchase, this
overall demand pull tends to cause some degree of
price inflation. Price inflation can also be seen in a
slightly different form, where the price of a good is
the same year over year, but the amount of the good
received gradually decreases. For example, you
may notice this in low-cost snack foods such as po-
tato chips and chocolate bars, where the weight of
the product gradually decreases, while the price re-
mains the same.
Reflation:A fiscal or monetary policy, designed to
expand a country's output and curb the effects of
deflation. Reflation policies can include reducing
taxes, changing the money supply and lowering in-
terest rates.
The term "reflation" is also used to describe the first
phase of economic recovery after a period of con-
traction. Reflation policy has been used by Ameri-
can governments, to try and restart failed business
expansions since the early 1600s. Although almost
every government tries in some form or another to
avoid the collapse of an economy after a recent boom,
none have ever succeeded in being able to avoid the
contraction phase of the business cycle. Many aca-
demics actually believe government agitation only
delays the recovery and worsens the effects.
Stagflation: A condition of slow economic growth
and relatively high unemployment - a time of stagna-
tion - accompanied by a rise in prices, or inflation.
Stagflation occurs when the economy isn't growing
but prices are, which is not a good situation for a
country to be in. This happened to a great extent
during the 1970s, when world oil prices rose dra-
matically, fueling sharp inflation in developed coun-
tries. For these countries, including the U.S., stag-
nation increased the inflationary effects.
Stagnation: A period of little or no growth in the
economy. Economic growth of less than 2-3% is
considered stagnation. Sometimes used to describe
low trading volume or inactive trading in securities.
A good example of stagnation was the U.S. economy
in the 1970s.
Acquisition Loan: A loan given to a company to
purchase a specific asset or to be used for purposes
that are laid out before the loan is granted. The ac-
quisition loan is typically only able to be used for a
short window of time, and only for specific purposes.
Once repaid, funds available through an acquisition
loan cannot be reborrowed as with a revolving line
of credit at a bank. Acquisition loans are sought
when a company wants to complete an acquisition
for an asset but doesn't have enough liquid capital to
do so. The company may be able to get more favor-
able terms on an acquisition loan because the assets
being purchased have a tangible value, as opposed
to capital being used to fund daily operations or re-
lease a new product line.
Producer Price Index – PPI: A family of indexes
that measures the average change in selling prices
received by domestic producers of goods and ser-
vices over time. PPIs measure price change from the
perspective of the seller. The PPI looks at three ar-
eas of production: industry-based, commodity-based,
and stage-of-processing-based companies.
Hyperinflation: Extremely rapid or out of control
inflation. There is no precise numerical definition to
hyperinflation. Hyperinflation is a situation where
the price increases are so out of control that, the
When associated with depressions, hyperinflation
often occurs when there is a large increase in the
money supply not supported by gross domestic prod-
uct (GDP) growth, resulting in an imbalance in the
supply and demand for the money. Left unchecked
this causes prices to increase, as the currency loses
its value.
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When associated with wars, hyperinflation often oc-
curs when there is a loss of confidence in a currency's
ability to maintain its value in the aftermath. Because
of this, sellers demand a risk premium to accept the
currency, and they do this by raising their prices.
One of the most famous examples of hyperinflation
occurred in Germany between January 1922 and
November 1923. By some estimates, the average
price level increased by a factor of 20 billion, dou-
bling every 28 hoursoncept of inflation is meaning-
less.
Agflation: An increase in the price of food that oc-
curs as a result of increased demand from human
consumption and use as an alternative energy re-
source. While the competitive nature of retail super-
markets allows some of the effects of agflation to be
absorbed, the price increases that agflation causes are
largely passed on to the end consumer. The term is
derived from a combination of the words "agricul-
ture" and "inflation".
Interest in alternative energies contributes to
agflation. In order to produce biofuel (such as
biodiesel and ethanol), manufacturers need to use
food products such soybeans and corn. This creates
more demand for these products, which causes their
prices to increase.
Unfortunately, these price increases spread to other
non-fuel related grains (such as rice and wheat) as
consumers switch to less expensive substitutes for
consumption. Furthermore, agflation will also affect
non-vegetative foods (eggs, meat and dairy) as the
price increases for grain will make livestock feed more
expensive as well.
Retail Price Index – RPI: An index that gathers the
prices of several retail goods in outlets across the
United States in order to give an indication of the
rate of inflation. This is similar to the CPI and PPI
reports that are released each month. An index that
measures and tracks the changes in price of goods in
the stages before the retail level. Wholesale price in-
dexes (WPIs) report monthly to show the average
price changes of goods sold in bulk, and they are a
group of the indicators that follow growth in the
economy.
Although some countries still use the WPIs as a
measure of inflation, many countries, including the
United States, use the producer price index (PPI)
instead.
Macroeconomics: The field of economics that stud-
ies the behavior of t he aggregate economy.
Macroeconomics examines economy-wide phenom-
ena such as changes in unemployment, national in-
come, rate of growth, gross domestic product, infla-
tion and price levels. Macroeconomics is focused on
the movement and trends in the economy as a whole,
while in microeconomics the focus is placed on fac-
tors that affect the decisions made by firms and indi-
viduals. The factors that are studied by macro and
micro will often influence each other, such as the
current level of unemployment in the economy as a
whole will affect the supply of workers which an oil
company can hire from, for example.
Microeconomics: The branch of economics that ana-
lyzes the market behavior of individual consumers
and firms in an attempt to understand the decision-
making process of firms and households. It is con-
cerned with the interaction between individual buy-
ers and sellers and the factors that influence the
choices made by buyers and sellers. In particular,
microeconomics focuses on patterns of supply and
demand and the determination of price and output in
individual markets (e.g. coffee industry).
Green Economics: A methodology of economics
that supports the harmonious interaction between hu-
mans and nature and attempts to meet the needs
of both simultaneously. The green economic
theories encompass a wide range of ideas all dealing
with the interconnected relationship between people
and the environment. Green economists assert that
the basis for all economic decisions should be in some
way tied to the ecosystem.
Green economists perceive nature as being extremely
valuable and seek to maintain it. Supporters of this
branch of economics are concerned with the envi-
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ronment and believe that actions should be taken to
protect nature and encourage the positive co-exist-
ence of both humans and nature. Emphasis is placed
on creating value through quality rather than on ac-
cumulating material items and money.The field of
economics is broken down into two distinct areas of
study: microeconomics and macroeconomics.
Microeconomics looks at the smaller picture and
focuses more on basic theories of supply and demand
and how individual businesses decide how much of
something to produce and how much to charge for
it. People who have any desire to start their own
business or who want to learn the rationale behind
the pricing of particular products and services would
be more interested in this area.
Macroeconomics, on the other hand, looks at the
big picture (hence "macro"). It focuses on the na-
tional economy as a whole and provides a basic
knowledge of how things work in the business world.
For example, people who study this branch of eco-
nomics would be able to interpret the latest Gross
Domestic Product figures or explain why a 6% rate
of unemployment is not necessarily a bad thing. Thus,
for an overall perspective of how the entire economy
works, you need to have an understanding of eco-
nomics at both the micro and macro levels.
Gross Domestic Product – GDP: The monetary value
of all the finished goods and services produced within
a country's borders in a specific time period, though
GDP is usually calculated on an annual basis. It in-
cludes all of private and public consumption, gov-
ernment outlays, investments and exports less im-
ports that occur within a defined territory.
GDP = C + G + I + NX
where:
"C" is equal to all private consumption, or consumer
spending, in a nation's economy
"G" is the sum of government spending
"I" is the sum of all the country's businesses spend-
ing on capital
"NX" is the nation's total net exports, calculated as
total exports minus total imports. (NX = Exports -
Imports).
GDP is commonly used as an indicator of the eco-
nomic health of a country, as well as to gauge a
country's standard of living. Critics of using GDP as
an economic measure say the statistic does not take
into account the underground economy - transac-
tions that, for whatever reason, are not reported to
the government. Others say that GDP is not intended
to gauge material well-being, but serves as a mea-
sure of a nation's productivity, which is unrelated.
Gross National Product – GNP: An economic
statistic that includes GDP, plus any income earned
by residents from overseas investments, minus in-
come earned within the domestic economy by over-
seas residents. GNP is a measure of a country's eco-
nomic performance, or what its citizens produced
(i.e. goods and services) and whether they produced
these items within its border.
Black Market : A type of economic activity that
takes place outside of government-sanctioned chan-
nels. Black-market transactions typically occur as a
way for participants to avoid government price con-
trols or taxes, conducting transactions 'under the
table'. The black market is also the means by which
illegal substances or products - such as illicit drugs,
firearms or stolen goods - are bought and sold. While
the black market is commonly associated with crimi-
nal activities involving drugs or weapons, it also has
a financial component: black currency-
exchange markets almost always appear when gov-
ernment controls on exchange rates prevent the use
of natural exchange rates in the global marketplace.
Gross National Product – GNP: An economic
statistic that includes GDP, plus any income earned
by residents from overseas investments, minus in-
come earned within the domestic economy by over-
seas residents. GNP is a measure of a country's eco-
nomic performance, or what its citizens produced
(i.e. goods and services) and whether they produced
these items within its borders.
Real Economic Growth Rate: A measure
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of economic growth from one period to another ex-
pressed as a percentage and adjusted for inflation
(i.e. expressed in real as opposed to nominal terms).
The real economic growth rate is a measure of the
rate of change that a nation's gross domestic prod-
uct (GDP) experiences from one year to another.
Gross national product (GNP) can also be used if a
nation's economy is heavily dependent on foreign
earnings.
The real economic growth rate builds onto the eco-
nomic growth rate by taking into account the effect
that inflation has on the economy. The real economic
growth rate is a "constant dollar" and is therefore a
more accurate look at the rate of economic growth
because it is not distorted by the effects of extreme
inflation or deflation.
Real Gross Domestic
Product (GDP): This in-
flation-adjusted measure
that reflects the value of
all goods and services
produced in a given year,
expressed in base-year
prices. Often referred to as
"constant-price", "infla-
tion-corrected" GDP or
"constant dollar GDP".
Unlike nominal GDP, real
GDP can account for
changes in the price level,
and provide a
more accurate figure.Let's consider an example. Say
in 2004, nominal GDP is $200 billion. However, due
to an increase in the level of prices from 2000 (the
base year) to 2004, real GDP is actually $170
billion. The lower real GDP reflects the price changes
while nominal does not.
Nominal GDP: A gross domestic product (GDP)
figure that has not been adjusted for inflation.
Also known as "current dollar GDP" or "chained
dollar GDP". It can be misleading when inflation is
not accounted for in the GDP figure because the GDP
will appear higher than it actually is. The same con-
cept that applies to return on investment (ROI)
applies here. If you have a 10% ROI and inflation
for the year has been 3%, your real rate of return
would be 7%. Similarly, if the nominal GDP figure
has shot up 8% but inflation has been 4%, the real
GDP has only increased 4%.
Nominal Interest Rate: The interest rate unadjusted
for inflation. Not taking into account inflation gives
a less realistic number.
Real Interest Rate: An interest rate that has been
adjusted to remove the effects of inflation to reflect
the real cost of funds to the borrower, and the real
yield to the lender. The real interest rate of an
investment is calculated as the amount by which the
nominal interest rate is higher than the inflation rate.
Real Interest Rate = Nominal Interest Rate - Infla-
tion (Expected or Actual).The real interest rate is
the growth rate of purchasing power derived from
an investment. By adjusting the nominal interest rate
to compensate for inflation, you are keeping the pur-
chasing power of a given level of capital constant
over time.
Blended Rate: 1. An interest rate charged on a loan,
which is in between a previous rate and the new rate.
Blended rates are usually offered through the refi-
nancing of previous loans, and charge a rate that is
higher than the old loan's rate but lower than the rate
on a new loan.
2. A rate that is calculated for accounting purposes to
better understand the debt obligation for several loans
with different rates or the revenue from streams of
interest income. The blended rate is used to calcu-
late the pooled cost of funds.
Banks use a blended rate to retain customers and
increase loan amounts to proven, creditworthy cli-
ents. For example, if a customer currently holds a 7%
interest, $75,000 mortgage and wishes to refinance,
and the current rate is 9%, the bank might offer a
blended rate of 8%. The borrower could then decide
to refinance for $145,000 with a blended rate of 8%.
He or she would still pay 7% on the initial $75,000,
but only 8% on the additional $70,000. The blended
rate is used in cost-of-funds accounting to quantify
liabilities or investment income on a balance sheet.
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For example, if a company had two loans, one for
$1,000 at 5% and the other for $3,000 at 6% and
paid the interest off every month, the $1,000 loan
would charge $50 after one year and the $3,000 loan
would charge $180. The blended rate would there-
fore be (50+180)/4000 or 5.75%.
Refinance: 1. When a business or person revises a
payment schedule for repaying debt.
2. Replacing an older loan with a new loan offering
better terms.
When a business refinances, it typically extends the
maturity date. When individuals change their monthly
payments or modify the rate of interest on their loans,
it usually involves a penalty fee.
GDP Gap: The forfeited output of a country's
economy resulting from the failure to create suffi-
cient jobs for all those willing to work. A GDP gap
denotes the amount of production that is irretriev-
ably lost. The potential for higher production levels
is wasted because there aren't enough jobs supplied.
Frictional Unemployment :Unemployment that is
always present in the economy, resulting from tem-
porary transitions made by workers and employers
or from workers and employers having inconsistent
or incomplete information. For example, a first-time
job seeker may lack the resources or efficiency for
finding the company that has the job that is available
and suitable for him or her. As a result this person
does not take other work, temporarily holding out
for the better-paying job.
Another example of when frictional employment
occurs is when a company abstains from hiring be-
cause it believes there are not enough qualified indi-
viduals available for the job, when in actuality there
is.
Natural Unemployment :The lowest rate of unem-
ployment that an economy can sustain over the long
run. Keynesians believe that a government can lower
the rate of unemployment (i.e. employ more people)
if it were willing to accept a higher level of inflation
(the idea behind the Phillips Curve). However, crit-
ics of this say that the effect is temporary and that
unemployment would bounce back up but inflation
would stay high. Thus, the natural, or equilibrium,
rate is the lowest level of unemployment at which
inflation remains stable. Also known as the "non-
accelerating inflation rate of unemployment"
(NAIRU).
When the economy is said to be at full employment,
it is at its natural rate of unemployment. Economists
debate how the natural rate might change. For ex-
ample, some economists think that increasing labor-
market flexibility will reduce the natural rate. Other
economists dispute the existence of a natural rate
altogether!
Okun's Law :A relationship between an economy's
GDP gap and the actual unemployment rate.
The relationship is represented by a ratio of 1 to 2.5.
Thus, for every 1% excess of the natural unemploy-
ment rate, a 2.5% GDP gap is predicted.
Phillips Curve :An economic concept developed by
A. W. Phillips stating that inflation and unemploy-
ment have a stable and inverse relationship. Accord-
ing to the Phillips curve, the lower an economy's rate
of unemployment, the more rapidly wages paid to
labor increase in that economy. The theory states that
with economic growth comes inflation, which in turn
should lead to more jobs and less unemployment.
However, the original concept has been somewhat
disproven empirically due to the occurrence of
stagflation in the 1970s, when there were high levels
of both inflation and unemployment.
Structural Unemployment :Unemployment result-
ing from changes in the basic composition of the
economy. These changes simultaneously open new
positions for trained workers. An example of struc-
tural unemployment is the technological revolution.
Computers may have eliminated jobs, but they also
opened up new positions for those who have the skills
to operate the computers.
Cyclical Unemployment :A factor of overall un-
employment that relates to the cyclical trends in
growth and production that occur within the busi-
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ness cycle. When business cycles are at their peak,
cyclical unemployment will be low because total eco-
nomic output is being maximized. When economic
output falls, as measured by the gross domestic prod-
uct (GDP), the business cycle is low and cyclical
unemployment will rise.
Economists describe cyclical unemployment as the
result of businesses not having enough demand for
labor to employ all those who are looking for work.
The lack of employer demand comes from a lack of
spending and consumpt ion in t he overall
economy. Cyclical unemployment is one of five
classes of unemployment as recognized by econo-
mists. Other types include structural, frictional, clas-
sical and Marxian. In most cases, several types of
unemployment exist at the same time. With the ex-
ception of cyclical unemployment, the other classes
can be occurring even at the peak ranges of business
cycles, when the economy is said to be at or near
“full employment”.
Coincident Indicator :An economic factor that var-
ies directly and simultaneously with the business
cycle, thus indicating the current state of the
economy. Some examples include nonagricultural
employment, personal income and industrial produc-
tion.
Lagging Indicator :1. A measurable economic fac-
tor that changes after the economy has already be-
gun to follow a particular pattern or trend.
2. A technical indicator that trails the price action of
an underlying asset and is used by traders to gener-
ate transaction signals or to confirm the strength of
a given trend. Since these indicators lag the price of
the asset, a significant move will generally occur be-
fore the indicator is able to provide a signal.
Lagging indicators confirm long-term trends, but they
do not predict them. Some examples are unemploy-
ment, corporate profits and labor cost per unit of
output. Interest rates are another good lagging indi-
cator; rates change after severe market changes.
An example of a lagging indicator is a moving aver-
age crossover, because it occurs after a certain price
move has already happened. Technical traders use a
short-term average crossing above a long-term av-
erage as confirmation when placing buy orders since
it suggests an increase in momentum. The drawback
of using this method is that a significant move may
have already occurred, resulting in the trader enter-
ing a position too late.
Leading Indicator :A measurable economic factor
that changes before the economy starts to follow a
particular pattern or trend. Leading indicators are
used to predict changes in the economy, but are not
always accurate. Bond yields are typically a good
leading indicator of the market because traders an-
ticipate and speculate trends in the economy.
Business Cycle :The recurring and fluctuating lev-
els of economic activity that an economy experiences
over a long period of time. The five stages of the
business cycle are growth (expansion), peak, reces-
sion (contraction), trough and recovery. At one time,
business cycles were thought to be extremely regu-
lar, with predictable durations, but today they are
widely believed to be irregular, varying in frequency,
magnitude and duration.
Since the World War II, most business cycles have
lasted three to five years from peak to peak. The
average duration of an expansion is 44.8 months and
the average duration of a recession is 11 months. As
a comparison, the Great Depression - which saw a
decline in economic activity from 1929 to 1933 -
lasted 43 months.
Hard Landing :A term used to describe an economy
going into recession as the government attempts to
slow down inflation. The Fed will try to avoid a hard
landing by raising interest rates only enough to slow
the economy down without putting it into recession
(a soft landing).
Overheated Economy :When a prolonged period
of good economic growth and activity causes high
levels of inflation (from increased consumer wealth)
and inefficient supply allocations as producers over-
produce and create excess production capacity in an
attempt to capitalize on the high levels of wealth.
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Unfortunately, these inefficiencies and inflation will
eventually hinder the economy's growth and cause a
recession. Rising rates of inflation are typically one
of the first signs that an economy is overheating. As
a result, governments and central banks will usually
raise interest rates in an attempt to lower the amount
of spending and borrowing.
Between June 2004 and June 2006, the Federal Re-
serve Board increased the interest rate 17 times as a
gradual means of slowing America's overheated
economy.
