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IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING


IML 332E CAD&M LECTURE NOTES by: H. Livatyal

Spring 2005 2005-2006 2006


ITU Dept. of ME Gm-suyu, ISTANBUL
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COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING TOPICS


IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

Numerical Control Systems (NC,CNC) and Machine Tools Numerical Part Programming (Manual and Automatic/CAPP) CAD-CAM-CNC Systems Integration Automation in Manufacturing and Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) Flexible Manufacturing Cells (FMC) and Systems (FMS) Sensors and Process Monitoring Systems Rapid Prototyping Methods Computer Aided Special and Nontraditional Manufacturing Methods
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COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING


IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

DEFINITION: Effective utilization of computer technology in the MANAGEMENT, CONTROL and OPERATIONS of the manufacturing facility through either direct or indirect computer interface with the physical and human resources of the company (after CAMI). Dominant Operation: Operation: Numerical Control (NC) part programming Common (and narrower) narrower) concept for CAM: Computer assisted part programming Logical Starting point: point: Manual part programming
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NUMERICAL CONTROL (NC)

IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

DEFINITION: The control of operation of machine tools (M/T) (or (or other sheetworking and welding machines) ) by a sheet machines series of coded instructions called the program, which consists mainly of alphanumeric characters (nembers and letters). letters). Main Characteristics: Characteristics: Preplanned and predictable Therefore, Therefore, NC is a typical form of: Programmable Automation.
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BRIEF HISTORY OF CNC M/T IML 332E E: CAM Introduction


Time Early Industrial Revolution 2nd World War 1947 1952 1956
19561956-1962

IML 332 : CAM Introduction

Characteristic Basic Concept 2D Manual Applications 1st modern concept 1st effectively functioning version 1st industrial contract Difficult years 1st industrial success 1st CNC

Description J.Jackard J.Jackards method to control textile looms by using punched cards. Parson Parsons 2-D Coordinate table operated by two people Parsons Parsons NC proposal for milling helicopter rotor blades MIT MITs first NC Milling machine USAF USAFs contract for 100 NC Milling machines to 8 co.s co.s Big opposition against NC M/T in the contractors of USAF PointPoint-toto-point control drill pressed Storing the programs on a computer in add. add. to tapes. tapes.

1961 1970

ADVANTAGES OF NC
IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

NC M/T ensure positioning accuracy and repeatibility with their DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION and CONTROLS: Good for making many of the same part. part. Complex shaped components can be made automatically, automatically, with high precision and reliability. reliability. Parts that require a long series of operation can be made with minimal accumulated error. NC M/T can operate in hostile and hazardous environments. environments. Since most work is shifted to offices from the shopshop-floor, floor, production can be monitored by the management directly. directly. NC M/T mostly are capable of conducting more than one machining operation at a time or in a sequence without repeating the part setset-up. up. Minimum idle time and increased productivity. productivity. Interchangeability of work between different production plants. plants.
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NC MACHINE MOTIONS
IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

TYPES OF NC SYSTEMS

IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

PointPoint-toto-point control system (Numerical positioning control, control, NPC) NC Drill presses used in drilling precise patterns of holes. holes. Straight cut system Feed rate at each Axis is controlled Andependently, ndependently, one at A time. Used in face milling, milling, Pocketing etc. etc. Contouring system (continuous path system) system) Each servo motor can be controlled in varying speeds in coordination to produce angular lines and curves. curves. Some simpler systems of this type use the method of breaking down the curved into smaller linear segments which are connected to each other in a tiptip-toto-tail fashion. fashion.
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PointPoint-toto-Point vs. Contouring Control


IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

COMPUTERIZED NUMERICAL CONTROL (CNC)


IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

CNC was first introduced in 1970 by replacing the hardwired MCU of a conventional NC system by a microcomputer which accomplishes all the functions of an MCU with its software. software.

What is new? new?


Feed rate control, control, buffering, buffering, position loop control ... Ability to edit and store programs Ability to produce punched (or magnetic) magnetic) tapes, tapes, diskettes etc. etc. Expanded tool offsets Expanded control of machinemachine-sequence operations Digitizing Circular and more advanced (NURBS etc.) etc.) interpolation Parametric programming Do loops Roughnening to a defined shape Subroutines Diagnostic capability OnOn-screen geometric programming ...

