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Introduction Seed Quantity Seed Collection Seed Extraction & Processing Seed Cleaning Post - Harvest Care Seed Storage Seed Treatment Pretreatment of some important species Seed testing ANNEX I Control of insect pests and fungi during seed storage and in forest nurseries.

1 1 2 5 6 6 7 8 11 14 16


ANNEX - II Suggested list of equipment for seed collection and site information



ANNEX - III Sample seed collection data sheets ANNEX - IV Technical information on important tree species Selected References / Source Material






Good quality seed is essential for the success of plantations. It costs almost the same to establish a plantation from poor seed as it does from seed of high quality. However the differences in the quality of plants produced and the economic returns can be vast. Therefore, the availability and use of quality seeds is one of the most essential factors for the success of plantations and is responsible for higher economic returns and growth performance of plantations. Poor quality seeds suffer from following problems: Low germination percentage Poor emergence Poor survival Poor adaptability to site Susceptible to disease and pests Poor growth Low productivity

Characteristics of good seeds: Good seeds must be: Well ripened, healthy and true to type, Pure and free from inert materials and weed seeds, Viable and have good germination capacity, Uniform in its texture, structure and appearance Free from damage and should not be broken and inflected by pests and diseases.

The quantity of seed to be collected depends on the number of plants required, germination percentage of the seed lot, loss in pricking out, mortality in seedlings containers or transplanting bed and cull loss. Estimation of seed quantity for raising nursery stock is explained with the following example. Step I Calculate Total number of seed required = Number of seedlings req. for planting Survival factor

Where survival factor = Germination (%) X Pricking loss factor (%) X Mortality factor (beds/ Polybags) (%) X Culling loss factor (%) Step II 2

Seed Quantity (In kg)

Total number of seed required Number of seeds per kg

Suppose 10,000 plants of Babul are required for planting Number of seeds per kg. 9000 70% 15% 10% 20 % Survival 70% or 0.70 85% or 0.85 90% or 0.90 80% or 0.80

Germination percentage Loss during pricking Mortality in containers or transplant bed Cull loss -

Therefore, the SURVIVAL FACTOR= 0.7 x 0.85 x 0.9 x 0.8 = 0.43 It is therefore, necessary to have 10,000 x 100 = 23,256 seeds = 2.6 Kg Babul seed 43 SEED PERIODICITY Most species do not produce abundant crops of seed annually. Good seed year occurs at intervals that are better thought of as sporadic rather than predictably periodic. Identification of the state of physiological maturity important but not clearly defined.

QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF SEED CROP Seed crop in standing trees can be estimated by Flower count, Immature fruit and seed count, Fruit count on standing trees, some trees e.g., Bombax ceiba, Delonix regia, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis, produce good seed crop every year, Dipterocarps like Hollong bear irregular heavy seed crops at an interval of one to six years, Some species (e.g Eucalyptus) produce heavy seed crops every year when grown in plantation, and Species like Michelia champaca, Pines and Araucaria take one to three years from pollination to ripen their fruits.

Seed collection requires good advance planning regarding deployment of trained staff, transportation facilities, seed collection equipment, measures to ensure safety of workers, packing and labeling material, and maintenance of the records, etc. In most of the tree species, seed matures in a phased manner within a few weeks. At first, few seeds ripen and the number gradually an increase till it reaches a 3

peak (synchronized maturity) followed by a gradual decrease. Mature seeds collected during the peak phase give more uniform germination and show greater longevity in storage. After collection, seeds should be thoroughly cleaned to remove unwanted parts of fruit and other impurities before sowing or storage. In a large number of species good seed crop may not occur every year. For example in Sal, good seed year occurs every alternate year, while in pines and Deodar; it may be after 3 to 5 years. Bamboo species may flower sporadically or gregariously after 6- 60 years. It is always advisable to examine the status of seed maturity in the field before efforts are made for their collection. Floatation method Put the seeds in water, for most species, the seeds that sink to the bottom are good seeds. Discard all floating seeds. Colour assessment method The fully mature good seeds will have the definite for the particular species. Cutting method - Cutting a cross section of the seed to see as to how many seeds are hollow, empty, immature or unhealthy is one of the easiest and most reliable methods. Important points to note during planning & executing seed collection are: Information about location, time of flowering / fruiting & periodicity of seed crop Preference for seeds of well-adapted local sources to the unadapted sources of different places, Collection should be made only from healthy vigorously growing trees of desirable form and shape. Avoid isolated trees of naturally cross-pollinating species, since these are likely to be self-pollinated. Seeds from such trees are likely to be few or may have low viability and produce weak or malformed seedlings, Avoid stands of poorly formed, excessively flimsy, off- colour, abnormal or diseased trees, Change in latitude, humidity, temperature and attack of pests greatly affects seed quality, yield and periodicity, Fruit ripening gets delayed due to rains and advanced due to high temperature and drought, Flowering / fruiting may vary from a few days to weeks at different places. Collection should be from branches growing in sun. Only ripe seed should be collected.