Full Employment :A situation in which
all available labor resources are being used in the
most economically efficient way. Full employment
embodies the highest amount of skilled and unskilled
labor that could be employed within an economy at
any given time. The remaining unemployment is fric-
tional. Frictional unemployment is the amount of
unemployment that results from workers who are in
between jobs, but are still in the labor force. Full
employment is attainable within any economy, but
may result in an inflationary period. The inflation
would result from workers, as a whole, having more
disposable income, which would drive prices upward.
Many economists have estimated the amount of fric-
tional unemployment, with the number ranging from
2-7% of the labor force.
Cyclical Unemployment : A factor of overall un-
employment that relates to the cyclical trends in
growth and production that occur within the busi-
ness cycle. When business cycles are at their peak,
cyclical unemployment will be low because total eco-
nomic output is being maximized. When economic
output falls, as measured by the gross domestic prod-
uct (GDP), the business cycle is low and cyclical
unemployment will rise.
Economists describe cyclical unemployment as the
result of businesses not having enough demand for
labor to employ all those who are looking for work.
The lack of employer demand comes from a lack of
spending and consumpt ion in t he overall
economy. Cyclical unemployment is one of five
classes of unemployment as recognized by econo-
mists. Other types include structural, frictional, clas-
sical and Marxian. In most cases, several types of
unemployment exist at the same time. With the ex-
ception of cyclical unemployment, the other classes
can be occurring even at the peak ranges of business
cycles, when the economy is said to be at or near
“full employment”.
Pale Recession : A phrase used in May 2008 by
former Federal Reserve Board Chairman Alan
Greenspan to describe an economic environment in
which recession has not yet hit all the areas of the
economy. In particular, Greenspan was speaking of
the U.S. employment numbers at the time, which had
not yet seen as significant of a decline as would be
expected in a full recessionary environment, which
is generally marked by a broad decline in economic
activity across the economy.
Greenspan used this term in a television interview
with Bloomberg on May 4, 2008. When asked
whether the U.S. was in a recession he responded,
"We're in a recession ... but this is an awfully pale
recession at the moment. The declines in employ-
ment have not been as big as you'd expect to see."
Fiscal Policy :Government spending policies that
influence macroeconomic conditions. These policies
affect tax rates, interest rates and government spend-
ing, in an effort to control the economy. Since the
1980s, most western countries have held a "tight"
policy, limiting public expenditure.
Money Supply :The entire quantity of bills, coins,
loans, credit and other liquid instruments in a
country's economy. Money supply is divided into
multiple categories - M0, M1, M2 and M3 - accord-
ing to the type and size of account in which the in-
strument is kept. The money supply is important to
economists trying to understand how policies will
affect interest rates and growth.
Discount Rate : 1. The interest rate that an eligible
depository institution is charged to borrow short-
term funds directly from a Federal Reserve Bank.
2. The interest rate used in determining the present
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value of future cash flows.
This type of borrowing from the Fed is
fairly limited. Institutions will often seek other means
of meeting short-term liquidity needs.
Prime Rate : The interest rate that commercial banks
charge their most credit-worthy customers.
Generally a bank's best customers consist of large
corporations. Default risk is the main determiner of
the interest rate a bank will charge a borrower. Be-
cause a bank's best customers have little chance of
defaulting, the bank can charge them a rate that is
lower than the rate that would be charged to a cus-
tomer who has a higher likelihood of defaulting on a
loan.
Bull :An investor who thinks the market, a specific
security or an industry will rise.
Bulls are optimistic investors who are presently pre-
dicting good things for the market, and are attempt-
ing to profit from this upward movement. For ex-
ample if you are bullish on the S&P 500 you will at-
tempt to profit from a rise in the index by going long
on it. Bulls are the exact opposite of the market's
bears, who are pessimistic and believe that a particu-
lar security, commodity or entity will suffer a decline
in price.
Bullishness does not necessarily apply only to the
stock market; you could for example be bullish on
just about anything, including commodities like soy
beans, crude oil or even peanuts.
Bear : An investor who believes that a particular
security or market is headed downward. Bears at-
tempt to profit from a decline in prices. Bears are
generally pessimistic about the state of a given mar-
ket. For example, if an investor were bearish on the
S&P 500 they would attempt to profit from a de-
cline in the broad market index. Bearish sentiment
can be applied to all types of markets including com-
modity markets, stock markets and the bond mar-
ket.
Although you often hear that the stock market is
constantly in a state of flux as the bears and their
optimistic counterparts, "bulls", are trying to take
control, do remember that over the last 100 years or
so the U.S. stock market has increased an average
11% a year. This means that every single long-term
market bear has lost money.
Bull Market : A financial market of a group of se-
curities in which prices are rising or are expected to
rise. The term "bull market" is most often used to
refer to the stock market, but can be applied to any-
thing that is traded, such as bonds, currencies and
commodities.
Bull markets are characterized by optimism, inves-
tor confidence and expectations that strong results
will continue. It's difficult to predict consistently
when the trends in the market will change. Part of
the difficulty is that psychological effects and specu-
lation may sometimes play a large role in the mar-
kets.
The use of "bull" and "bear" t o describe
markets comes from the way the animals attack their
opponents. A bull thrusts its horns up into the air
while a bear swipes its paws down. These actions are
metaphors for the movement of a market. If the
trend is up, it's a bull market. If the trend is down,
it's a bear market.
Bear Market: A market condition in which the prices
of securities are falling, and widespread pessimism
causes the negative sentiment to be self-sustaining.
As investors anticipate losses in a bear market and
selling continues, pessimism only grows. Although
figures can vary, for many, a downturn of 20% or
more in multiple broad market indexes, such as the
Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) or Standard
& Poor's 500 Index (S&P 500), over at least a two-
month period, is considered an entry into a bear
market.
A bear market should not be confused with a correc-
tion, which is a short -term trend that has a
duration of less than two months. While corrections
are often a great place for a value investor to find an
entry point, bear markets rarely provide great entry
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94 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
points, as timing the bottom is very difficult to do.
Fighting back can be extremely dangerous because
it is quite difficult for an investor to make stellar gains
during a bear market unless he or she is a short seller.
Recession: A significant decline in activity across
the economy, lasting longer than a few months. It is
visible in industrial production, employment, real in-
come and wholesale-retail trade. The technical indi-
cator of a recession is two consecutive quarters of
negative economic growth as measured by a country's
gross domestic product (GDP); although the National
Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) does not
necessarily need to see this occur to call a recession.
Recession is a normal (albeit unpleasant) part of the
business cycle; however, one-time crisis events can
often trigger the onset of a recession.
A recession generally lasts from six to 18 months,
and interest rates usually fall in during these months
to stimulate the economy by offering cheap rates at
which to borrow money.
Boom: A period of time during which sales or busi-
ness activity increases rapidly.
In the stock market, booms are associated with bull
markets. Conversely, busts are associated with bear
markets. The cyclical nature of the market and the
economy in general suggests that every bull market
in history has been followed by a bear market.
The internet technologies boom in the late '90s was
one of the largest booms in history (followed by one
of the biggest busts in history).
Public-Private Investment Program – PPIP: A
plan designed to value and remove troubled assets
from the balance sheet of troubled financial institu-
tions in the U.S. Essentially, the Public-Private In-
vestment Program's goal is to create partnerships
with private investors to buy toxic assets. The
program is designed to increase liquidity in the mar-
ket and to serve as a price-discovery tool for valuing
troubled assets.
Zero-Investment Portfolio: A group of
investments which, when combined, create a zero net
value. Zero-investment portfolios can be achieved by
simultaneously purchasing securities and selling
equivalent securities. This will achieve lower risk/
gains compared to only purchasing or selling the same
securities.
Arbitrage: The simultaneous purchase and sale of
an asset in order to profit from a difference in the
price. It is a trade that profits by exploiting price
differences of identical or similar financial instru-
ments, on different markets or in different forms.
Arbitrage exists as a result of market inefficiencies;
it provides a mechanism to ensure prices do not de-
viate substantially from fair value for long periods of
time.
Asset Allocation: An investment strategy that aims
to balance risk and reward by apportioning a
portfolio's assets according to an individual's goals,
risk tolerance and investment horizon.
The three main asset classes - equities, fixed-income,
and cash and equivalents - have different levels of risk
and return, so each will behave differently over time.
Portfolio: A grouping of financial assets such as
stocks, bonds and cash equivalents, as well as their
mutual, exchange-traded and closed-fund counter-
parts. Portfolios are held directly by investors and/
or managed by financial professional
Security: An instrument representing ownership
(stocks), a debt agreement (bonds) or the rights to
ownership (derivatives).
Corporation: A legal entity that is separate and dis-
tinct from its owners. Corporations enjoy most of
the rights and responsibilities that an individual pos-
sesses; that is, a corporation has the right to enter
into contracts, loan and borrow money, sue and be
sued, hire employees, own assets and pay taxes.
The most important aspect of a corporation is lim-
ited liability. That is, shareholders have the right to
participate in the profits, through dividends and/or
the appreciation of stock, but are not held person-
ally liable for the company's debts.
Corporations are often called "C Corporations".
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Fortune 500: An annual list of the 500 largest com-
panies in the United States. The list is compiled us-
ing the most recent figures for revenue.
Index: A statistical measure of change in an economy
or a securities market. In the case of financial mar-
kets, an index is an imaginary portfolio of securities
representing a particular market or a portion of it.
Each index has its own calculation methodology and
is usually expressed in terms of a change from a base
value. Thus, the percentage change is more impor-
tant than the actual numeric value.
Stock and bond market indexes are used to construct
index mutual funds and exchange-traded funds
(ETFs) whose portfolios mirror the components of
the index.
Market Capitalization: The total dollar market
value of all of a company's outst anding
shares. Market capitalization is calculated by multi-
plying a company's shares outstanding by the current
market price of one share. The investment
community uses this figure to determining a
company's size, as opposed to sales or total asset
figures.
Frequently referred to as "market cap".
Hedge: Making an investment to reduce the risk of
adverse price movements in an asset. Normally, a
hedge consists of taking an offsetting position in a
related security, such as a futures contract.
Hedge Fund :An aggressively managed portfolio of
investments that uses advanced investment strategies
such as leveraged, long, short and
derivative positions in both domestic and interna-
tional markets with the goal of generating high re-
turns (either in an absolute sense or over a specified
market benchmark).
Legally, hedge funds are most often set up as private
investment partnerships that are open to a limited
number of investors and require a very
large initial minimum investment. Investments
in hedge funds are illiquid as they often require in-
vestors keep their money in the fund for at least one
year.
Short Selling: The selling of a security that the seller
does not own, or any sale that is completed by the
delivery of a security borrowed by the seller. Short
sellers assume that they will be able to buy the stock
at a lower amount than the price at which they sold
short.
Buyback: The repurchase of outstanding shares (re-
purchase) by a company in order to reduce the num-
ber of shares on the market. Companies will buy back
shares either to increase the value of shares still avail-
able (reducing supply), or to eliminate any threats
by shareholders who may be looking for a control-
ling stake.
Short Covering: Purchasing securities in order to
close an open short position. This is done by buying
the same type and number of securities that were
sold short. Most often, traders cover their shorts
whenever they speculate that the securities will
rise. In order to make a profit, a short seller must
cover the shorts by purchasing the security below
the original selling price.
Also referred to as "buy to cover" or "buyback".
Nasdaq: A computerized system that facilitates trad-
ing and provides price quotations on more than 5,000
of the more actively traded over the counter stocks.
Created in 1971, the Nasdaq was the world's first
electronic stock market.
Stocks on the Nasdaq are traditionally listed under
four or five letter ticker symbols. If the company is
a transfer from the New York Stock Exchange, the
symbol may be comprised of three letters.
Over-The-Counter – OTC: A security traded in
some context other than on a formal exchange
such as the NYSE, TSX, AMEX, etc. The phrase
"over-the-counter" can be used to refer to
stocks that trade via a dealer network as opposed
to on a centralized exchange. It also refers to debt
securities and other financial instruments such as
Section -2 (Hot Topics : Economy Special)
96 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
derivatives, which are traded through a dealer
network.
Derivative: A security whose price is dependent
upon or derived from one or more underlying
assets. The derivative itself is merely a contract be-
tween two or more parties. Its value is determined by
fluctuations in the underlying asset. The most com-
mon underlying assets include stocks,
bonds, commodities, currencies, interest rates and
market indexes. Most derivatives are characterized
by high leverage.
Penny Stock: A stock that trades at a relatively low
price and market capitalization, usually outside of
the major market exchanges. These types of stocks
are generally considered to be highly speculative and
high risk because of their lack of liquidity, large bid-
ask spreads, small capitalization and limited follow-
ing and disclosure. They will often trade over the
counter through the OTCBB and pink sheets.
Automated Clearing House - ACH :An electronic
funds-transfer system run by the National Automated
Clearing House Association. This payment system
deals with payroll, direct deposit, tax refunds, con-
sumer bills, tax payment, and many more payment
services.
Commercial Bank: A financial institution that pro-
vides services such as a accepting deposits and giv-
ing business loans.
Commercial banking activities are different than those
of investment banking, which include underwriting,
acting as an intermediary between an issuer of secu-
rities and the investing public, facilitating mergers
and other corporate reorganizations, and also acting
as a broker for institutional clients.
Electronic Check: A form of payment made via the
internet that is designed to perform the same func-
tion as a conventional paper check. Because the
check is in an electronic format, it can be processed
in fewer steps and has more security features than a
standard paper check. Security features provided
by electronic checks include authentication, public
key cryptography, digital signatures and encryption,
among others.
Also referred to as an "echeck".
Wire Transfer: An electronic transfer of funds across
a network administered by hundreds of banks around
the world. Wire transfers allow people in different
geographic locations to easily transfer money. Out-
side of North America, wire transfers are sometimes
referred to as a 'telegraphic transfer' or t/t.
Clearing: The procedure by which an organization
acts as an intermediary and assumes the role of a
buyer and seller for transactions in order to recon-
cile orders between transacting parties.
Clearing is necessary for the matching of all buy and
sell orders in the market. It provides smoother and
more efficient markets, as parties can make transfers
to the clearing corporation, rather than to each indi-
vidual party with whom they have transacted.
Clearing House: An agency or separate corpora-
tion of a futures exchange responsible for settling
trading accounts, clearing trades, collecting and main-
taining margin monies, regulating delivery and re-
porting trading data. Clearing houses act as third
parties to all futures and options contracts - as a buyer
to every clearing member seller and a seller to every
clearing member buyer.
Cash Market: The market for a cash commodity or
actual, as opposed to the market for its futures con-
tract. A cash market may take the following forms:
self-regulated centralized markets, such as commod-
ity exchanges; decentralized over-the-counter mar-
kets where private transactions may occur; or local-
ized community organizations, such as grain eleva-
tors. At these locations, you can purchase the actual
physical commodity rather than just the futures con-
tract.
Buyer's Market: A market condition characterized
by an abundance of goods available for sale. When a
buyer's market exists in commodities, the buyer is
able to be selective in purchasing contracts, as there
are many individuals wishing to sell. Furthermore,
these buyers will generally be able to purchase con-
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97 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
tracts at lower prices than those that were previously
prevalent.
Forward Contract :A cash market transaction in
which delivery of the commodity is deferred until
after the contract has been made. Although the de-
livery is made in the future, the price is determined on
the initial trade date. Most forward contracts don't
have standards and aren't traded on exchanges. A
farmer would use a forward contract to "lock-in" a
price for his grain for the upcoming fall harvest.
Hybrid Security: A security that combines two or
more different financial instruments. Hybrid securi-
ties generally combine both debt and equity charac-
teristics. The most common example is a convertible
bond that has features of an ordinary bond, but is
heavily influenced by the price movements of the
stock into which it is convertible.
Often referred to as "hybrids".New types of hybrid
securities are being introduced all the time to meet
the needs of sophisticated investors. Some of these
securities get so complicated that it's tough to define
them as either debt or equity.
Commodity: 1. A basic good used in commerce that
is interchangeable with other commodities of the
same type. Commodities are most often used as in-
puts in the production of other goods or services.
The quality of a given commodity may differ slightly,
but it is essentially uniform across producers. When
they are traded on an exchange, commodities must
also meet specified minimum standards, also known
as a basis grade.
2. Any good exchanged during commerce, which
includes goods traded on a commodity exchange.
The basic idea is that there is little differentiation
between a commodity coming from one producer and
the same commodity from another producer - a bar-
rel of oil is basically the same product, regardless of
the producer. Compare this to, say, electronics, where
the quality and features of a given product will be
completely different depending on the producer.
Some traditional examples of commodities include
grains, gold, beef, oil and natural gas. More recently,
the definition has expanded to include financial prod-
ucts such as foreign currencies and indexes.
Technological advances have also led to new types
of commodities being exchanged in the market-
place: for example, cell phone minutes and band-
width.
The sale and purchase of commodities is usually car-
ried out through futures contracts on exchanges that
standardize the quantity and minimum quality of the
commodity being traded. For example, the Chicago
Board of Trade stipulates that one wheat contract is
for 5,000 bushels and also states what grades of wheat
(e.g. No. 2 Northern Spring) can be used to satisfy
the contract.
Diversification: A risk management technique that
mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfo-
lio. The rationale behind this technique contends that
a portfolio of different kinds of investments will, on
average, yield higher returns and pose a lower risk
than any individual investment found within the port-
folio.
Diversification strives to smooth out unsystematic
risk events in a portfolio so t hat the
positive performance of some investments
will neutralize the negative performance of others.
Therefore, the benefits of diversification will hold
only if the securities in the portfolio are not perfectly
correlated.
Active Bond :A term used to describe fixed-income
securities that trade frequently on the floor of the
NYSE.These are typically corporate debt instruments
and convertible bonds issued by well established com-
panies on the NYSE.
Maturity: 1. The length of time until the principal
amount of a bond must be repaid.
2. The end of the life of a security.
In other words, the maturity is the date the borrower
must pay back the money he or she borrowed through
the issue of a bond.
Government Security: A government debt obliga-
tion (local or national) backed by the credit and tax-
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98 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
ing power of a country with very little risk of default. This includes short-term Treasury bills, medium-term
Treasury notes, and long-term Treasury bonds.
Sovereign Bond: A debt security issued by a national government within a given country and denominated in a
foreign currency. The foreign currency used will most likely be a hard currency, and may represent significantly
more risk to the bondholder.
Section -2 (Hot Topics : Economy Special)
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» Farah Pandith has appointed to head the new Of-
fice of the United States Special Representative to
Muslim Communities. Special Representative Farah
Pandith and her staff (S/SRMC) will be responsible
for executing t he
Administration’s efforts to en-
gage with Muslims around the
world on a people-to-people
and organizational
level.Pandith was the senior
adviser on Muslim engagement
in the European and Eurasian
region at the State Department.
The position was created for
the first time in the US history.
Prior to the State Department,
she served on the National Se-
curity Council at the White
House where she worked on
Muslim engagement and com-
bating extremism. She worked
at the U.S. Agency for Inter-
national Development in the
early 1990s and again in 2003. She also served in
Kabul, Afghanistan in 2004.
Pandith, a Muslim, immigrated to the United States
with her parents from Srinagar, India. She grew up
in Massachusetts with a diversity of faiths, ethnicities
and perspectives.