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CNC Machining - Lathe


IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

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IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

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CNC Machining - Horizontal Milling Center


IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

14,000 rpm spindle with HSK-63A adapter 1,575 in/min (40 m/min) feed rate

FANUC 16MB controller with Makino software

1,000 psi through spindle coolant

22x 22x 22 envelope


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IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

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IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

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IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

ELEMENTS OF NC

Tape (Media) Media) Reader (electromechanical, electromechanical, electromegnetic, electromegnetic, optical etc.) etc.) Machine Control Unit (MCU, sends conrol signals to servomechanism) servomechanism) Servomechanism(s) Servomechanism(s) (amplify signals from the MCU, and send them to servomotors) servomotors) Controlled element (tool, tool, turret, turret, M/T table: table: the numerically controlled part of M/T) Feedback unit (records the achieved tool movement and send them to the MCU)
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Ball Screw vs. Lead Screw


nn

IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

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CNC Machining - Turning

IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

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IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

CNC Machining Turning

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IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

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CNC Milling Milling - Cutting Tools


IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

Cutting Tool Geometry Flat end mill Ball-nose end mill Kinds of Cutting Edge Solid cutting tools Indexable inserts
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CNC Milling and CAM: Generation of Cutting Tool Paths and Part Programs

IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

UNIGRAPHICS

UNIGRAPHICS

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USE OF (CAD &) CAM TECHNOLOGY


IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

Machining Nontraditional Processes Rapid Prototyping Robot programming Measurement & ReRe-engineering Metal Forming

Milling, Turning, Drilling, Grinding, Finishing Electric Discharge (EDM: Wire & Plunge), Electro Chemical (ECM), Water Jet, PCB & Micro chip Manufacturing SLA, SLS, FDM, LOM, SGC, Milling Milling Welding, painting, finish, hoisting and conveying, sheet forming CMM (Computerized Measurement Mach.) Sheet blanking and bending in Punch Press, Plasma Arc Cutting, Sheet bending in CNC Press Brake, Spinning, etc... Microchips, Microchips, Printed circuit boards, boards,
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Microelectronic Devices

Commercial CAM Software


IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

I-DEAS CATIA PROPRO-Engineer Unigraphics Cimatron WorkWork-NC Power Mill Hyper Mill CAM Works Master CAM SurfSurf-CAM NCNC-Gibbs AutoAuto-CAD based CAM programs ....
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CAM IN MACHINING OPERATIONS


Basic Advantages

IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

In mass production Better geometric repeatability Combining many operations in one machine Flexibility: Many different parts on one machine Flexibility: Quick and easy implementation of design modifications In production of tools, dies and molds Quick and hasslehassle-free production of complex 33-D surfaces Drastic Time reduction in part programming Accurate production of the geometry developed during the CAD stage and verified in the CAE stage
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IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

Realization of a Product via Computer Aided Processes

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Phases in Die & Mold Production


Design (CAD & CAE)

IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

Selection of support components and design of functional components Tool Path Generation

Tool Path Generation (CAM)


NC programs are needed for machining of EDM electrodes or for direct machining of functional components

Machining (CAM)
Typical processes: electro-discharge machining and CNC machining (turning and/or milling)

Benching
The tooling is assembled Critical dimensions are checked: Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) Hand finishing: Grinding and polishing.

Tryout
During tryout, a limited number of parts are produced with the die or mold Minor changes on the tooling may be necessary for required performance
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Die & Mold Components


Functional Components Die Punch Blank holder Cavity inserts Ejector pins etc. Support Components Guide pins and bushings Holding plates etc.

IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

ERC/NSM
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Milling of Sculptured Surface

IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

CAMAX

FIDIA
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Die & Mold Production Information Flow


Digitized Part Data

IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

Part File

Part Drawing

Prototypes / Models

Part Design for Manufacturing

Data for CMM


Die / Mold Initial Design Process Modelling and Structural Analysis

Die / Mold Design Satisfactory ?

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IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

Die / Mold Detail Design Data for CMM

Satisfactory Design

Data for CMM

CNC Machining Cavities / Cores

CNC Machining EDM Electrodes

EDM Electrodes Inspection

EDM Cavities / Cores

Polishing ( Manual, Mechanical, Electro-Chemical )

d
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IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

Polished Cavities / Cores Data for CMM Cavities / Cores Inspection Data for CMM Die / Mold Assembly

Die / Mold Try out

Try out Parts Inspection

Inspected Parts
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Business Card Holder - Design Phase


IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

Part Design

Process Simulation

ERC/NSM
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Die & Mold Production Design Phase

IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Principle


Filament Heated FDM Head Molten Filament

Example

Supply
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Business Card Holder -Design Phase


IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

Glass Window

Logo Insert

Cavity Plate

Ejector Plate

Gas Nozzle Support

Mold Base

ERC/NSM

PRO-E
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Business Card Holder Machining Phase

IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

ERC/NSM
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Business Card Holder -Tryout Phase


IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

ERC/NSM
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Business Card Holder Tryout Phase

IML 332E 332E: CAM Introduction

ERC/NSM

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