Seed fallen on the ground should preferably be avoided as it could rotten or filled with insects. However, big seed or fruits, which fall on the ground when mature, can immediately be picked up. Seeds after collection should be cleaned to remove unwanted parts of fruit and other impurities before sowing or storage. Cones or fruits should be collected before dispersal but when fully mature. Some seeds e.g, those with wings, in capsules or very small seeds are difficult to collect and should be gathered just before the opening of fruits.

Seeds collected from the ground may have following problems: Attack by fungi/ insects/animals if seeds remain on ground from long period. More chances of collection of non-viable immature and empty seeds It is difficult to know the percentage of healthy, viable seeds.

Funnel for trapping Acacia seeds (Source: FAO Forestry paper 20/2)

Seed from the standing trees can be collected by following methods: By hand pricking from lower branches By using lightweight poles for striking and By climbing on the tree with the help of tree ladder, tree

shaking of branches. bicycle, rope-ladder, one-legged pruner etc. and

By using nets and other local materials.

Single strut sectional ladder (Source: DANIDA FSC)


SEED EXTRACTION AND PROCESSING The method of seed extraction depends on the type and nature of fruits. Cones and dry fruits generally shed seeds if dried in open air or sunlight. Seeds from fleshy/ pulpy fruits may be removed by macerating/crushing and washing, while the seeds borne in pods or husks can be extracted by thrashing. Other methods like drying of seeds under cover (e.g. Abies, Cedrus, Dipterocarpus, Hopea, Quercus, Shorea), thrashing, de-winging and picking by hand etc. are used as per the morphology of seed/fruit. However, care should be taken during all these activities so that seeds are not damaged. 6

SEED DIVISION STATE FOREST DEPARTMENT SEED LABEL Species: Date of collection: Location: Collection Name: Other information: ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ______ __________________ _________________________ _________________________

Seed cleaning should be done to remove unwanted parts and other impurities. This helps to avoid diseases and insect attack during storage. Seed cleaning also helps to obtain uniform germination after sowing in the nursery. it can be done be following methods: Screen cleaning by using sieves of different pore sizes Air separation/winnowing or by aspirators De-winging, which reduces storage volume, make upgrading possible, sowing easier, and also remove pathogen Empty seeds can be removed by liquid floatation method In a seed testing station seed drier, graders separator, blowers, scarifiers, and selves are some the useful equipments of seed processing, which help to obtain seed lots of uniform quality. SEED UPGRADING Seed upgrading helps to reduces chances of disease, quantity of the procured seed as well as costs. Remove weak and damaged seeds, Remove empty, immature, and discolored seeds.


Important points to be remembered during seed collection, extraction and storage: The freshly collected seed should not be exposed to sun, except cones of conifers, Alnus, Betula, Casurina, capsules of Eucalyptus and Toona, etc. The safest drying method for delicate species like Dipterocarps, Deodar, Fir, Neem, Oak, Vitex etc. is to spread a thin layer of fruits in well ventilated rooms and stirring at regular intervals. Seed should be left in wet areas; otherwise they will rot and die. 7

The soft and fleshy seeds, such as ash, gamari and neem should not be kept in heaps or in large sacks/bags immediately after harvest. They can be kept in small perforated sacks or open baskets after cleaning the pulp and drying the seeds. Seeds should be completely dried and labeled before putting them for storage under specific conditions. Fruit storage is advantageous in some species for after-ripening.