» Renowned Hindustani classical vocalist Gangubai
Hangal died at the Lifeline Emergency Care Centre
in Hubli, Karnataka on July 21, 2009. She was 97-
year-old. She was born in 1913 at Dharwad to
Chikkurao Nadiger, an agriculturist and Ambabai, a
celebrated vocalist of Carnatic music. Her family
shifted to Hubli in 1928. Initially, she learned classi-
cal music from Krishnacharya and Dattopant Desai
before studying under Sawai Gandharva. She started
performing in local celebrations and Ganeshotsavas
in Mumbai as a teenager. She is probably the last of
the titans to be representing the purity of Hindustani
classical music.
Current Affairs
» Gangubai was the recipient of several prestigious
awards like the Karnataka Sangeet Nritya Academy
Award, in the year 1962, the Padma Bhushan in 1971,
Padma Vibhushan in 2002 and the Sangeet Natak
Akademi Award in the year
1973.
» The journalist-turned-politi-
cian Jadranka Kosor became
Croatia's first woman prime
minister on July 6, 2009 vow-
ing to revive the country's bid
to join the European Union and
tackle the economic crisis.Her
centre-right cabinet were ap-
proved by 83 deputies in a vote
in the 153-member parliament.
Forty-five voted against, no
one abstained while the remain-
ing were not present.She suc-
ceeded Ivo Sanader who, after
holding Croatia's most power-
ful political position for the past
six years, shocked the nation by resigning in June
last pushing the country into political turmoil. The
56-year-old Jadranka Kosor took up the mantle amid
deep economic woes that have the country facing its
worst crisis since its war of independence from the
former communist Yugoslavia in the early 1990s.Her
appointment is seen as controversial, but she pledged
to tackle Croatia's economic struggles and its stalled
bid to become the European Union's 28th member
by 2011.

» Mauritania's former military ruler Gen. Mohamed
Ould Abdel Aziz took oath of office as the nation's
new civilian president on August 6, 2009. His politi-
cal opponents are still challenging the outcome of
last month's election. Earlier he was declared the vic-
tor in the presidential election with more than 50
percent of the vote following a well-organized cam-
paign that portrayed him as the "President of the
Poor" on July 19, 2009. Former general Mohamed
Section -3 (Current Relevant Facts)
101 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
Ould Abdel Aziz was sworn in as president a year
after taking power in a military coup that toppled
the nation's first freely-elected leader.
» He encouraged greater cooperation between
Mauritania and Mali in the fight against terrorism.
Al-Qaeda's North Africa affiliate has been active in
the area, attacking government troops and kidnap-
ping foreign tourists. While Mauritania's leading
political opponents say they will not cooperate with
the new Aziz government, members of the Interna-
tional Crisis Group are hoping there will eventually
be some reconciliation. African Union Ambassador
to Belgium Mohamed Sale Nadif was part of the In-
ternational Crisis Group that negotiated the transi-
tional government that led to last month's vote.
» Syed Abdullah Bukhari, the grand old Shahi Imam
of Delhi's historic Jama Masjid and for long one of
India's most outspoken Muslim leaders, died in New
Delhi on July 8, 2009 after a long illness. He was 87.
The elderly Bukhari, who anointed his son Syed
Ahmed Bukhari as the Shahi Imam in 2000 but con-
tinued to retain the title was named the Naib Shahi
Imam in 1946, a year before India's independence.
Belonging to a family originally hailing from Central
Asia, the Bukharis were invited to Delhi by Mughal
emperors to preside over the Jama Masjid. Abdullah
Bukhari, born in Rajasthan and educated in Delhi,
was the 12th Shahi Imam. Bukhari took keen inter-
est in the social and economic issues linked to
Muslims.He took to the streets following communal
violence in Delhi's Kishanganj area in 1974, leading
to his jailing for 18 days in early 1975. The event
triggered widespread protests. He rose to national
prominence in March 1977 when he joined national
politicians in mobilising people to vote out the Con-
gress government of Indira Gandhi, accusing it of
displacing the poor from their homes and forcing their
menfolk to undergo vasectomy. The senior Bukhari
also played an active role in support of the Babri
Masjid in Ayodhya but his appeal started to wane
after mobs destroyed the mosque in 1992, creating
the worst Hindu-Muslim fissures since 1947.
» Music director and sitarist Bhaskar Chandavarkar
died at age of 73 early this morning. He was suffer-
ing from cancer. Bhaskar Chandavarkar blended In-
dian classical and Western music in his work. He was
a disciple of Pandit Ravi Shankar. He composed the
musical scores for about 40 films in Hindi, Marathi,
and Malayalam. He won acclaim for the innovative
music he composed for the landmark Marathi play
Ghashiram Kotwal, written by Vijay Tendulkar and
directed by Jabbar Patel in the early 1970s. He also
taught music at the Film and Television Institute of
India (FTII) for 15 years. A recipient of the Sangeet
Natak Akademi Award in 1988, Chandavarkar also
scored the music in many offbeat films like Amol
Palekar’s Aakrit and Jabbar Patel’s Saamna and
Sinhasan. His other films include Thodasa Rumaani
Ho Jaye, Kairi, Raosaheb, and Mati Mai.
» Music director and sitarist Bhaskar Chandavarkar
died at age of 73 early this morning. He was suffer-
ing from cancer. Bhaskar Chandavarkar blended In-
dian classical and Western music in his work. He was
a disciple of Pandit Ravi Shankar. He composed the
musical scores for about 40 films in Hindi, Marathi,
and Malayalam. He won acclaim for the innovative
music he composed for the landmark Marathi play
Ghashiram Kotwal, written by Vijay Tendulkar and
directed by Jabbar Patel in the early 1970s. He also
taught music at the Film and Television Institute of
India (FTII) for 15 years. A recipient of the Sangeet
Natak Akademi Award in 1988, Chandavarkar also
scored the music in many offbeat films like Amol
Palekar’s Aakrit and Jabbar Patel’s Saamna and
Sinhasan. His other films include Thodasa Rumaani
Ho Jaye, Kairi, Raosaheb, and Mati Mai.
» Formerly the Rajmata of Jaipur and one of the last
of India's surviving royalty, Maharani Gayatri Devi
died Wednesday, July 29, after a ten-day illness. She
was 90 years old. Born in 1919 into the royal family
of Cooch Behar, in 1939 Devi married Maharaja
Sawai Man Singh II of Jaipur, becoming his third
wife. She ran for parliament in 1962 as a member of
the Swatantra Party, winning her constituency with
a then-record 78% of the vote. Gayatri Devi won
reelection twice, but she ran afoul of tax laws after
the abolition of privy purses in 1971 and was jailed
for five months. After her release from prison, she
withdrew from politics and published an autobiog-
Section -3 (Current Relevant Facts)
102 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
raphy, A Princess Remembers, in 1976; the 1997 film
Mémoires d'une princesse des Indes (Memoirs of a
Hindu Princess) was based around her life.
» Famous painter Tyeb Mehta died in his house at
Mumbai on july 2,2009. He was 84. He is survived
by wife and two children.
» Mr. Mehta who was born in 1925 in Gujarat, started
his career in the film industry. In 1952, he obtained a
diploma from the JJ College of Arts. He hit the head-
lines in t he art world when his painting
‘Celebration&rsquo; was sold for a whopping Rs.
1.5 crores. In 2005, his picture ‘Kali’ was sold for
Rs. 1 crore. In 2007, his picture ‘Christine' was sold
in an auction for 2 billion dollars.In 2007, Indian
government honoured him with Padmasri.
» Hawaii was chosen as the site for the world's big-
gest telescope, a device so powerful that it will al-
low scientists to see some 13 billion light years away
and get a glimpse into the early years of the universe
on july 20,2009.
» The telescope's mirror stretching almost 100 feet
in diameter, or nearly the length of a Boeing 737's
wingspan, will be so large that it should be able to
gather light that will have spent 13 billion years trav-
eling to earth. This means astronomers looking into
the telescope will be able to see images of the first
stars and galaxies forming - some 400 million years
after the Big Bang.
» The telescope, expected to be completed by 2018,
will be located atop a dormant volcano that is popu-
lar with astronomers because its summit sits well
above the clouds at 13,796 feet, offering a clear view
of the sky above for 300 days a year.Hawaii's iso-
lated position in the middle of the Pacific Ocean also
means the area is relatively free of air pollution. Few
cities on the Big Island mean there aren't a lot of
man-made lights around to disrupt observations.The
other finalist candidate site for the Thirty Meter Tele-
scope was Chile's Cerro Armazones mountain.
The common man can now view sharper pictures of
any part of the world on their personal computer
using satellite images with ISRO unveiling 'Bhuvan',
its version of Google Earth on august 12,2009.
Minister of State in the PMO Prithviraj Chavan
launched the beta version of the geoportal
www.bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in at a day-long workshop of
the Astronautical Society of India on "21st Century
Challenges in Space -- Indian Context."The new web-
based tool allows users to have a closer look at any
part of the subcontinent barring sensitive locations
such as military and nuclear installations.
» The degree of resolution showcased is based on
points of interest and popularity, but most of the In-
dian terrain is covered upto at least six meters of
resolution with the least spatial resolution being 55
meters.
» Bhuvan uses images taken at least a year ago by
ISRO's seven remote sensing satellites, including
Cartosat-1 and Cartosat-2. These eyes in the sky can
capture images of objects as small as a car on the
road to build three-dimensional map of the world.
» The pictures are expected to be sharper than those
on Google Earth as Bhuvan uses 10 meter resolu-
tion images as against 200 meter resolution photos
offered by others.Unlike in Google Earth, users will
not be able to download images from Bhuvan and
will be able to browse content like on any website.
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Asian Carrom Championship: India retained the
men and women team titles in the third Asian Carrom
Championship in Pune on August 12, 2009.Defend-
ing champion India blanked Sri Lanka by identical
3-0 margin in both Men and
Women's team finals.In the
women's section, Parimala Devi
defeated Roshita Joseph 25-8,
25-24. World Champion I
Illavazhaki faced tough chal-
lenge from Yashika Rahubadde
of Sri Lanka when she lost the
first game 16-25 but recovered
quickly to win the next two
games 25-0, 25-3. Reigning
Asian Champion Rashmi
Kumari out-pointed Nayana
Wickramasinghe at 25-6, 25-2.
» In the men's section, National champion B
Radhakrishnan routed Viraj Fernando 25-9, 25-2,
while World Champion Yogesh Pardeshi was made
to fight before emerging winner against Chamil
Coorey 25-9, 14-25, 25-18. Hidyat Ansari defeated
seasoned campaigner D Nishanta Fernando 25-16,
25-17.

Wimbledon 2009
Men's Singles: Roger Federer of Switzerland won
his Sixth Grand Slam in Wimbledon after defeating
Andy Roddick on a tiresome 5 sets with 14-16 score
on the last set in favor of Roger Federer. It was his
record 15th Grand Slam title. It was the 6th Grand
Slam of Roger Federer’s 7 consecutive final appear-
ance while it was Andy Roddick’s 3rd finals appear-
ance in Wimbledon which all of his 3 final appear-
ance fall in the hands of Roger Federer. Rafael Nadal
who won the 2008 Grand Slam in Wimbledon, who
defeated Federer on 5 grueling sets did not play for
the said tournament because of an injury. Roger
Federer had 15 ‘major’ in his possession, one more
than Pete Sampras.The Swiss reached his sixth title
and regain the ‘number one’.
SPORTS
Women's Singles: In the fourth all-Williams final at
Wimbledon, Serena beat her sister Venus 7-6 (3), 6-
2 on July 4, 2009 and won her third title and 11th
Grand Slam championship. Serena beat Venus in the
2002 and '03 finals, before
Venus prevailed in 2008
championship match. Venus
was trying to become the first
woman since Steffi Graf in
1991-93 to win Wimbledon
three years in a row.
Serena became the second
player in the Open era to win
the Wimbledon women's title
after overcoming a match
point, having done so in the
semifinals against Elena
Dementieva. The only other
player to do it was Venus, who saved one in the 2005
final against Lindsay Davenport.
Women's Doubles: Serena Williams and Venus Wil-
liams of US won women’s doubles title beating
Rennae Stubbs and Samantha Stosur of Australia 7-
6(4), 6-4 on July 5, 2009. Serena Williams won a
pair of Grand Slam titles at Wimbledon, just like her
sister Venus did in 2008.It was their fourth
Wimbledon title together, part of their haul of nine
Grand Slam women’s doubles championships.
Men's Doubles: Daniel Nestor of Canada and Nenad
Zimonjic of Serbia won their second straight
Wimbledon men’s doubles title, beating top-seeded
American twins Bob and Mike Bryan 7-6(7), 6-7(3),
7-6(3), 6-3.
Mixed Doubles: Mark Knowles (BAH) and Anna-
Lena Groenefeld of GERmany won.
Boys' Singles: Andrey Kuznetsov of Russia
Girls' Singles: Noppawan Lertcheewakarn of Thai-
land
Boys' Doubles: Kevin Krawietz (GER) and Pierre-
Hugues Herbert (FRA)
Girls' Doubles: Noppawan Lertcheewakarn (THA)
Section -4 (SPORTS)
105 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
and Sally Peers (AUS).
ITF Lexington Challenger Title: Second seeded
Sania Mirza defeated top-seed Frenchwoman Julie
Coin 7-6 (7/5), 6-4 to lift the International Tennis
Federation (ITF) Lexington Challenger title. The 22-
year-old Hyderabadi girl clinched the victory win-
ning the 50,000 dollar title. With this win, she climbed
up three places in the latest WTA singles rankings.
She now stands the 80th.
Bangladesh- West Indies Test series: Bangladesh
won the test series beating the West Indies in the
second and final Test on July 21, 2009. The victory
was Bangladesh's first Test series win away from
home - admittedly against a weakened and inexperi-
enced West Indies side after senior players boycotted
the series over a pay dispute - and the first time they
have won two successive Tests. Bangladeshi stand-
in captain Shakib Al Hasan was given the man-of-
the-series award.
Bangladesh- West Indies One-day series: Half-
centuries from Junaid Siddique and Mahmudullah led
Bangladesh to a three-wicket victory, and a 3-0
cleansweep of the One-Day International series over
West Indies. Siddique struck six fours in 55 from 73
balls, and Mahmudullah, who was named man-of-
the-match, hit two fours and one six in an unbeaten
51 from 70 balls to help Bangladesh overhaul a vic-
tory target of 249 in the third and final ODI at Warner
Park. Bangladesh won the opening match in
Dominica by 52 runs, and the second match at the
same venue by three wickets. Their ODI series vic-
tory followed a cleansweep of the preceding two-
Test series against a home side decimated by a player
boycott.
Section -4 (SPORTS)
106 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
PATA Awards
The tourism ministry of India was given two presti-
gious Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) gold
awards for 2009 on August 3. It
was declared the winner of two
awards in the marketing media -
Travel Advertisement Broadcast
Media and Travel Poster category.
PATA aims to promote the sustain-
able development of tourism in the
Asia Pacific region. Kerala Tour-
ism was chosen for 2009 Pacific
Asia Travel Association (PATA)
Gold Award in the marketing des-
tination category
It was selected as "best in
class" from amongst 236 entries
worldwide. The award ceremony will take place Sep
25 during the PATA Travel Mart 2009 in Hangzhou,
China. Kerala Tourism also won national recogni-
tion, bagging the CNBC awards for Best Travel
Destination and Best State Tourism Board, based on
a survey conducted across 12 cities in the country.
UNESCO Literacy Prizes
King Sejong Literacy Prizes: A newspaper pro-
duced entirely by women in rural India “Khabar
Lahariya” was among the winners of year 2009 King
Sejong Literacy Prizes awarded by the United Na-
tions Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organiza-
tion (UNESCO) for innovative programs designed
to teach marginalized populations how to read and
write. One of two awards of the UNESCO King
Sejong Literacy Prize, supported by the Republic of
Korea, goes to Tin Tua’s Literacy and Non-Formal
Education Programme in eastern Burkina Faso. The
NGO’s name means “let’s help ourselves develop”
in the Gulimancema language.
It has achieved excellent results by using participants’
primary language, producing reading material locally,
Awards
and focusing on gender and sustainable community
development. The second award of the UNESCO
King Sejong Literacy Prize goes to the NGO
Nirantar’s project “Khabar Lahariya” - “news waves”
- in Uttar Pradesh, northern India. It has created a
rural fortnightly newspaper entirely
produced and marketed by “low
caste” women, distributed to more
than 20,000 newly literate readers.
Its well-structured method of train-
ing newly literate women as jour-
nalists and democratizing informa-
tion production provides an easily
replicated model of transformative
education.
The UNESCO Confucius Prize:
The UNESCO Confucius Prize for
Literacy, supported by the People’s
Republic of China, also has two
awards. The first was given to the Pashai Language
Development Project implemented by SERVE Af-
ghanistan, a British NGO. The community-owned
initiative provides meaningful literacy, livelihood,
public health and nutrition education to about 1,000
Pashai ethnic minority men and women annually.
The second award of the UNESCO Confucius Prize
for Literacy goes to the Municipal Literacy Coordi-
nating Council, Municipality of Agoo, La Union,
Philippines, for its Continuing Education and Life-
long Learning Programme, which makes available a
vast array of education and training opportunities to
the entire population, including the neediest. The
municipal authority’s leadership in coordinating ac-
tivities is a key factor in eliminating illiteracy and
sustaining lifelong learning in the area’s 49 villages.
The Jury commended the project’s joint funding by
the government, NGOs, the private sector and inter-
national donors as exemplary.
The UNESCO International Literacy Prizes are
awarded every year in recognition of excellence and
innovation in literacy throughout the world. Com-
plying with the United Nations Literacy Decade
Section -5 (AWARDS)
107 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
(UNLD) thematic calendar, the theme for year 2009
Prizes was “Literacy and Empowerment”. The award
ceremony will take place at UNESCO in Paris on
the occasion of the celebration of International Lit-
eracy Day, September 8. The King Sejong Literacy
Prize was created in 1989 through the generosity of
the Government of the Republic of Korea. Each lau-
reate is awarded US $20,000. The UNESCO
Confucius Prize for Literacy was established in 2005
through the generosity of the Government of the
People’s Republic of China. Each laureate is awarded
US $20,000.
The Greg Urwin Awards
Secretary General of the Pacific Islands Forum Sec-
retariat Tuiloma Neroni Slade announced the names
of the first five recipients of an award of talent in the
region on August 5. The five award winners are from
Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Tonga and Papua New Guinea.
They are currently undertaking higher level academic
studies as part of the Australian Leadership Awards
scholarship program. The inaugural awards will sup-
port vocational placements in a range of areas in-
cluding, heath policy, oncology, education, law and
engineering. The award winners will begin taking up
their placements in 2010.
The Greg Urwin Awards were established in 2008
in memory of the late Secretary General of the Fo-
rum and are awarded to emerging Pacific Islander
leaders in a range of fields by the Forum annually.
Idea Filmfare Awards 2008 for the South
56th Idea Filmfare Awards 2008 for the South was
held at Hyderabad International Convention Centre
(HICC) on July 31st night in a grand manner. Re-
cipients of important category are following:
Tamil
» Best Film- Subramaniapuram
» Best Director- Sasikumar (Subramaniapuram)
» Best Actor- Suriya (Vaaranam Aayiram)
» Best Actress- Parvathy (Poo)
» Best Music director- Harris Jayaraj (Vaaranam
Aayiram)
Telugu
» Best Film: Gamyam
» Best Director: Radha Krishna Jagarlamudi
(Gamyam)
» Best Actor (Male): Allu Arjun (Parugu)
» Best Actor (Female): Swathi (Ashta Chemma)
» Best Music: Micky J Mayor (Kotha Bangaru
Lokam)
Malayalam
» Best Film: Thirakkatha
» Best Director: Ranjith (Thirakkatha)
» Best Actor (Male): Lal (Thalappavu)
» Best Actor (Female): Priyamani (Thirakkatha)
Kannada
» Best Film: Moggina Manasu
» Best Director: Shashank (Moggina Manasu)
» Best Actor (Male): Ganesh (Gaalipata)
» Best Actor (Female): Radhika Pandit (Moggina
Manasu)
» Best Music: Harikrishna (Gaalipata)
»Life time achievement award: Veturi
Sundararama murthy
World Young Reader Prize
Malayala Manorama, a leading newspaper from
Kerala, won the World Young Reader Prize for its
project SAVE (Serve as a Volunteer for Energy)
which was aimed at reducing power consumption in
Kerala through students' activities. The project was
organised as a joint venture of Manorama and Kerala
Power Department. The World Young Reader Prize
was instituted by the World Association of Newspa-
pers and News Publishing (WAN-IFRA).
Section -5 (AWARDS)
108 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
World Press Photo Contest Prize
Mexican photographer Carlos Cazalis was one of the
winners in World Press Photo contest 2009. The
photographer was given first prize in the Contem-
porary Issues section. Other winners from Latin
America included Lissette Lemus of El Salvador, who
won first prize for daily life with this image about
gang violence in her country, and Luiz Vasconcelos
of Brazil, who impressed the judges with this shot of
a woman resisting a police eviction of squatters from
private land near the city of Manaus, in the Brazilian
state of Amazonas. The photo-of-the-year prize went
to American photographer Anthony Suau. His win-
ning image shows Det.
Rashtriya Khel Puraskar 2009
Beijing Olympic Games bronze medal-winners Sushil
Kumar and Vijender Singh along with Four-time
world champion pugilist (woman boxer ) MC Mary
Kom were chosen for coveted Rajiv Gandhi Khel
Ratna award. Twice in the past the Khel Ratna award
was shared, once for a team event (yachtsmen Homi
Motiwala and P. K. Garg in 1994) and on another
occasion between an athlete and a shooter (K.M.
Beenamol and Anjali Bhagwat in 2002). But never
before had the award been given to three
sportspersons. These awards were announced by the
Union Sports Ministry on July 29.
Category wise award winner followings:
Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna: M.C. Mary Kom
(women’s boxing), Vijender Singh (boxing) and
Sushil Kumar (wrestling).
Arjuna Award: Mangal Singh Champia (archery),
Sinimole Paulose (athletics), Saina Nehwal (badmin-
ton), L. Sarita Devi (women’s boxing), Tania Sachdev
(chess), Gautam Gambhir (cricket), Ignace Tirkey
(hockey), Surinder Kaur (women’s hockey), Pankaj
Navnath Shirsat (kabaddi), Satish Joshi (rowing),
Ronjan Sodhi (shooting), Poulomi Ghatak (table ten-
nis), Yogeshwar Dutt (wrestling), Girdhari Lal Yadav
(yachting) and Parul D. Parmar (badminton, dis-
abled).
Dronacharya Award: P. Gopi Chand (badminton),
Jaydev Bisht (boxing), Baldev Singh (hockey) and
Satpal (wrestling).
Dhyan Chand Award: Ishar Singh Deol (athletics)
and Satbir Singh Dahya (wrestling).
Rashtriya Khel Protsahan Puraskar: Tata Steel
Limited (two awards, community sports identifica-
tion and nurturing of budding talent and establish-
ment and management of sports academies); Rail-
way Sports Promotion Board (employment of
sportspersons and sports welfare measures).
FACTS TO BE REMEMBERED
» Each Khel Ratna awardee would receive Rs. 7.5
lakh, the enhanced cash component of the award,
apart from a medal and a citation.
» The Arjuna, Dronacharya and Dhyan Chand
awardees will get Rs. 5 lakh each in year2009, en-
hanced from the previous Rs. 3 lakh, apart from statu-
ettes and citations while the newly-introduced
Rashtriya Khel Protsahan Puraskar winners will re-
ceive trophies and citations.
» The awards will be presented by the President,
Partibha Patil, at the Rashtrapati Bhawan, on Au-
gust 29.
From the year 2009 onwards the award would be
known by the year in which it is awarded.
Ramon Magsaysay Award 2009
» Six individuals from Burma, China, India, the Phil-
ippines, and Thailand were declared winners of Asia’s
premier prize, the Ramon Magsaysay Award, for the
year 2009. Established in 1957, the Ramon
Magsaysay Award is Asia’s highest honor and is
widely regarded as the region’s equivalent of the
Nobel Prize. It celebrates the memory and leader-
Section -5 (AWARDS)
109 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
ship example of the third Philippine President, and is
given every year to individuals or organizations in
Asia who manifest the same sense of selfless service
that ruled the life of the late and beloved Filipino
leader.
The six 2009 Magsaysay awardees join 271 other
laureates who have received Asia’s highest honor to
date. This year’s Magsaysay Award winners will each
receive a certificate, a medallion bearing the likeness
of the late President, and a cash prize. They will be
formally conferred the Magsaysay Award during the
Presentation Ceremonies to be held on Aug. 31, 2009
at the Cultural Center of the Philippines, to which
the public is cordially invited. Winners are Follow-
ing:
» Krisana Kraisintu, from Thailand. She is being rec-
ognized for “her placing pharmaceutical rigor at the
service of patients, through her untiring and fearless
dedication to producing much-needed generic drugs
in Thailand and elsewhere in the developing world.”
» Deep Joshi, from India. He is being recognized
for “his vision and leadership in bringing profession-
alism to the NGO movement in India, by effectively
combining ‘head’ and ‘heart’ in the transformative
development of rural communities.”
» Yu Xiaogang, from China. He is being recognized
for “his fusing the knowledge and tools of social sci-
ence with a deep sense of social justice, in assisting
dam-affected communities in China to shape
the development projects that impact their natural
environment and their lives.”
» Antonio Oposa, Jr., from the Philippines. He is
being recognized for “his pathbreaking and passion-
ate crusade to engage Filipinos in acts of enlight-
ened citizenship that maximize the power of law to
protect and nurture the environment for themselves,
their children, and generations still to come.”
» Ma Jun, from China. He is being recognized for
“his harnessing the technology and power of infor-
mation to address China’s water crisis, and mobiliz-
ing pragmatic, multisectoral, and collaborative ef-
forts to ensure sustainable benefits for China’s envi-
ronment and society.”
» Ka Hsaw Wa, from Burma. He is being recog-
nized for “his auntlessly pursuing non violent yet ef-
fective channels of redress, exposure, and education
for the defense of human rights, the environment,
and democracy in Burma.”
Section -5 (AWARDS)
110 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
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41. (Public Administration) RESTRUCTURING PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: ESSAYS IN REHABILITATION by Jawahar Publication
42. (Public Administration) ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR by Jawahar Publication
43. (Public Administration) NEW HORIZONS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
44. (Geography) EXPECTED QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY
45. (Geography) GEOGRAPHY (FOR PRELIMS)
46. (Geography) PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY
47. (Geography) POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY & GEOPOLITICS : A Bibliography
48. (Geography) ENVIRONMENTECOLOGY & NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
49. (Geography) OCEANOGRAPHY
50. (Geography) CLIMATOLOGY(General & Applied)
51. (Public Administration) RESTRUCTURING PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: ESSAYS IN REHABILITATION by Jawahar Publication
52. (Public Administration) ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR by Jawahar Publication
53. (Public Administration) NEW HORIZONS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
54. (Geography) EXPECTED QUESTIONS ON GEOGRAPHY
55. (Geography) GEOGRAPHY (FOR PRELIMS)
56. (Geography) PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY
57. (Geography) POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY & GEOPOLITICS : A Bibliography
58. (Geography) ENVIRONMENTECOLOGY & NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
59. (Geography) OCEANOGRAPHY
60. (Geography) CLIMATOLOGY(General & Applied)
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Time Allowed: Three Hours
Maximum Marks: 300
INSTRUCTIONS:
Candidates should attempt all question strictly in ac-
cordance with the instructions given under each ques-
tions. The number of marks carried by each question
is indicated at the end of the question
1. Write notes on any two of the following (an-
swer to each question should be in about 150
words): 2x30=60
(a) Where and when was the meeting between the
Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan held in 2009?
What were the main decisions taken and how much
it important for initiating the dialogue process with
Pakistan?
Why opposition parties are against of it?
(b) India-France relations
(c) India and Chile
2. Write about the following (answer to each ques-
tion should be in about 20 wordS): 2x5= I 0
(a) INS Arihant
(b) Afghan President Karzai’s visit to India
(c) Indo-Sri Lankan Economic Cooperation
(d) Strategic Partnership between India and
Kazakhstan
(e) India and Nepal
We are doing our best to provide you material for IAS main examination. With
other topics, model paper cum study notes for GS second paper has been pro-
vided in this volume. Model paper cum study notes for GS first paper was al-
ready given to you in volume-4. Model cum study notes is new idea, which is
more appropriate for understanding and keeping in mind for a long time and
reproducing at the examination. In this process the our answers may be long
and not followed the word limit. Its objective is to make easy to understand the
whole issue and topic with associated facts. So read it carefully and do not
forget to follow the word limit in examination hall…
Civil Services (Main) Examination-2009
Solved Cum Study Notes Model Paper
(General Studies)
Section -6 (Model Test Paper)
3. Write about the following (answer to each ques-
tion should be in about 20 words) : 2x5=10
(a) Mini Pravasi Bharatiya Divas
(b) Global Indian Network of Knowledge
(c) Overseas Indian Facilitation Center (OIFC)
(d) Overseas Workers Resource Centre (OWRC)
(e) Indian council of Overseas Employment (ICOE)
(f) Indian Diaspora in Australia
4. Answer anyone of the following (in about 250
words): 30
(a) What steps IMF recently has taken to support
low-income countries during crisis?
(b) Discuss the situation of Foreign Direct Invest-
ment (FDI) equity inflows in India and government’s
efforts.
5. Discuss any two of the following topics (an-
swer each question in about 150 words)
(a). A Challenge fund for Export Promotion Activi-
ties
(b). India and Global Meltdown
(c). India- MERCOSUR Preferential Trade Agree-
ment
6. Write about the following (answer to each ques-
tion in about 20 words) : 5x2 = 10
(a) Structural Adjustment Facility (SAF)
(b) Rights Accumulation Program (RAP)
(c) Green Box
(d) NTMs
(e). ICSID
112 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
7. Write on any one of the following (answer in
about 150 words): 15
(a) BRICS’ Joint Statement on Global Food Secu-
rity
(b) Ethnic Violence in Xinjiang
8. Briefly write about the following (in about 20
words each): 2x5 = 10
(a) G-5 and G-14
(b) Indo-Japan Mutual Trade
(c) Second World Conference Against Racism
(d) Lebanese Parliamentary Elections
(e) India as a political Force in East Asia
9. Write about the following by expanding and
explaining the objectives (in about 20 Words
each): 2x5=10
(a) ESCAP
(b) APEC
(c) NAM
(d) BIMSTEC
(e) INTERPOL
10. Answer any one of the following in about 250
words: 30
(a). Give the brief account of India’s achievements in
Space Programme in recent years.
(b). What are the main uses of nanotechnology and
its position in India?
11. Explain any three of the following (in about
150 words each) : 3x15=45
(a) Quantum Compute.
(b) Virtually Engineering Power Plants
(c) Param Sheersh Supercomputing facility
(d) Tele-medicine facility for Rural India
12. Write brief notes on all the five (in about 20
words each) below: 5x2=10
(a) NAT
(b) Robotic Therapy
(c) Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell
(d) WinZIP
(e) H1N1
Section -6 (Model Test Paper)
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Ans. 1. (a)
The Prime Minister of India Dr. Manmohan Singh and the Prime Minister of Pakistan Syed Yusuf Raza Gilani
met on July 16, 2009 in the Egyptian resort city of Sharm-el-Sheikh, on the sidelines of the Non-Aligned Move-
ment (NAM) Summit. The two Prime Ministers had a cordial and constructive meeting. They considered the
entire gamut of bilateral relations with a view to charting the way forward in India - Pakistan relations. Both
leaders agreed that terrorism is the main threat to both countries. Both leaders affirmed their resolve to fight
terrorism and to cooperate with each other to this end. Indian Prime Minister reiterated the need to bring the
perpetrators of the Mumbai attacks to justice. Prime Minister Gilani assured that Pakistan will do everything in
its power in this regard. He said that Pakistan has provided an updated status dossier on the investigations of the
Mumbai attacks and had sought additional information/evidence. Prime Minister Singh said that the dossier is
being reviewed.
Both leaders agreed that the two countries will share real time, credible and actionable information on any future
terrorist threats. Prime Minister Gilani mentioned that Pakistan has some information on threats in Balochistan
and other areas. Both Prime Ministers recognised that dialogue is the only way forward. Action on terrorism
should not be linked to the Composite Dialogue process and these should not be bracketed. Prime Minister
Singh said that India was ready to discuss all issues with Pakistan, including all outstanding issues. Dr Manmohan
Singh reiterated India’s interest in a stable, democratic, Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Both leaders agreed that the real challenge is development and the elimination of poverty. They are resolved to
eliminate those factors which prevent our countries from realizing their full potential. They agreed to work to
create an atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence. Both leaders reaffirmed their intention to promote regional
cooperation. Both Foreign Secretaries should meet as often as necessary and report to the two Foreign Ministers
who will be meeting on the sidelines of the forthcoming UN General Assembly.
The peace process started in September 2004 and came to a halt after four rounds of talks. Both sides claimed
substantial progress on the eight subjects that came under the ambit of the composite dialogue, including Kash-
mir, Siachen Glacier, confidence-building measures, Sir Creek, Wullar Barrage and terrorism and related sub-
jects. Both sides admit that the dialogue process, which came to a halt yet again, in November 2008, has helped
make a lot of progress towards resolving the contentious issues of Sir Creek and Siachen. The two sides re-
sumed the process, which had been suspended following the terror attacks on the Mumbai suburban train net-
work in July 2006, after the Prime Minister met Pakistan’s President, Pervez Musharraf, at the NAM Summit in
Havana. The joint statement in Havana agreed not to link terrorism concerns to other key issues that were part
of the designated composite dialogue process. The statement also announced the creation of an India-Pakistan
institutional anti-terror mechanism to identify and implement counter-terrorism measures and initiatives.
While in Pakistan the joint statement was received as a diplomatic victory and Gilani was hailed as a hero, in
India Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was blamed for capitulating to Pakistan and has received widespread
criticism for the compromises. He came under flak for deviating from India’s stated position on terrorism and
composite dialogue since Pakistan has not taken any “credible and visible” action against the perpetrators of the
26/11 Mumbai attack. But Dr. Manmohan Singh said few hours after the release of the statement, that the peace
talks would remain on hold until Islamabad took action against the perpetrators of the Mumbai attacks. “If acts
of terrorism continue to be perpetrated, there is no question of dialogue, let alone a composite dialogue,”
Manmohan Singh told the Indian media in Sharm-el-Sheikh.
For a proper evaluation of the Joint Statement, the issues involved have to be looked at in a balanced perspec-
ANSWERS
114 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
tive. Actually India did not gave a diplomatic blank cheque to Pakistan either on the “delinking” issue or on the
inclusion of Balochistan. Pakistan has already submitted a dossier on action–taken-so-far, howsoever inad-
equate and half-hearted, against the terrorists involved in the Mumbai attack. The use of Pakistani territory and
the involvement of Pakistan nationals have been admitted; the role of the Lashkar-e-Taiba has been acknowl-
edged; five Lashkar operatives have been arrested and would be charge-sheeted, including the commander of the
Mumbai attack, Zakiur Rahman Lakhvi. The Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) chief has been in consultation with
Indian High Commission officials in Islamabad on the action being taken in relation to the Mumbai case. To
proceed further, Pakistan is seeking more information from India. Delinking in no way means that the composite
dialogue would continue irrespective of Pakistan not doing anything regarding the Mumbai case or allowing a
similar attack on India again. The joint statement is a political document and not a legally binding, unconditional
international commitment.
The criticism from the non-Left opposition parties and the Congress party’s lukewarm reception to the joint
statement do not bode well for an early resumption of the dialogue process. Senior Congress functionaries
sniped at the Prime Minster for agreeing to sign on to the statement. While the Congress formally supported the
Prime Minister’s statement in Parliament, “off-the-record” leaks by senior Congressmen were critical of the
alleged concessions given to Pakistan.
The Bharatiya Janata Party was strident in its criticism of the Sharm-el-Sheikh statement just as it was of the
Havana statement. Leader of the Opposition L.K. Advani was among the most vociferous critics of the Sharm-
el-Sheikh statement. He led a walkout of BJP members in Parliament after describing the statement as “capitu-
lation”. He later said the statement evoked “intense disquiet and concern among all thinking Indians, including
sections of the Congress party”. He accused the Prime Minister of having surrendered India’s “diplomatic ad-
vantage over Pakistan” by delinking acts of terrorism from the composite dialogue process and the mention of
the “Balochistan” issue.
Ans 1 (b)
Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was chief guest on the occasion of Bastille Day march on July 14, 2009.
On this day a detachment of 400 Indian soldiers proudly led the Bastille Day parade on the Champs-Elysées.
ndian soldiers to participate in the Bastille Day march for the first time, French President Nicolas Sarkozy
wanted to emphasize France's special relationship with India. Sarkozy is keen to help India elevate its role on the
international scene by endorsing its candidacy to become a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council. He
has bullishly asserted the need for expanding the G8 to the G14 by inviting emerging powers like India to join the
elite club, and giving them a greater role in setting the global economic and geopolitical agenda.
France enjoys a longstanding relationship with India. In the midst of the 18th century, the French Empire was
close to conquering the entire subcontinent when Governor Dupleix was called back to France by the Compagnie
des Indes (which had established a trade presence in India well ahead of its British rival, the East India Com-
pany).
France is keen to have full civil nuclear cooperation, including transfer of enrichment and reprocessing technol-
ogy, with India, notwithstanding the G-8 declaration which vows to curb sharing of such knowhow with non-
NPT nations.India had raised the issue of the nuclear cooperation against the backdrop of G-8 resolution with
French President Nicolas Sarkozy during his visit to Paris. The Group of 8 industrialised nations, which includes
France, had in a declaration committed to curb transfer of ENR technology and items to countries that have not
signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty. India is among the countries which have not signed NPT. Earlier India and
Section -6 (Model Test Paper)
115 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
France had entered into an accord for supplying reactors and fuel consequent to the Undo-US nuclear deal, the
123 agreement and clearance by the NSG to enable New Delhi to have full-scale civil nuclear cooperation.
As a first step, Department of Atomic Energy had entered into a contract with French Nuclear supplier AR EVA
NC for the supply of 300 tonnes of uranium ore concentrate and 60 tonnes were released under the first consign-
ment which has been received by the NFC.
India has received the first consignment of 60 tonnes of uranium from France for use as fuel to power its nuclear
reactors following a clearance by the 45-member Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). The uranium ore would now
be processed at the Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) here for use in safeguarded pressurized heavy water reactors
(Phews). France is a leading world exporter of civilian nuclear technology.
Reports say the deal includes providing India with France's latest model of the European Pressurised Reactor as
well as other civilian nuclear material. The deal was good news for India - which is desperately short of energy
to fuel its booming economy - and places it firmly as a world nuclear power. The deal in effect ends a ban which
prevented countries from engaging in civilian nuclear trade with Delhi. The ban was imposed in 1974 when India
used its civilian programme to produce and successfully test an atomic bomb. France is the world's second
largest producer of nuclear energy after the United States. France and India have instituted a high-level, Strate-
gic Dialogue at the level of National Security Advisors which provides both sides an opportunity to review the
evolution of the overall global security situation and emerging challenges in various parts of the world. The 20th
round of Strategic Dialogue took place in New Delhi on17th January, 2009. Annual consultations between the
two foreign ministries are held at the level of Foreign Secretaries. The Foreign Office Consultations took place
in Paris on 5th February, 2009. A special Joint Working Group on Terrorism has been established to aid coopera-
tion in the fight against terrorism. A High Level Committee
for Defence at the level of Defence Secretaries, working through its three specialized sub-committees, deals
with issues related to our defence cooperation. The last meeting was held in Paris on 25th – 26th November,
2008. A Joint Committee for Economic and Technical Cooperation at the level of Ministers of Commerce, deals
with issues related to commerce and trade. The last meeting was held in New Delhi on 16th -17th September,
2008. The erstwhile Indo-French Forum brought together eminent personalities and opinion makers of two
countries from the fields of art, culture & technology, business and academia. The 11th Plenary Session of the
IFF was held in Paris on 27th October, 2006. The 5th Coordinators’ Meeting of the IFF was held in New Delhi
on 2nd April, 2007. During President Sarkozy’s visit to India in January, 2008, it was decided to convert the IFF
into the CEOs’ Forum. The list of members from both sides has been exchanged. The first preliminary session of
the CEOs Forum is scheduled for 26th June, 2009 in Paris.
Economic and Commercial Relations: France is the 6th largest economy of the world and an important member
of the G-8. Its technological strengths make it the leader in sectors such as aviation, space, food processing,
transport, railways and agricultural research. However, France’s business interaction with India is not mmensurate
with its intrinsic economic capacity. France is ranked 5th in the list of India’s trading partners among EU coun-
tries (after the UK, Belgium, Germany and Italy). Indo-French bilateral trade has been growing over the years.
Indo-French trade, at € 6.78 billion, is still below the potential.In the Joint Statement issued at the conclusion of
President Sarkozy’s visit to India in January 2008, it was decided to double the two-way trade by 2012, i.e. to
increase from the then level of € 6.14 billion to almost € 12 billion. This was reiterated during PM Manmohan
Singh’s visit to France in September, 2008. 13. French exports to India comprise mainly of aeronautical & space
construction products, iron & steel products, electrical equipment and apparatus, measuring and process control
equipment, organic chemical products, mechanical products, etc. Indian exports to France consist of a wide
range of goods and services spread over a large base of Indian companies, especially from the small and medium
Section -6 (Model Test Paper)
116 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
sector. While traditional items such as garments & textiles constitute a major share of India's exports to France,
a number of newly developed non-traditional items such as food products, organic chemicals, refined petroleum
products, etc. are showing promising growth.
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) approved from France from 1991 to October, 2008 is of the order of US$ 1.9
billion out of which the actual inflow is of the order of US$ 103 billion. The number of technical and financial
collaborations approved with France is 952. France is the 9th largest foreign investor in the period August 1991
to October, 2008. During President Sarkozy’s visit to India, French interlocutors indicated that investments by
major French companies were planned in the energy, automobile, aerospace, food processing and other sectors.
Indian investments in France have also been growing. Indian companies are active in IT, pharmaceuticals, plastic
industry and auto-parts etc. in France. In 2007, Indian companies invested around € 0.42 billion in France.
French companies have recorded interest of investment of Euros 10 billion during 2007-2012. France should
capitalize on the Indian community that already lives on its own soil—much as the U.S. and Britain have done
via organizations like Silicon Valley's TiE (The Indus Entrepreneurs). This French minority group boasts 60,000
bilingual Franco-Indians who can act as sociocultural intermediaries to forge tight, knowledge-rich economic
ties between the 65 million French and 1.15 billion Indians. The result could lift both countries.
Ans 1 (c)
Michelle Bachelet, President of the Republic of Chile paid a state visit to India from 16-20 March 2009, at the
invitation of the President of India.The visit assumes special significance as it coincides with the 60th Anniver-
sary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between India and Chile. The anniversary was marked by the
holding of a special concert in New Delhi on 16th March 2009 at which both Indian and Chilean artists per-
formed in the presence of the Presidents of both countries. During this visit both sides reviewed the state of
bilateral relations and expressed satisfaction at the pace at which mutually beneficial cooperation is progressing.
As democratic nations, Chile and India share values such as, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms
including religious, rule of law and tolerance. Prime Minister Singh and President Bachelet underlined the im-
portance of enhancing trade and economic relations. They noted that the Preferential Trade Agreement [PTA]
between Chile and India, in force since August 2007, has facilitated the growth in bilateral trade which reached
US$ 2.3 billion in 2008. They welcomed the growing and dynamic trade relations and agreed that the PTA has
opened new avenues for cooperation and investment for Chilean and Indian companies. Both Leaders evinced
interest in exploring the feasibility of entering into a Free Trade Agreement and expressed satisfaction that the
process of broadening and deepening of the existing PTA has already been initiated. It was also agreed to
enhance the periodic exchanges of business missions and participation in each other’s trade fairs to facilitate
promotion of their respective countries’ products and services. Both sides agreed to endeavour to double bilat-
eral trade in the next five years. The two Leaders expressed interest in strengthening cooperation in new areas
such as Information Technology (IT) and bio-technology in which India is regarded as a pioneer amongst devel-
oping nations. Both countries welcomed the growing interest of Chilean and Indian educational institutions in
establishing stronger ties. They welcomed the Memorandum of Understanding between the University of Madrás
and the Universidad de Talca, to be signed on 20th March 2009.
They also noted that the proposal for signing a Cooperation Agreement on Gender Equality between both
countries is at an advanced stage of consideration. Chile strongly condemned the terrorist attacks on Mumbai on
26th November 2008. Pursuant to the attacks, the President of Chile had written to the Prime Minister of India
condemning the “heinous and cowardly terrorist attacks as they constitute crimes against humanity and a threat
to human safety on a global scale”. Both Leaders called for enhanced international cooperation and exchange of
information through appropriate channels in order to enhance the ability of the governments to fight terrorism.
In this regard, they reiterated that early conclusion of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism
Section -6 (Model Test Paper)
117 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
is imperative to consolidation of counter terrorism efforts within the UN.
India and Chile reiterated their continued commitment to multilateralism and the principles enshrined in the
United Nations Charter. Chile and India reaffirmed their support for a comprehensive reform of the United
Nations, including expansion of the Security Council to make this body more representative, legitimate and
effective. Both nations stressed and acknowledged the need for continued efforts by the Member States to
ensure meaningful and result-oriented intergovernmental negotiations. Chile reiterated its support for India's
permanent membership on an expanded UN Security Council. They also confirmed their reciprocal support for
each other’s candidature for non-permanent membership of the UN Security Council for 2011-12 for India and
2014-15 for Chile. Both countries seek a development-oriented, ambitious and balanced outcome to the Doha
Development Round at the earliest.
India and Chile reaffirmed their commitment to continue negotiations within the framework of the Bali Plan of
Action in order to reach an agreed outcome for the effective implementation of the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This outcome must respect the provisions and principles of the
UNFCCC, in particular, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.
Chile and India agreed on the importance of the promotion of joint initiatives on R&D on advanced clean
technologies with the objective of finding concrete and innovative solutions to the issue of climate change. In
this regard, they urged developed countries to establish a global fund to promote renewable energy and clean
technologies, both in terms of application of existing technologies as well as R&D into new and innovative
technologies. The two Leaders held in-depth discussions about the ongoing financial and economic crisis and
agreed that it was important that the regulatory failure in developed countries leading to the crisis should be
urgently addressed.
Ans. 2 (a)
INS Arihant (S-73) is the lead ship of India's Arihant class of nuclear-powered submarines. It was launched by
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and his wife Gursharan Kaur on July 26, 2009 to mark the anniversary of Vijay
Diwas (Kargil War Victory Day). INS Arihant is expected to formally join the Indian Navy in 2012 after under-
going extensive sea-trials.The 6,000-tonne vessel was built under the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) project
at the Ship Building Centre in Visakhapatnam at a cost of US$2.9 billion.
With the launch of the submarine India will join the exclusive club of US, Russia, China, France and the UK with
similar capabilities. Arihant's primary weapon is stealth as it can lurk in ocean depths of half a kilometre or more
and fire its missiles from under the sea. The 6000-tonne submarine is powered by an 85 megawatt capacity
nuclear reactor and can acquire surface speeds of 22 to 28 kmph (12-15 knots) and submerged speed upto 44
kmph (24 knots). It will be carrying a crew of 95 men and will be armed with torpedoes and missiles including 12
ballistic missiles. The Rs 30,000-crore secret nuclear submarine project was started in the 1980s though it was
conceived by then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in the 1970s.
Ans 2 (b)
At the invitation Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India, Mr. Hamid Karzai, President of Afghanistan
visited India in January 2009. The visit was symbolic specially to express Afghanistan’s solidarity with the
Government and people of India in the wake of the Mumbai terrorist attack. The deplorable incident shows that
terrorism is a threat to the entire humanity. During the visit, a joint statement was issued on January 12, 2009.
The leaders called for the full compliance with bilateral, multilateral and international obligations of States to
prevent terrorism in any manner originating from territories under their control since terrorism emanates from
Section -6 (Model Test Paper)
118 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
the sanctuaries and training camps and the sustenance and support received by the terrorist groups. While
reviewing their robust, strategic partnership, the two leaders expressed satisfaction at the progress in bilateral
development and reconstruction projects in all parts of Afghanistan.
India conveyed to President Karzai that, following the completion of the road from Zaranj to Delaram in South-
western Afghanistan, a second major infrastructure project, the Pul-e-Khumri to Kabul transmission line and the
sub-station at Chimtala in Northern Afghanistan, will be handed over shortly to the Government of Afghanistan.
The both leaders expressed their satisfaction that the construction of the Afghan Parliament, a symbol of the
common commitment of both countries to pluralism and democracy, also began. India conveyed that it will gift
Afghanistan 250000 metric tonnes of wheat. The shipment will be effected immediately, as soon as the Govern-
ment of Afghanistan has worked out its transportation arrangements. President Karzai invited Prime Minister
Dr. Singh for a State Visit to Afghanistan. The invitation was accepted with pleasure. Both countries reaffirmed
the special relationship between India and Afghanistan, to build a strong, united, and prosperous Afghanistan
and to work towards peace, stability and development of the entire region.
Ans 2. (c)
India has permanent interest and commitment to the domestic political stability and peace in Sri Lanka as the
developments in Sri Lanka affect the peace and order situation in some of Indian States, particularly Tamilnadu.
On the economic front, for India, Sri Lanka is a small market and accounts for about 2 per cent of Indian exports
and less than 1 per cent of Indian imports. India exports to Sri Lanka varieties of goods and services including
transport equipment, cotton yarn, fabrics, readymade garments, iron and steel, machinery and instruments, sugar
and wheat, drugs and pharmaceuticals, chemicals, glass and glassware, ceramics, cement and paper and wood
products; and imports non-ferrous metals such as copper, spices, electronic goods, electrical machinery, scrap
metal paper pulp and chemicals. The two countries have created a large legal framework to advance their
cooperation: a free trade agreement; a double taxation avoidance agreement; and a series of bilateral agreements
and understandings for cooperation in the areas of small-scale industries, agriculture, tourism, space and infor-
mation technology and air travel facilities.
The Free Trade Agreement between India and Sri Lanka came into full existence from March 1, 2000. A free
trade arrangement between India and Sri Lanka has promoted mutually beneficial bilateral trade and strength-
ened intra-regional economic cooperation. Under the agreement zero duty on around 1000 items has been
provided by India except for those in the negative list. Domestic value-addition requirements have been kept at
35 per cent With the introduction of FTA trade has grown rapidly between the two states. The FTA prompted a
257 per cent increase in bilateral trade between 2001 and 2004. Bilateral trade exceeded US $ 1.7 billion in 2004
and rose to US $ 2.025 billion in 2005. India is the 3rd largest destination for Sri Lankan exports. With FDI
approvals of US $ 450 million, India is the 4th largest investor in Sri Lanka.
Ans. 2 (d)
Nursultan Nazarbayev, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, paid a State Visit to India from 23rd to 26th
January 2009.He participated as the Guest of Honour at the Republic Day Parade. During the State Visit,
President Nursultan Nazarbayev strongly condemned the terrorist attacks in Mumbai and reiterated the need for
intensifying global cooperation in combating international terrorism. He also conveyed assurance that Kazakhstan
stood firmly with India in dealing with the scourge of global terrorism. India and Kazakhstan called for early
conclusion of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism within the UN framework. Both Sides
noted that this opened immense possibilities of cooperation in nuclear civil energy sector including in the mining
Section -6 (Model Test Paper)
119 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
of uranium. The two Governments welcomed the signing of Memorandum of Understanding between Nuclear
Power Corporation of India and National Atomic Company Kazatomprom JSC and recommended early conclu-
sion of an Inter Governmental Agreement for Cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. The Indian Side
conveyed that Kazakhstan ranks high in securing India's energy security and hoped that the conclusion of the
Agreement is the beginning of a long term mutually beneficial cooperation in the hydrocarbon sector.
Ans. 2 (e)
India and Nepal share close and friendly political, economic, cultural and social ties, which are unique and have
stood the test of time. During the visit of Foreign Secretary to Nepal on June 20-21, 2009, India reiterated its
support to the new government of Nepal led by Madhav Kumar Nepal. Both sides also agreed to take the
bilateral relations forward. Recently, there have been some media reports in Nepal regarding alleged encroach-
ment of Nepalese territory by India. India investigated and found to the allegation false. There are bilateral
institutional mechanisms for effective border management, including at district level, to address such concerns.
In addition to these, it has also been agreed to establish local level mechanisms during the recent visit of Foreign
Secretary to Nepal.
Ans. 3 (a)
The concept of mini PBD is based on requests received over the years from various quarters to organise it
outside India to let the Indian Diaspora in the region benefit from the deliberations. This is particularly helpful to
those large numbers of Indians in several regions who are not able to make it to the annual PBDs held in India.
The first mini Pravasi Bharatiya Divas Convention was held in New York in September 2007 while the next one
was organized at Singapore in October 2008. The next mini Pravasi Bharatiya Divas Convention titled ‘PBD
Europe’ will be organised at the historic World Forum in The Hague on 19th September, 2009.
This Convention is expected to bring together members of the Indian Diaspora in Europe at the common plat-
form to discuss the role of the Indian Diaspora in enhancing Indo-European cooperation, opportunities and
challenges faced by them in the fields of culture, heritage & tradition, as also Trade and Investment opportunities
available for them in the land of their ancestors.
Ans. 3 (b)
The Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs has launched a new initiative to develop a Diaspora Knowledge Net-
work called – Global Indian Network of Knowledge (Global INK). This will serve as Knowledge Bank. The
Global INK, an electronic platform will connect people of Indian Origin from a variety of disciplines recognized
as leaders in their respective fields, not just in their country of residence but globally as well, with knowledge
users at the national and sub national levels in India. The network will serve as a strategic ‘virtual think tank’.
The Outcome targeted will be the germination of ideas on development, identification of the key elements in
addressing the challenges to development and articulation and mapping out solutions through innovations and
technological interventions.
Ans. 3 (c)
Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs has set up an Overseas Indian Facilitation Center (OIFC) as a not-for-profit-
trust, in partnership with Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). The Center is a ‘one stop shop’ for serving the
interests of the Overseas Indian community and has the mandate to cover two broad areas (a) Investment
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Facilitation and (b) Knowledge Networking.
The objectives of the Centers are:
» Promote Overseas Indian investment into India and facilitate business partnership, by giving authentic and real
time information
» Function as clearinghouse for all investment related information. This would be done by processing informa-
tion on a real time basis through Information and Communication Technology (ICT) platform
» Establish and maintain a Diaspora Knowledge Network (DKN) by creating a database of Overseas Indians,
who would act as knowledge Diaspora and whose knowledge resources could be using ICT platform
» Assist States in India to project investment opportunities to overseas Indians in the infrastructure and social
sectors. The objectives of the OIFC will be to bring the Indian States, Indian Business and potential Overseas
» Investors on the same platform and to facilitate the investors to identify the investment opportunities
Provide a host of advisory services to PIO and NRIs. These could include matters such as consular questions,
stay in India, investment and financial issues etc.
An Overseas Workers Resource Centre (OWRC) has been set up as a helpline for assistance and protec-
tion of Indians working abroad and prospective emigrants with following objectives:
1. Information dissemination on matters relating to emigration
2. Registering, responding to and monitoring complaints received from emigrant workers
3. Grievance redressal and follow up with stakeholders
Ans. 3 (d)
Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs had established an Overseas Workers Resource Centre (OWRC) on 8th
January, 2008 during the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas. The Centre provides need based information and assistance to
emigrants.
Now an International toll free No. 800 091 202 53 has been added by the OWRC for the benefit of Indian
emigrant workers and other information seekers in the three countries in the Gulf namely UAE, Saudi Arabia
and Kuwait. This international toll free number can be reached 24/7 from these three countries.
Ans. 3 (e)
The Government of India has set up the Indian Council of Overseas Employment (ICOE) to serve as a ‘think
tank’ for the promotion of overseas employment, better protection and welfare of overseas Indian workers and
for the study of emerging overseas employment opportunities. One of the objectives of the ICOE is to study and
analyse the trends in International labour markets. The ICOE is undertaking a study through the International
Organization for Migration (IOM) on labour market assessment in six EU countries -France, Denmark, Czech
Republic, Sweden, Romania and Poland. In addition, it has finalized a cooperation agreement with the European
University Institute, Florence for collaborative research and studies relating to mobility of people between India
and the European Union (EU).
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Ans. 3 (f )
25 per cent of skilled migrants in Australia are Indians. From cooks, welders, plumbers, hairdressers, electri-
cians, to engineers and accountants, the State of Western Australia is facing a shortage of skilled labour and
professionals, and is keen on getting more skilled migrants from India. Some 43000 jobs would be created in the
next ten years.
Ans. 4 (a)
In July 2009, the IMF’s Executive Board approved the package of measures that will sharply increase the loan
resources available to low-income countries. The resources—including from the planned sale of IMF gold—are
expected to boost the Fund’s concessional lending to up to $17 billion through 2014, including up to $8 billion
over the next two years. The IMF announced zero interest payments up to the end of 2011 for all concessional
loans to low-income members and lower interest rates on a permanent basis thereafter. A new set of lending
instruments will underpin this increased support. The crisis originated in the advanced economies and has had its
most visible impact on the emerging market countries. But a third wave of the crisis has threatened the remark-
able economic achievements many low-income countries have made over the past decade.
Package: As part of the response, the IMF has already more than doubled its financial assistance to low-income
countries. New IMF concessional lending commitments to low-income countries through mid-July 2009 reached
$2.9 billion compared with $1.5 billion for the whole of 2008. The new measures represent a significant addi-
tional effort in the coming years. The IMF support package includes:
» Mobilization of additional resources, including from sales of an agreed amount of IMF gold, to boost the
Fund’s concessional lending capacity to up to $17 billion through 2014, including up to $8 billion in the first two
years. This exceeds the call by the Group of Twenty for $6 billion in new lending over two to three years.
» Interest relief, with zero payments on outstanding IMF concessional loans through end-2011 to help low-
income countries cope with the crisis.
» Permanently higher concessionality of Fund financial support—with annual interest rates regularly reviewed
so as to preserve a higher level of concessionality than previously.
» Doubling of average loan access limits for low-income countries
» A new set of financial instruments tailored to the diverse needs of low-income countries and better suited to
meet the crisis challenges:
1. An Extended Credit Facility (ECF) to provide flexible medium-term support;
2. A Standby Credit Facility to address short-term and precautionary needs; and
3. a Rapid Credit Facility, offering emergency support with limited conditionality
In addition, the IMF’s Executive Board recently backed the Managing Director's proposal for a new general
allocation of $250 billion of Special Drawing Rights into the global economy, of which more than $18 billion will
help bolster the foreign exchange reserves and relax the financing constraints of low-income countries. If ap-
proved by the IMF's Board of Governors, the proposed SDR allocation would take place at the end of August.
The new lending windows are expected to become effective later this year, when donor countries have given
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their final consent. At that time, existing concessional arrangements will automatically be converted into ECF
arrangements. Existing arrangements under the Exogenous Shocks Facility, however, will remain in effect, and
new ones that have already been prepared could still be approved during a three-month window.
Need of Support: An IMF report on the implications of the global financial crisis for low-income countries had
warned in March that the global financial crisis has hit poor countries especially hard, posing serious threats to
their hard-won gains in boosting economic growth and creating a need for additional foreign financing to miti-
gate the impact of the crisis. Also in March, Tanzania President Jakaya Kikwete, Strauss-Kahn, and former UN
Secretary-General Kofi Annan convened a conference in Dar es Salaam of government, business, civil society,
and opinion leaders to address these issues. The IMF committed at the meeting to increase its support for Africa
with more financing, greater flexibility, enhanced policy dialogue, and a further strengthening of Africa’s voice in
the Fund.
Fund: Some of the money to boost IMF lending to low-income countries will come from the envisaged sales of
IMF gold. The IMF Executive Board will consider a plan for the Fund to sell about 400 metric tons of gold in
order to create a new income model for the institution. In order to meet the financing needs of the low-income
countries during the global crisis, some of the proceeds of those sales will be used to help provide new subsidy
resources for the concessional lending to those countries. Resources linked to the gold sales will be used to help
fund concessional lending to low-income countries in the following ways. First, windfall profits when the gold
sales take place can be used for the subsidy resources. Windfall profits would derive from gold sales at an
average price in excess of $850 per ounce—that is the price assumed in the new income model as necessary to
fund the model. Second, to the extent that the realized windfall profits fall short of the required contribution, the
remaining amount will be generated through investment income from the endowment funded by the gold sales.
Ans. 4 (b)
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) equity inflows in the country have increased from US $ 5.5 billion in 2005-06
to US $ 27.31 billion in the year 2008-09. The FDI inflows in 2007-08 were US $ 24.58 billion and increased to
US $ 27.31 billion in 2008-09, despite the economic slowdown, showing a percentage growth of 11% over the
previous financial year.
Government has put in place a liberal and investor-friendly policy on FDI under which FDI up to 100% is
permitted on the automatic route in most sectors/ activities, including infrastructure and Research and Develop-
ment (R&D). The UNCTAD World Investment Reports (WIR) 2007 & 2008, in their analysis of the global
trends and sustained growth of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, have reported India as the second most
attractive location for FDI for 2007- 2009. India has retained the second place in A. T. Kearney’s 2007 Foreign
Direct Investment Confidence Index, a position it has held since 2005. Government has also announced a slew
of measures to accelerate the demand in the economy which would enable India to continue as an attractive
investment destination. Under the liberalized economic environment, investment decisions of investors are based
on the macro-economic policy framework, investment climate in the state, investment policies of the transnational
corporations and other commercial considerations.
The Government of India continues to make efforts to increase economic cooperation with the developing as
well as developed countries through different fora such as Joint Commissions/Joint Committees, other bilateral
channels like interaction with the delegations visiting the country and organizing visits abroad for discussions on
issues of mutual interest and business/ investment meets between Indian and foreign entrepreneurs to stimulate
foreign investment into India. The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion also participates in discus-
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sions covering industrial cooperation organized by other Ministries and Departments of Government of India
and the Joint Business Council meetings.
The Government of India also undertakes investment promotion activities through organisation of Destination
India and Invest India events in various countries with FDI potential to create awareness about the investment
climate and opportunities in India, as well as to provide support to potential investors.
The Government of India, in partnership with various State Government and Business Associations, is making
concerted efforts to make regulations conducive for business. In addition, the Government has initiated to
implement e-Biz Project, a Mission Mode Project under the National e-Governance Project, to provide online
registration, filing payment services to investors and business houses.
In FDI equity investments mauritius tops the list of first ten investing countries followed by US, UK, Singapore,
Netherlands, Japan, Germany, france, Cyprus and Switzerland. Between April 2000 and July 2008 FDI inflows
from Mauritius stood at $ 30.18 billion followed by $5.80 billion from Singapore; $ 5.47 billion from the US; $
4.83 billion from the UK; $ 3.12 billion from the Netherlands; $ 2.26 billion from Japan; $1.83 billion from
Germany; $ 1.41 billion from Cyprus; and $1.02 billion from France.
Ans. 5 (a)
A Challenge fund for Export Promotion Activities by Indian Missions abroad, has been set- up with a corpus of
Rs. 5 crore, under the Market Access Initiative (MAI) scheme. The MAI scheme of the Department of Com-
merce is an export promotion scheme envisaged to act as a catalyst to promote India's export on a sustainable
basis. Since, Indian Missions abroad are also eligible for assistance under the scheme, a "Challenge Fund" has
been created under the same.
The MAI focus on the markets which in turn will focus upon product export promotion activities including
innovative market promotion projects to showcase the Indian export capabilities. Projects relating to only mar-
ket promotion activities shall be considered; export promotion of new items in India's export baskets by way of
market development and market penetration and export promotion initiatives for Micro, Small and Medium
enterprises (MSME) with a stress on regions and countries where India has a small bilateral trade profile (Africa
and Latin America), shall be given priority; duplication of projects already implemented under the MAI/ MDA
scheme of the Commerce Ministry is prohibited. The fund is used to finance specific export promotion schemes
and projects which envisage introduction of new items of export towards diversification of the Indian export
basket in the host country. These projects shall be proposed by Indian Missions abroad. Each individual project
has been assigned a budget of Rs. 10 lakh. Priority shall be given to focused, specific projects with tangible
results. The project proposals received shall be subjected to compete for funding on their merits.
Ans. 5 (b)
The subprime crisis that surfaced around August 2007 had affected financial institutions in the United States and
Europe including the shadow banking system comprising inter alia investment banks, hedge funds, private equity
and structured investment vehicles. With the collapse of Lehman Brothers and other Wall Street icons, there was
growing recession which affected the US, the European Union (EU) and Japan. This was the result of large scale
defaults in the US housing market as the banks went on providing risky loans without adequate security and the
repaying capacity of the borrower. The principal source of transmission of the crisis has been the real sector,
generally referred to as the ‘Main Street’. This crisis engulfed the United States in the form of creeping recession
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and this worsened the situation. As a consequence, US demand for imports from other countries indicated a
decline.
Cause of Crisis: The basic cause of the crisis was largely an unregulated environment, mortgage lending to
subprime borrowers. Since the borrowers did not have adequate repaying capacity and also because subprime
borrowing had to pay two-to-three percentage points higher rate of interest and they have a history of default,
the situation became worse. But once the housing market collapsed, the lender institutions saw their balance-
sheets go into red.
Impact on India: The effect on the Indian economy was not significant in the beginning. The initial effect of the
subprime crisis was, in fact, positive, as the country received accelerated Foreign Institutional Investment (FII)
flows during September 2007 to January 2008. This contributed to the debate on “decoupling,” where it was
believed that the emerging economies could remain largely insulated from the crisis and provide an alternative
engine of growth to the world economy. The argument soon proved unfounded as the global crisis intensified
and spread to the emerging economies through capital and current account of the balance of payments (BoP).
The net portfolio flows to India soon turned negative as Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) rushed to sell
equity stakes in a bid to replenish overseas cash balances. This had a knock-on effect on the stock market and the
exchange rates through creating the supplydemand imbalance in the foreign exchange market. The current ac-
count was affected mainly after September 2008 through slowdown in exports. Despite setbacks, however, the
BoP situation of the country continues to remain resilient. It was found that the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
started drying up and this affected investment in the Indian economy. It was, therefore, felt that the Indian
economy will grow at about seven per cent in 2008-09 and at six per cent in 2009-10. The lesson of this
experience is that India must exercise caution while liberalising its financial sector.
A redeeming feature of the current crisis is that its magnitude is much lesser than that of the Great Depression of
the 1930s when unemploy-ment rate in the United States exceeded 25 per cent. Currently, it stands at 6.5 per
cent and is predicted to remain around eight per cent in 2009. The industries most affected by weakening
demand were airlines, hotels, real estate. Besides this, Indian exports suffered a setback and there was a setback
in the production of export-oriented sectors. The government advised the sectors of weakening demand to
reduce prices. It provided some relief by cutting down excise duties, but such simplistic solutions were doomed
to failure. Weakening demand led to producers cutting production. To reduce the impact of the crisis, firms
reduced their workforce, to reduce costs. This led to increase in unemployment but the total impact on the
economy was not very large. Industrial production and manufacturing output declined to five per cent in the last
quarter of 2008-09. Consequently, a vicious cycle of weak demand and falling output developed in the Indian
economy.
A weakening of demand in the US affected India’s IT and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) sector and the
loss of opportunities for young persons seeking employment at lucrative salaries abroad. India’s famous IT
sector, which earned about $ 50 billion as annual revenue, is expected to fall by 50 per cent of its total revenues.
This would reduce the cushion to set off the deficit in balance of trade and thus enlarge our balance of payments
deficit. It has now been estimated that sluggish demand for exports would result in a loss of 10 million jobs in the
export sector alone.
Government’s Efforts: To haul up the economy dented by recession the Government announced a package of
Rs 35,000 crores in the first instance on December 7, 2008. The main areas to benefit were the following:
(a) Housing - A refinance facility of Rs 4000 crores was provided to the National Housing Bank. Following this,
public sector banks announced to provide small home loans seekers loans at reduced rates to step up demand in
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retail housing sector.
The housing package is the core of the government’s new fiscal policy. It will give a fillip to other sectors such
as steel, cement, brick kilns etc. Besides, the small and medium industries (SMEs) too get a boost by manufac-
turing all kinds of fittings and furnishings.
(b) Textiles - Due to declining orders from the world’s largest market the United States, the textile sector has
been seriously affected. An allocation of Rs 1400 crores has been made to clear the entire backlog in the Tech-
nology Upgradation Fund (TUF) scheme.
(c) Infrastructure - The government has been proclaiming that infrastructure is the engine of growth. To boost
the infrastructure, the India Infrastructure Finance Company Ltd. (IIFCL) has been authorised to raise Rs 14,000
crores through tax-free bonds. These funds will be used to finance infrastructure, more especially highways and
ports. It may be mentioned that ‘refinance’ refers to the replacement of an existing debt obligation with a debt
obligation bearing better terms, meaning thereby at lower rates or a changed repayment schedule. The IIFCL
will be permitted to raise further resources by the issue of such bonds so that a public-private partnership (PPP)
programme of Rs 1,00,000 crores in the highway sector is promoted.
(d) Exports - Exports which accounted for 22 per cent of the GDP are expected to fall by 12 per cent. The
government’s fiscal package provides an interest rate subsidy of two per cent on exports for the labour–intensive
sectors such as textiles, handicrafts, leather, gems and jewellery.
(e) Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) - The government announced a guarantee cover of 50 per cent for
loans between Rs 50 lakhs to Rs 1 crore for SMEs. The lock-in period for loans covered under the existing
schemes will be reduced from 24 months to 18 months to encourage banks to cover more loans under the
scheme. Besides, the government will instruct state-owned companies to ensure prompt payment of bills of
SMEs so that they do not suffer on account of delay in the payment of their bills.
In short, the fiscal package is aimed at boosting growth in exports, real estate, auto, textiles and small and
medium enterprises. The aim is to encourage growth and boost employment which have been threatened by the
recession in the world economy, more especially in the United States. Just within a month, the government
announced another package to bail out the Indian economy. The purpose of the new package announced on
January 1, 2009 was to minimise the pain.
On February 24, 2009, the government announced a slashing down of excise duty from 10 per cent to eight per
cent - a reduction by two per cent. The entire stimulus package of Rs 30,000 crores to boost demand in the
economy and thus reduce the impact of recession. Commerce and Industry Minister Kamal Nath announced a
small relief package of Rs 325 crores for leather, textiles, gems and jewellery on February 26, 2009.
Ans. 5 (c)
India- MERCOSUR PTA has come into effect from 1st June, 2009. India with a total trade of US $ 4773.39
million with MERCOSUR during 2007-08, had exports of about US $ 2904.8 million during 2007-08 while
imports stood at about US $ 1868.39 million during the same period. As a follow up to the said Framework
Agreement, a Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) between India and MERCOSUR was signed in New Delhi on
January 25, 2004 and five annexes to this Agreement were signed incorporated on March 19, 2005. By this PTA,
India and MERCOSUR have agreed to give tariff concessions, ranging from 10% to 100% to the other side on
450 and 452 tariff lines respectively.
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The major product groups covered in the offer are food preparations, organic chemicals, pharmaceuticals, es-
sential oils, plastics & articles thereof, rubber and rubber products, tools and implements, machinery items,
electrical machinery and equipments. The break-up of the number of tariff lines for different MOPs is: - 393 tariff
lines – 10%, 45 tariff lines – 20% and 14 tariff lines – 100%. The major sectors covered in offer list of India are
meat and meat products, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, dyes & pigments, raw hides and skins, leather
articles, wool, cotton yarn, glass and glassware, articles of iron and steel, machinery items, electrical machinery
& equipments, optical, photographic & cinematographic apparatus. The break-up of the number of tariff lines
for different margin of preferences (MOP) is:- 93 tariff lines – 10%, 336 tariff lines – 20% and 21 tariff lines –
100%.
MERCOSUR is a trading bloc in South America region comprising of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.
It was formed in 1991 with the objective of free movement of goods, services, capital and people and became a
customs union in January 1995. MERCOSUR’s role model is European Union.A Framework Agreement had
been signed between India and MERCOSUR on 17th June 2003 at Asuncion, Paraguay. The aim of this Frame-
work Agreement was to create conditions and mechanisms for negotiations in the first stage, by granting recip-
rocal tariff preferences and in the second stage, to negotiate a free trade area between the two parties.
Ans. 6 (a)
A financial facility of the Fund established in 1986 to provide concessional loans to low-income Fund member
countries. It recycled resources lent under the IMF's Trust Fund. It was superseded by the Enhanced Structural
Adjustment Facility (ESAF) which was established in 1987 to promote stronger adjustment and reform mea-
sures than those under the SAF. The ESAF was replaced by the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility in 1999.
Ans. 6 (b)
Rights Accumulation Program (RAP) is an economic program agreed between the IMF and an eligible member
in protracted arrears to the IMF that provides a framework for the member to establish a satisfactory track
record of policy and payments performance, and permits the member to accumulate rights to future drawings of
IMF resources following clearance of arrears to the IMF, up to the level of arrears outstanding at the beginning
of the program.
Ans. 6 (c)
Domestic support for agriculture that is allowed without limits because it does not distort trade, or at most
causes minimal distortion.
Ans. 6 (d)
The Government examines the tariff and non-tariff measures (NTMs) imposed by developed countries especially
on products of export interest for developing countries including steel. An Inter-Ministerial Committee has been
constituted to co-ordinate the plan to tackle NTMs imposed by India’s trading partners by taking an effective
remedial action. An institutional mechanism in the form of a database of NTMs imposed by other countries on
India’s exports has also been created.
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Ans. 6 (e)
ICSID is an autonomous international institution established under the Convention on the Settlement of Invest-
ment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States with over one hundred and forty member States.
The Convention sets forth ICSID's mandate, organization and core functions. The primary purpose of ICSID is
to provide facilities for conciliation and arbitration of international investment disputes.
Ans. 7. (a)
The 1st BRIC- Brazil, Russia, India, China-summit took place in Yekaterinburg, Russia on June 16, 2009. The
four heads of government from the BRIC countries attended. Joint Statement on Global Food Security was
issued there.It was agreed by the national authorities in advance of the BRIC Summit.
The fluctuations of global food prices coupled with the global financial crisis is threatening global food security.
As a result, the number of people suffering from hunger and malnutrition grows and the progress towards the
achievement of the Millennium Development Goals may be reversed. This challenge should be addressed with-
out delay in a comprehensive manner through resolute action by all Governments and the relevant international
agencies.
The developed and developing countries should address the food security issue according to the principle of
common but differentiated responsibility. The developed countries should provide financial and technology sup-
port for developing countries in the field of food production capacity. The BRIC countries welcome various
initiatives in this field by the UN and its special agencies. The BRIC countries renew their commitment to
contribute to the efforts to overcome the global food crisis. Countering effectively the global food crisis is
impossible without a clear and full understanding of its causes. Attempts to explain food price hikes by an
increase in consumption in developing countries obscure the true causes which have a complex and multifaceted
nature. Global Climate Change and natural disasters have direct implications on food security through changes
in agro-ecological conditions. Current global economic and financial crisis also has negative impact on food
security through shrinking financial resources available to agriculture sector. Restricted market access and trade-
distorting subsidies in developed countries have also hampered the development of food production capacity in
developing countries over the last thirty years. Further, global market conditions have not created adequate
incentives for the expansion of agricultural production in developing and least developed countries that have
become main importers of food products.
It is also important to assess the challenges and opportunities posed by the biofuels production and use in view
not only of the world's food security, but also of the energy security and sustainable development needs. An
international cooperation mechanism needs to be established to review and reevaluate the long-term implica-
tions of the development of biomass energy, and develop relevant policy guidance accordingly. The BRIC coun-
tries welcome, therefore, the exchange of experiences on biofuels technologies, norms and regulations, in order
to ensure that production and use of biofuels is sustainable, in accordance with the three pillars of sustainable
development – social, economic and environmental – and that it takes into account the need to achieve and
maintain global food security. Sustainable biofuels can constitute a driving force for social inclusion and income
distribution mainly in the impoverished rural areas of developing and least developed countries, where most of
the world's famine problems are located.
Tackling effectively the food crisis requires a fully coordinated international response and should include both
short-term and long-term measures. The international community needs to work out and consistently implement
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a comprehensive strategy to resolve this global problem. In this respect, the BRIC countries welcome the out-
comes of relevant international fora, including the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) High-Level Con-
ference on World Food Security in Rome.
The BRIC countries also welcome the results of the World Grain Forum which was held in Saint Petersburg and
call on all interested states and international organizations to take necessary steps to implement the measures
agreed upon at the Forum.
Ensuring food security requires a well-functioning world market and trade system for food and agriculture based
on the principles of fairness and non-discrimination. In this regard, it is of paramount importance to accelerate
the Doha round of talks at the World Trade Organization (WTO) in order to find compromise solutions for
radical reductions of multibillion subsidies in the agricultural sector, which distort terms of trade and prevent
developing countries from increasing their agricultural production. We are committed to opposing protection-
ism, establishing a just and reasonable international trade regime for agricultural products, and giving farmers
from developing countries incentives to engage in agricultural production.
The BRIC countries support the adoption of a wide range of mid- to long-term measures in order to
provide for a solution to the issue of food security. Such measures may include:
a) rendering additional resources and assistance to the agricultural sector through the channels of respective
national budgets and international development institutions, mainly to household agriculture, which is the main
source for food production;
b) joint technological innovations and international cooperation to introduce advanced technologies in the agri-
cultural sector of developing countries to significantly increase agricultural productivity. Intellectual property
rights in the agricultural domain should strike a balance between the common good of humankind and incentives
to innovation;
c) upgrading agricultural infrastructure, including irrigation, transportation, supply, storage and distribution
systems and promoting technical assistance, access to credit and crop insurance policies. In this context public-
private partnerships could play a significant role;
d) improving the exchange of knowledge and commercialisation of sustainable biofuels;
e) ensuring wider access to food at the national and international level through appropriate policies and well
functioning distribution systems especially for the poor and most vulnerable people in developing countries;
f) sharing of best practices of operating successful public distribution programmes; and
g) equipping developing countries with financial and technological means to fully implement adaptation mea-
sures to minimize the adverse impacts of climate change on food security.
Ans. 7 (b)
The recent ethnic violence between Uighur Muslims and Han Chinese erupted in China’s Xinjiang province on
July 5. It captured the attention of the global media and China watchers. The violence deeply shattered the
social-political life of the province, generating deep frustration among the local inhabitants; the orgy of violence
was so powerful that a disturbed Hu Jintao, the President of China, had to leave the G-8 summit in Italy and
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rushed back to Beijing.
According to China, the violence of July 5 was an “international conspiracy” and hatched by six countries, such
as Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Turkey and the United States. China also blamed the World Uighur Con-
gress’ leader, Rebiya Kadeer, a businesswoman and a former political prisoner, for leading the “separatist move-
ment” from exile.
The Uighurs are the very bottom of the heap economically in China. There is a very deep sense of frustration,
especially among the unemployed young men.Many Uighurs complain that they have become second class
citizens in their own homeland. Beijing has battled a low-level insurgency in Xinjiang for decades, but unrest has
grown since 2007 as many Uighurs feel increasingly left behind by rapid economic growth that is mainly benefit-
ing Han Chinese who have moved to the region. In fact, China’s policy of ‘go west’, failed to win the hearts and
minds of the non-Han Chinese in Xinjiang. Han Chinese believe that the concession to the “one-child policy”, job
reservation and relaxation in college entrance exams etc. have enormously benefited the non-Han Chinese; yet,
the latter are ungrateful to the Chinese Government. Despite the development of Xinjiang, the separatist tenden-
cies have been troubling the Chinese rulers in the region since the 1950s; and with the attack of 9/11, the demand
for East Turkistan grew rapidly.
In fact, the violence of July 5 is also a reflection of the “growing gap between the well-off Han Chinese and
impoverished Uighurs”. Second, the non-Han Chinese in the region also feel culturally alienated. The rulers of
post-Communist China must resolve the riddle of Han-versus-non-Han in Xinjiang so that peace and tranquillity
thrives and the project of modernisation and development of Xinjiang continues without further obstacles and
hindrances.
Xinjiang’s Position: Historically, locally known as East Turkistan, Xinjiang was independent till 1933; in 1945,
a group of rebels established an “independent republic” close to the Soviet Union. However, in 1949 the Chinese
Communists with the help of the former Soviet Union established Xinjiang (New Territory). Demographically, in
1949, the Han Chinese in Xinjiang were only six per cent and increased to 40 per cent in 2009. On the other
hand, between 1949 and 2009, the Uighurs in Xinjiang were reduced from 80 to 45 per cent. Xinjiang is a
province of 20 million, out of which eight million Uighur Muslims refuse to follow the rule of the CPC. Xinjiang
is the largest state of China (one-sixth) with the biggest resources of coal, oil and natural gas. In 2004 alone, the
Tarin basin produced around five million tonnes of oil. Uighurs apart, Kazakhs and Tajiks also constitute minor-
ity groups of the region. While the Han Chinese follow Confucianism in routine life, and the local party cadres of
the CPC preach atheism, the non-Han Chinese practise “Sufi mysticism”. As the religious institutions have been
effectively banned in Xinjiang and the “Mandrain” has become a compulsory tool for higher education, the non-
Han Chinese feel pain and agony at the very core of their heart. It is confirmed that demographic domination
apart, a sort of cultural conflict is vividly visible in the social milieu of Xinjiang.
From the point of view of geopolitics, Xinjiang shares its borders with eight countries, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan,
Tajikistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, India and Mongolia; and in the economic sense, Xinjiang may be
identified as a “gateway to Central Asia”. China’s oil experts frequently visit the oilfields of Central Asia, which
also perturb the rulers of Central Asia, outfits of the Al-Qaeda and the military establishment of Pakistan. One
must mention that constitutionally Xinjiang is an autonomous region of China; however, culturally and linguis-
tically it is close to Central Asia. More importantly, while in the nineteenth century, Britain and Russia competed
for the natural resources of Central Asia, in the post-Cold War era, China, Russia and the US are battling to
capture the oil and gas of Central Asia. Culture apart, Xinjiang’s periodic violence is also a reflection of Central
Asia’s “oil rivalry”. In this sense, China’s accusation against the West for troubling her in Xinjiang is not ground-
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less. Knowing fully well the enormous importance of Central Asia and Xinjiang to “the development of China”,
Mao was as eager to “build” Xinjiang as Deng. Factually, in 1949, Xinjiang was without a railway station;
however, by the end of 1962, its capital Urumqi was connected with the Gansu province of China, and in 1984,
Xinjiang’s western part was expanded connecting the cities of Turpan and Korla; by 2006, Xinjiang’s railway
network expanded further adding 1,43,000 km. In 2009, Xinjiang is a province of 20 land ports with several
metropolises. The Chinese rulers also have a plan to connect Xinjiang with Pakistan to help promote trade
between China and Pakistan. China’s nuclear programme is also installed in Xinjiang.
Ans. 8. (a)
The meeting of the G-8 plus the G-5 and Egypt was held at in L’Aquila, Italy on 8th July, 2009. The President of
Brazil spoke about the idea of a G-14 at the meeting. Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa are the
member of Group of Five. Italian Prime Minister Berlusconi said between the G-8 and the G-5 together - the G-
14 represents about 80 per cent of the world economy. He said that we might consider whether or not we should
consider this a stable format for the future. One of the strongest supporters of idea of the G-14 which deals with
larger governance issues was President Sarkozy actually in this meeting. The G-5 and G-8 had drawn up for the
first time. He mentioned that this was a step forward where for the first time now in this Summit both the G-8
and G-5 were sitting and meeting for a considerable length of time. It was not just two hours of special session;
it was all series of meetings. In fact, all of today they have been together and will be together tomorrow as well
when the African countries join them. Then he gave the floor to the various G-5 and Egypt members who had
just come to the meeting.There was considerable discussion on the need to reform international, not just finan-
cial institution, but also the institutions of international governance. Brazil's President Lula suggested to con-
sider using own currencies within the G5 to settle own trading accounts with each other.
Ans 8. (b)
During the visit of Prime Minister of India to Japan in october 2008, both countries discussed the issues on
bilateral, regional and multilateral relationship. On the WTO Doha Round negotiations, two countries shared the
view that the early conclusion of the negotiations in vital for the maintenance and development of the interna-
tional trade system, and agreed to continue their cooperation in advancing the negotiations towards the estab-
lishment of modalities early.
India and Japan welcomed the substantive progress achieved for the establishment of a Project Development
Fune (PDF) which is important to promote the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) Project. The two
Ministers directed the officials to accelerate the establishment of the PDF. Both welcomed the active participa-
tion by the Japanese companies in the Five Bird Projects.
Ans 8. (c)
The second World Conference Against Racism (WCAR), held at the U.N.’s European headquarters in Geneva in
April 2009. It was, like the first one in Durban in 2001. Its objective was to evaluate the progress made towards
the goals set eight years ago in South Africa. So it was called Durban Second. At the 2001 conference, the
overwhelming majority of nations had condemned the legacy of colonialism, the slave trade, and racism in the
contemporary era. Most of the delegates present in Durban had equated Zionism with racism.
Israel, the United States and Canada boycotted the Durban Review Conference, or Durban II, in Geneva on the
flimsy grounds that the Jewish state was being targeted for unnecessary criticism. Israel and Canada, which has
a right-wing government, decided last year itself to boycott the conference. There was considerable pressure
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from liberal groups in the U.S. on the Barack Obama administration to participate in the conference. The U.S.
State Department had in fact thanked the organisers for taking American sensibilities into consideration while
preparing for the conference. Another positive signal from the White House was the U.S. decision to join the
United Nations Human Rights Council.
Ans 8. (d)
The pro-West March 14 coalition emerges victorious in the closely contested parliamentary elections of June 7
in Lebanon. The victory of the pro-United States March 14 alliance, a coalition of anti-Syrian political parties led
by Saad Hariri, in the closely contested Lebanese parliamentary elections of June 7 came as a relief to the pro-
Western states in the West Asian region. U.S. President Barack Obama was among the first heads of state to
congratulate the people of Lebanon on the choice they made.
Last-ditch efforts by the U.S., Saudi Arabia, Egypt and France seemed to have tilted the scales in favour of the
March 14 alliance. The coalition derives its name from the day on which a massive demonstration was held in
Beirut in 2005 against Syrian influence in Lebanon, a month after the assassination of former Prime Minister
Rafiq al-Hariri. The West had portrayed the elections as a proxy fight with Iran for influence over Lebanon. The
U.S. had unilaterally designated Hizbollah, which represents the downtrodden Shia populace, as a “terrorist”
organisation. The Lebanese people were fully aware that soon after Hamas won the elections in Palestine,
Washington reacted by cutting off financial aid, and gave the green signal to Israel to launch an attack.
Under Lebanon’s complicated electoral laws, which are dictated by its sectarian political system, the parliamen-
tary seats are equally divided between Muslims and Christians. They are further divided between the 18 officially
recognised religious sects, which include Sunnis, Shias, Alawites, Maronite Christians, Greek Orthodox, Arme-
nian Christians and the Druze, which is an off-shoot of Islam. Until the 1940s, the Muslim and Christian popu-
lations were almost evenly divided. Today, the Christian population is fast declining and constitute less than 30
per cent, according to many experts. Most of the Lebanese diaspora consists of Christians. Because of sectarian
sensitivities, no official census has been conducted since 1932. The French colonialists, while creating the state
of Lebanon, had envisaged it as a Christian state. Until the 1960s, right-wing Christian parties had monopolised
power in the country.
Ans 8 (e)
India’s increasing political visibility in East Asia, in the company of the United States and Japan, has already
given grist to the thought mills. At the height of the latest poll campaign, the U.S. and India held a high-profile
naval exercise with Japan along the waters close to China. Despite the official line that the U.S.-India-Japan
exercise was not a move against China, Manmohan Singh’s mandate is seen as opening new geopolitical options
too. Crystal-gazing in this domain is still confined largely to the parlours of non-official experts in strategic
affairs. However, East Asian governments are expected to monitor closely Manmohan Singh’s foreign policy in
the new innings. As East Asian political leaders scan the scene, India should now try to integrate itself into the
regional networks of inter-state relations. India is a founding member of the East Asia Summit (EAS), a forum
comprising 16 countries. However, it is an empirical reality that India lags behind China and Japan in almost all
spheres of pan-East Asian cooperation
As of now, the U.S. remains outside the EAS, although the Barack Obama administration recently indicated its
readiness to enter this forum. A critical pre-requisite is to accede to the ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Coopera-
tion (TAC). After several years of a general aversion to it, Washington is now willing to begin its domestic
process of acceding to the TAC. China and Japan as also South Korea tend to play lead roles within the EAS.
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Doubtless, India is an equal member of the EAS, alongside these three countries besides the 10 ASEAN mem-
bers, Australia and New Zealand. East Asian diplomats think that New Delhi has yet to take a major initiative
towards the regional security dialogue. In some contrast, it is noted that Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd
has proposed a new Asia Pacific Community. The idea of a pan-Asia economic group, outlined by Manmohan
Singh a few years ago, is seen in East Asia as just that: an idea and not a political initiative.
Ans. 9 (a)
The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) is the regional devel-
opment arm of the United Nations for the Asia-Pacific region. Established in 1947 with its headquarters in
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP seeks to overcome some of the region’s greatest challenges. It carries out work in
Macroeconomic Policy and Development, Statistics, Subregional activities for development, Trade and Invest-
ment, Transport, Environment and sustainable development, Information and Communications Technology and
Disaster Risk Reduction,Social Development.
Ans. 9 (b)
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim countries (styled 'member econo-
mies') to cooperate on regional trade and investment liberalisation and facilitation. APEC's objective is to en-
hance economic growth and prosperity in the region and to strengthen the Asia-Pacific community. Members
account for approximately 40% of the world's population, approximately 54% of world GDP and about 44% of
world trade.
Ans. 9 (c)
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is an international organisation of states considering themselves not for-
mally aligned with or against any major power bloc. The movement is largely the brainchild of India's first Prime
Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, former president of Egypt Gamal Abdul Nasser and Yugoslav president Josip Broz
Tito. It was founded in April 1955; as of 2007, it has 118 members. The purpose of the organisation as stated in
the Havana Declaration of 1979 is to ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and
security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism,
and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great
power and bloc politics."
The 15th Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Summit held in Sharm el-Sheikh, a Red Sea resort city in Egypt on
July 16, 2009. Member countries reached consensus on promoting solidarity and ratified documents on jointly
addressing international and regional issues. At the two-day summit held in this Egyptian Red Sea coastal city,
leaders from over 100 NAM countries or their representatives focused their debate on the summit's theme of
International Solidarity for Peace and Development. They extensively discussed international and regional prob-
lems, such as the ongoing global financial crisis, climate change, the Middle East peace process, food security,
energy and nuclear issues. The Summit admitted Argentina as NAM observer country and the World Peace
Council as its observer organization. Egyptian President Hosny Mubarak was elected as NAM Chairperson for
the following 3 years
Ans. 9 (d)
On 6 June 1997, a new sub-regional grouping was formed in Bangkok and given the name BIST-EC (Bangladesh,
India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand Economic Cooperation). Myanmar attended the inaugural June Meeting as an
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observer and joined the organization as a full member at a Special Ministerial Meeting held in Bangkok on 22
December 1997, upon which the name of the grouping was changed to BIMST-EC. Nepal was granted observer
status by the second Ministerial Meeting in Dhaka in December 1998. Subsequently, full membership has been
granted to Nepal and Bhutan in 2003. In the first Summit on 31 July 2004, leaders of the group agreed that the
name of the grouping should be known as BIMSTEC or the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Techni-
cal and Economic Cooperation.
According to the Bangkok Declaration on the Establishment of BIST-EC, the aims and purposes of BIST-EC/
BIMST-EC are to create an enabling environment for rapid economic development, accelerate social progress in
the sub-region, promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest, provide
assistance to each other in the form of training and research facilities, cooperate more effectively in joint efforts
that are supportive of, and complementary to national development plans of member states. The 2nd BIMSTEC
Summit was held on 13 November 2008 in New Delhi, India. The 2nd BIMSTEC Summit has given a strong
political impetus to the strengthening of BIMSTEC cooperation in the identified 13 priority sectors.
Ans. 9 (e)
It is the world’s largest international police organization, with 187 member countries. Created in 1923, it facili-
tates cross-border police co-operation, and supports and assists all organizations, authorities and services whose
mission is to prevent or combat international crime. INTERPOL aims to facilitate international police co-opera-
tion even where diplomatic relations do not exist between particular countries. Action is taken within the limits
of existing laws in different countries and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. INTERPOL’s
constitution prohibits ‘any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character.’ The
President of INTERPOL and the Secretary General work closely together in providing strong leadership and
direction to the Organization.
Ans. 10 (a)
Indian Space programme witnessed several major successes and reached great heights the year 2008 by success-
fully orbiting an un-manned spacecraft Chandrayaan-1 around the Moon, launching of ten satellites in a single
launch, conducting acceptance test of indigenously developed cryogenic engine successfully and the launching
of a commercial satellite for an international customer. India, in its space endeavours achieved a rare feat at
20:31 hrs on November 14, 2008 by placing the Indian tri colour when the Moon Impact Probe (MIP), one of
the payloads on Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft hit the lunar surface and joined select band of countries who have
placed an object on the Moon.
PSLV-C11/Chandrayaan-1 Mission: Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, India`s first un-manned mission to the Moon
was launched successfully from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota on October 22, 2008. The
spacecraft was put into a transfer orbit with a perigee (nearest point to Earth) of 255 km and an apogee (farthest
point to Earth) of 22,860 km, inclined at an angle of 17.9 deg to the equator. The orbit of the spacecraft was
gradually raised by firing the Liquid Engine onboard Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft through carefully planned
manoeuvres and was successfully inserted into the lunar orbit on November 8, 2008. Subsequently, the orbit of
Chandrayaan-1 was lowered to 100 km through several manoeuvres.
Chandrayaan-1 is India’s first spacecraft mission beyond Earth’s orbit. It aims to expand our knowledge about
Earth’s only natural satellite – the moon by performing remote sensing of the moon using the instruments built
in India and five other countries. Chandrayaan-1 mission aims to expand scientific knowledge about the moon
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and to provide challenging opportunities for planetary research to the younger generation of Indian scientists.
These aims are planned to be achieved through high-resolution remote sensing of moon in the visible, near
infrared, microwave and X-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. With this, preparation of a 3-dimen-
sional atlas of the lunar surface and chemical and mineralogical mapping of entire lunar surface is intended.
PSLV-C9/CARTOSAT-2A/IMS-1 MISSION: Indian Space Research Organisation created a record on April
28, 2008 by successfully launching Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle - PSLV-C9 placing ten satellites, viz.,
CARTOSAT-2A, Indian Mini Satellite (IMS-1) and eight nanosatellites from abroad into the orbit. Polar Satel-
lite Launch Vehicle with thirteen consecutively successful flights so far, has repeatedly proved itself as a reliable
and versatile workhorse launch vehicle. It has demonstrated multiple satellite launch capability having launched
a total of sixteen satellites for international customers besides fourteen Indian payloads including Chandryaan-1
and satellites for remote sensing, amateur radio communications and Space capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-
1). PSLV was used to launch ISRO’s exclusive meteorological satellite, KALPANA-1, into a Geosynchronous
Transfer Orbit (GTO) in September 2002 and thus proved its versatility.
CARTOSAT-2A carries a panchromatic camera (PAN) capable of taking black-and-white pictures in the visible
region of electromagnetic spectrum. The highly agile CARTOSAT-2A is steerable along as well as across the
direction of its movement to facilitate imaging of any area more frequently. High-resolution data from CARTOSAT-
2A will be invaluable in urban and rural development applications calling for large scale mapping. The PAN
camera onboard CARTOSAT-2A has started beaming high quality imagery of India and other parts of the globe.
Indian Mini Satellite (IMS-1), flown as an auxiliary payload on board PSLV-C9, is developed by ISRO for
remote sensing applications. Weighing 83 kg at lift-off, IMS-1 incorporates many new technologies and has
miniaturised subsystems. IMS-1 carries two remote sensing payloads – A Multi-spectral camera (Mx Payload)
and a Hyper-spectral camera (HySI Payload), operating in the visible and near infrared regions of the electro-
magnetic spectrum. The data from this mission will be made available to interested space agencies and student
community from developing countries to provide necessary impetus to capacity building in using satellite data.
The cameras onboard the versatile IMS-1 has been providing high quality imagery.
Indiaonal Satellite (Insat) System: Having established the need for a domestic communication satellite through
Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) using ATS-6 satellite of USA during 1975-76, Satellite
Telecommunication Experimental Project (STEP) using Franco-German Satellite Symphonie in 1978-79 and by
building and utilising experimental communication satellite APPLE, the Indian National Satellite-1 (INSAT)
system was operationalised in 1983. INSAT-1 satellites procured from abroad were multipurpose satellites
providing telecommunication, TV broadcasting and meteorological services. INSAT-2, 3, 4 and GSAT satellites
designed indigenously with higher power, more weight and capability to provide various services have been built
and operationalised. India now has one of the largest domestic communications satellite systems in the Asia
Pacific region with 11 operational satellites in orbit with more than 210 transponders providing vital services to
the country.
The meteorological data from INSAT system is used for quick dissemination of warnings against impending
disaster from approaching cyclones, specially designed receivers have been installed at vulnerable coastal areas
in the country for direct transmission of warnings to the officials and public using INSAT broadcast capability.
EDUSAT, a satellite dedicated for providing educational services, was launched in September 2004. EDUSAT
is providing a wide range of educational delivery modes like one-way TV broadcast, interactive TV, video
conferencing, computer conferencing, web-based instructions, etc. About 34,000 class rooms that utilise EDUSAT
covering 23 states have been setup across the country. These networks connect have been setup at different
schools, colleges, training institutes and other departments. Telemedicine is another important initiative to use
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space technology for societal benefits. It has enabled the population, even in the remotest parts, access to super
specialty medical care.
Indian Remote Sensing (Irs) Satellite System: Using remote sensing satellites for earth observation was initiated
with the design and development of experimental remote sensing satellites Bhaskara-1 and Bhaskara-2 during
mid 70s. With seven satellites in operation - IRS-1D, OCEANSAT-1, Technology Experiment Satellite (TES),
RESOURCESAT-1, CARTOSAT-1, CARTOSAT-2, CARTOSAT-2A - Indian Remote Sensing Satellite System
is the largest civilian remote sensing satellite constellation in the world and provides imageries in a variety of
spatial resolutions from better than one meter (CARTOSAT-2 & 2A) to 188 meter (IRS-1D). Forthcoming
satellites include OCEANSAT-2, RESOURCESAT-2 and a new Radar Imaging Satellite, RISAT that can over-
come the present limitation of imaging under cloudy conditions. Using the data from IRS satellites, a variety of
application programmes such as Groundwater Prospects Mapping, Crop Acreage and Production Estimation,
Potential Fishing Zone Forecast, Biodiversity Characterisation at landscape level, covering four main biodiversity
rich regions of the country - NE Region, Western Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andaman and Nicobar Islands
- have been operationalised.
Satellite Launch Vehicles: From launching of modest sounding rockets of the 1960s, India has now acquired
capability to launch remote sensing satellites using Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and geosynchronous
communication satellites using GSLV. PSLV is capable of launching more than 1.5 tonne satellite into polar sun-
synchronous orbit. Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) can launch a 2 to 2.5 tonne satellite into
Geo-stationary Transfer Orbit (GTO). GSLV has four successful flights out of five missions with the last one
being GSLV-F04/INSAT-4CR mission on September 2, 2007. Development of an indigenous cryogenic stage to
replace the presently used Russian cryogenic stage has been successfully realised. Flight acceptance test of the
cryogenic engine was conducted successfully on December 18, 2008. GSLV-Mk III, which is under develop-
ment, will be capable of launching satellites weighing four tonne into GTO. Several developments including
recoverable and reusable space transportation systems are in progress with the objective of reducing the cost of
access to space.
Commercial Successes: Antrix, the commercial arm of the Department of Space, is a single window agency for
marketing Indian space capabilities. It is playing a key role in the worldwide availability of IRS data through
Geoeye, USA. Antrix also provides IRS data processing equipment. Antrix offers launch services using India’s
PSLV. So far sixteen satellites have already been successfully launched by PSLV for various international cus-
tomers. Through Antrix, Telemetry, Tracking and Command support from the Indian ground stations are offered
to various satellite operators. Similarly, lease of transponders from INSAT system has been made possible. In
this regard, 11 transponders have already been leased to INTELSAT. Customers for the spacecraft components
offered by Antrix include world’s leading spacecraft manufacturers. During the year, W2M satellite built by
ISRO/Antrix under an agreement entered into with EADS Astrium, Paris was launched successfully on Decem-
ber 20, 2008. Besides, Antrix has won contracts from Europe and Asia for launch services in the highly competi-
tive international launch services market. After the successful development of a low cost, compact, modular and
rugged Automatic Weather Station (AWS) in co-ordination with industry, the technology has been licensed to
industry for regular production.
Ans. 10 (b)
Nanotechnology is useful in Medicine, Energy, Information and communication, Heavy Industry, Consumer
goods, Optics, Textiles, Agriculture etc. The biological and medical research communities have exploited the
unique properties of nanomaterials for various applications. Terms such as biomedical nanotechnology,
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bionanotechnology, and nanomedicine are used to describe this hybrid field. Nanotechnology-on-a-chip is one
more dimension of lab-on-a-chip technology. Biological tests measuring the presence or activity of selected
substances become quicker, more sensitive and more flexible when certain nanoscale particles are put to work as
tags or labels.
The overall drug consumption and side-effects can be lowered significantly by depositing the active agent in the
morbid region only and in no higher dose than needed. This highly selective approach reduces costs and human
suffering. Nanotechnology can help to reproduce or to repair damaged tissue. “Tissue engineering” makes use of
artificially stimulated cell proliferation by using suitable nanomaterial-based scaffolds and growth factors. Tissue
engineering might replace today’s conventional treatments like organ transplants or artificial implants. Advanced
nanotechnology based tissue engineering might lead to some life extension, but not significant amounts--that
would require intracellular manipulation of the seven mechanisms of aging, which tissue engineering cannot do.
For patients with end-state organ failure, there may not be enough healthy cells for expansion and transplanta-
tion into the ECM (extracellular matrix). In this case, pluripotent stem cells are needed.
Chemical catalysis and filtration techniques are two prominent examples where nanotechnology already plays a
role. The synthesis provides novel materials with tailored features and chemical properties: for example,
nanoparticles with a distinct chemical surrounding (ligands), or specific optical properties. The most advanced
nanotechnology projects related to energy are: storage, conversion, manufacturing improvements by reducing
materials and process rates, energy saving (by better thermal insulation for example), and enhanced renewable
energy sources.
A reduction of energy consumption can be reached by better insulation systems, by the use of more efficient
lighting or combustion systems, and by use of lighter and stronger materials in the transportation sector. Cur-
rently used light bulbs only convert approximately 5% of the electrical energy into light. [edit] Increasing the
efficiency of energy production.Nanotechnology is already impacting the field of consumer goods, providing
products with novel functions ranging from easy-to-clean to scratch-resistant. Modern textiles are wrinkle-
resistant and stain-repellent; in the mid-term clothes will become “smart”, through embedded “wearable elec-
tronics”. Nanotechnology can be applied in the production, processing, safety and packaging of food. A
nanocomposite coating process could improve food packaging by placing anti-microbial agents directly on the
surface of the coated film. Nanocomposites could increase or decrease gas permeability of different fillers as is
needed for different products. They can also improve the mechanical and heat-resistance properties and lower
the oxygen transmission rate. Research is being performed to apply nanotechnology to the detection of chemical
and biological substances for sensing biochemical changes in foods. Applications of nanotechnology have the
potential to change the entire agriculture sector and food industry chain from production to conservation, pro-
cessing, packaging, transportation, and even waste treatment. Strategic applications of Nano Science can do
wonders in the agriculture scenario. NanoScience concepts and Nanotechnology applications have the potential
to redesign the production cycle, restructure the processing and conservation processes and redefine the food
habits of the people.
Nanotechnology in India: Several Indian institutes and firms are already working on nanotechnology products
for drug delivery, water filters, arsenic removal, reducing water and air pollution, antimicrobial coatings and
river cleaning projects, Sen said, and the country must develop guidelines on nanoparticle toxicity and biosafety.
Scientists from the Energy Resources Institute in Delhi launched a study to investigate the opportunities and
risks associated with the technology. India launched a programme to promote nanoscience and nanotechnology
with a budget of 10 trillion Indian rupees (US$255 million). But although several public and private research
institutes are working on DNA chips, carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles such as iron oxide and silver oxide, and
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products such as paints and polymers, experts noted a general lack of enthusiasm from Indian industry.There has
been no effort to link the technology's potential with development in agriculture and addressing the needs of
people in rural areas, who form the backbone of India's economy. For example, nanomaterials could help im-
prove solar cells and biogas reactors.
Government’s Initiatives: Nanotechnology is one of the main new developing areas recognized by Indian gov-
ernment in past 5 years and thus there has been a topic of growing interest for companies both domestic and
foreign for the various Indian Government policies and incentives to start nanotechnology companies in India.
One of the major roadblock to international as well as domestic companies to venture in the nanotechnology
field has been a lack of understanding of the government policies in nanotechnology and thus the main objective
of this report is to provide the reader a concise and clear idea of the government policies, vital information to
widen their scope as well as facilitate their decisions in research or commercial endeavors. It provides an over-
view of all the government published documents ranging from the Ministry of Commerce and Union budget to
the policies of all major government funded institutions. A report mentioned all foreign collaborations initiated
by Indian government amongst Indian and Foreign research organizations as well as industry to accelerate the
nanotechnology development in India. The report also included the financial incentives as well as intellectual
property protection guidelines for any foreign collaboration. The report principally lends assistance to potential
investors and to those who are enthusiastic in gaining insight of nanotechnology development and the direction
of nanotechnology research in India for the purpose of possible collaborative research efforts or commercial
ventures. Indian scientists have called for the development of regulations on the safe use of nanotechnology in
healthcare and the environment. The absence of regulations for nanotechnology in India and worldwide is a
serious problem.
Ans. 11 (a)
Raising prospects for building a practical quantum computer, physicists at the National Institute of Standards
and Technology (NIST) have demonstrated sustained, reliable information processing operations on electrically
charged atoms (ions). In the new demonstration, NIST researchers repeatedly performed a combined sequence
of five quantum logic operations and ten transport operations while reliably maintaining the 0s and 1s of the
binary data stored in the ions, which serve as quantum bits (qubits) for a hypothetical quantum computer, and
retaining the ability to subsequently manipulate this information. Previously, scientists at NIST and elsewhere
have been unable to coax any qubit technology into performing a complete set of quantum logic operations while
transporting information, without disturbances degrading the later processes.
The NIST group performed some of the earliest experiments on quantum information processing and has previ-
ously demonstrated many basic components needed for computing with trapped ions. The new research com-
bines previous advances with two crucial solutions to previously chronic vulnerabilities: cooling of ions after
transport so their fragile quantum properties can be used for subsequent logic operations, and storing data
values in special states of ions that are resistant to unwanted alterations by stray magnetic fields.
Researchers have demonstrated on a small scale all the generally recognized requirements for a large-scale ion-
based quantum processor. Previously they could perform all of the following processes a few at a time, but now
they can perform all of them together and repeatedly: (1) "initialize" qubits to the desired starting state (0 or 1),
(2) store qubit data in ions, (3) perform logic operations on one or two qubits, (4) transfer information between
different locations in the processor, and (5) read out qubit results individually (0 or 1).
Through its use of ions, the NIST experiment showcases one promising architecture for a quantum computer, a
potentially powerful machine that theoretically could solve some problems that are currently intractable, such as
Section -6 (Model Test Paper)
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breaking today's most widely used encryption codes. Relying on the unusual rules of the submicroscopic quan-
tum world, qubits can act as 0s and 1s simultaneously, unlike ordinary digital bits, which hold only one value at
any given time. Quantum computers also derive their power from the fact that qubits can be "entangled," so their
properties are linked, even at a distance. Ions are one of a number of different types of quantum systems under
investigation around the world for use as qubits in a quantum computer. There is no general agreement on which
system will turn out to be the best.
The NIST experiments described in Science Express stored the qubits in two beryllium ions held in a trap with
six distinct zones. Electric fields are used to move the ions from one zone to another in the trap, and ultraviolet
laser pulses of specific frequencies and duration are used to manipulate the ions' energy states. The scientists
demonstrated repeated rounds of a sequence of logic operations (four single-qubit operations and a two-qubit
operation) on the ions and found that operational error rates did not increase as they progressed through the
series, despite transporting qubits across macroscopic distances (960 micrometers, or almost a millimeter) while
carrying out the operations. The other significant innovation was the use of three different pairs of energy states
within the beryllium ions to hold information during different processing steps. This allowed information to be
held in ion states that were not altered by magnetic field fluctuations during ion storage and transport, eliminat-
ing another source of processing errors. Information was transferred to different energy levels in the beryllium
ions for performing logic operations or reading out their data values.
Ans. 11 (b)
Photovoltaic and wind energy plants, hydroelectric power stations and biogas plants supply energy without
polluting the environment. However, they are complex to design and maintain. Virtual reality (VR) makes plan-
ning and operation easier.The design engineer’s head is spinning. Analyzing data on the computer for hours, with
no end in sight is possible. Designing a hydroelectric power station, she would like to know what the pressures,
temperatures and fluid flows will be in the facility. She may simulate them with simulation software. However,
this only delivers vast columns of numbers or a one-dimensional representation which she will have to analyze bit
by bit – a laborious task.
This will get easier in the future. Researchers from the Fraunhofer Institute for Factory Operation and Automa-
tion IFF in Magdeburg have developed a method that visualizes the processes inside energy conversion plants,
e.g. such as photovoltaic, wind, biogas and hydroelectric power stations. To do so, they have coupled 3-D plant
engineering and simulation results with a virtual reality (VR) program developed at the IFF. “A special software
tool has enabled us to visualize all the motion sequences for the first time ever – at just the push of a button.
Arrows that move through the VR model show engineers the direction in which and speed at which fluids and
gases flow through a plant. Colored markings indicate potential weak points such as areas where critical tem-
peratures, deposits or erosions could occur. Is there a potential for collisions when the plant components are
moving? The virtual insights facilitate engineering and should therefore ensure that plants become more efficient
and have lower emissions.
Ans. 11 (c)
A Supercomputing facility called "Param Sheersh" was inaugurated at the ongoing Indian Science Congress at
the North Eastern Hill University,NEHU in Shillong. Prof. MGK Menon, the renowned scientist and the Chan-
cellor of the NEHU, inaugurated the new facility that would benefit the students and teachers engaged in various
research activities on the campus.
Section -6 (Model Test Paper)
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The PARAM Sheersh Computer System is a Supercomputing facility created by C-DAC, funded by Department
of Information technology, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. This High Performance
Computing facility aims at conducting research in strategic areas of Weather, Seismic, Bio-informatics, Physics,
Computational Fluid Dynamics, Material Sciences, Life Sciences. The facility shall also serve as a core backbone
platform for the students, researchers and faculty members of the region to develop competency skills for solv-
ing challenging problems requiring massive computational work especially in the areas of Physics, Chemistry,
Mathematics, Bio-informatics, Botany, Zoology and Environmental Science. Open source HPC Applications
like WRF, MM5, MOM4, ROMS, COSMOS under Climatology, Quantum Espresso, Abhinit under Physics
domain, mpiBLAST, ClustalW under Bio-informatics shall be ported on the systems for conducting research.
Ans. 11 (d)
Ministry of Communication and Information Technology recently launched the tele-medicine application through
Common Service Centres (CSC). The integration of CSC services with ‘e-Sanjeevani’, a tele-medicine software
package for remote diagnostics and tele-counselling was showcased at New Delhi. The software is targeted to
be deployed as a cost effective tele-medicine tool for rural area at 100,000 CSCs being set up as part of the
country’s National e-Governance Plan. e-Sanjeevani, a web based software, facilitates creation of Electronic
Medical Record (EMR) for variety of diagnostic reports e.g. ECG, pathological reports, radiological examina-
tion (X-ray, CT Scan, MRI etc.). The patient record is secured through encryption. A highlight of the tool is that
it enables multipoint, multi referral consultation, as well as one-to-one consultation between patient to doctor
and doctor to doctor. The programme enables anywhere, anytime access with zero installation cost for the user.
The combination of CSCs across the country along with the potential offered by e-Sanjeevani is expected to
significantly enhance the outreach of health care to the rural masses. With this initiative a large number of
villagers will be able to have their health records in electronic form, accessible anytime from anywhere. Village
Level Entrepreneurs(VLEs) with minimum training in handling ECG machines and other devices will be able to
handle the medical equipment co-located at CSCs. The e-Sanjeevani , a software package has been developed by
the C-DAC, Mohali. C-DAC, Mohali has established a tele-medicine network in Punjab and Haryana linking
remote Sanjeevani Health Centres to Referral Facilities.
Ans. 12 (a)
Stands for "Network Address Translation." NAT translates the IP addresses of computers in a local network to
a single IP address. This address is often used by the router that connects the computers to the Internet. The
router can be connected to a DSL modem, cable modem, T1 line, or even a dial-up modem. When other comput-
ers on the Internet attempt to access computers within the local network, they only see the IP address of the
router. This adds an extra level of security, since the router can be configured as a firewall, only allowing
authorized systems to access the computers within the network.
Ans. 12 (b)
Robotic therapy can potentially help reduce impairment and facilitate neuro-development of youngsters with
cerebral palsy. Krebs and others at MIT, including professor of mechanical engineering Neville Hogan, pio-
neered the use of robotic therapy in the late 1980s, and since then the field has taken off. The MIT team is
focusing on improving cerebral palsy patients' ability to reach for and grasp objects.
Section -6 (Model Test Paper)
140 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM
Ans. 12 (c)
Scientists at the University of Missouri have developed the ability to take regular cells from a pig's connective
tissues, known as fibroblasts, and transform them into stem cells, eliminating several of these hurdles. Since
these "induced pluripotent stem cells" were not derived from embryos and no cloning technique was used to
obtain them, the approach eliminates some of the controversy that has accompanied stem cell research in the
past.
Ans. 12 (d)
A compression/decompression utility that lets Windows users make their files smaller for faster transfer over the
Internet. This utility also decompresses files that were originally compressed using PKZIP or other formats.
Ans. 12 (e)
The 2009 flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of influenza virus, officially named the "new H1N1",
first identified in April 2009, and commonly called "Swine flu." It is thought to be a mutation of four known
strains of the influenza A virus, subtype H1N1: one endemic in (normally infecting) humans, one endemic in
birds, and two endemic in pigs (swine). The outbreak began in Mexico, with evidence that Mexico was already
in the midst of an epidemic for months before the outbreak was recognized. The virus has since spread to the
Southern Hemisphere which entered its winter flu season, and to many less developed countries with limited
healthcare systems.
Section -6 (Model Test Paper)
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