On the basis of storage behaviour seeds can be divided into two broad categories:1. Orthodox seeds- seeds, which can withstand drying upto low moisture, content of about 5 to 10% and can be successfully stored at low or subfreezing temperatures for long periods. For example, Acacia, Betula, Pinus and Eucalyptus. 2. Recalcitrant seeds- Seeds, which cannot tolerate drying below relatively high moisture content (range 20-50% of fresh weight) and which cannot be stored for long periods. For example Neem, Rubber, Hollong, Champ etc. These seeds are sensitive to low temperatures and chilling damage. They are most difficult to store even for a short period of time. In general following considerations should be made during seed storage: For most seeds moisture contents should be brought down to 8 to 12%, i.e. they should be dried under shade and should then be stored in a dry and cool place. Seeds can be stored in gunny bags, paper cartons or cloth bags. Plastic bags should generally be avoided either for seed collection, transportation or storage as seed may rot inside the bag. Only well dried, hard seeds like Albizia, Acacia, Cassia, Eucalyptus and Casuarina can be stored in plastic bags. Seed should never be stored on the ground. If seed are to be stored for longer durations they should be treated with seed dressing fungicides like Captan, Thiram, Agrosan. For treatment of 1 kg of seeds, 4 to 5g of fungicides should be sufficient. Stored bags must be labeled with the name of species, location and date of collection and name of collector etc. along with viability and storage conditions if possible.

Seeds should never be stored on the ground

Seeds contain tiny, fragile plants that live under the seed shell. One must be careful not to damage the newborn plant inside. Seeds need water to germinate. Some seeds have such a hard shells that water cannot easily enter the seed to help it sprout. In such cases, seeds are to be pretreated to help them absorb water and germinate. Some seed shave certain chemical s inside them to which prevent their germination, while some seeds may not have well developed embryo and require storage for a few weeks before germination can take place. There are many methods to treat seeds to overcome dormancy. Some of the important ones are described below:1. Cold water treatment Some seeds need lots of water so that they germinate at the same time. Others have certain chemicals inside them, which inhibit germination and which must be removed before the seed can germinate. The cold-water treatment is a good method to treat such seeds. The seeds of Pine, Aonla, Kachnar, Kala siris, Khair etc. can be treated in this way. Put the seeds in water, five times the volume of seeds. Let the seeds soak for 1-2 days, changing the water every 12 hours. Discard any seeds that float to the top. All swollen seeds are fit for immediate sowing. 2. Hot water treatment This method is used for the treatment of seeds with hard seed coat such as Cassia, Sesbania and Albizia.

Boil a volume of water; five times the volume of the seeds. Let the water cool for ten minutes and soak the seeds in hot water. Discard any seed that floats to the top. Keep the seeds in this water for two days or until most of them have swelled. Change the water every day with cold water. Once the seeds swell, sow them immediately. 3. Boiling water treatment This method is applied to the seeds that have a very hard seed coat, such as Acacia and Prosopis species. Boil a volume of water five times the volume of seed. Take the pot of water off the fire and soak the seed immediately. Leave the seed in water for only one to two minutes. After two minutes replace the hot water with cold and let the seed kept soaked in the cold water for 2-3 days or until they swell, changing the water everyday. Once the seeds swell, sow them immediately. 4. Wet and dry treatment or weathering This method is applied for species with very hard seed coat such as Teak. Soak the seed in cold water for 48 hours. Spread them in the sun thereafter to dry at least for 48 hours. Repeat this process 5 to 8 times before sowing in the germination beds. 5. Acid Scarification Very hard coated seeds like Prosopis and certain Acacias can also be treated with acid to break the hard testa (seed coat). Soak the seed in 20% sulphuric acid for one hour. Drain acid and wash seed thoroughly three to four times with clean water. The seed can be sown thereafter. Proper precautions should be taken while handling the acid. Use only ceramic or glass containers for handling the acid. The workers should always wear protective clothing and gloves. 6. Mechanical Scarification It is the process of breaking, scratching, or altering the seed coat mechanically to make it permeable to water and gases. But, care should be taken to ensure that the embryo is not damaged. Impermeable seed coats can be broken mechanically with files, sand paper and electric needle (hot wire). For large quantities filling seeds with sharp gravel-stones in a rotatory drum having abrasive disks on inner side is very useful e.g. Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Albizia spp. Cassia fistula, Delonix regia, Elaeocarpus spp, Sapindus spp, and Terminalia arjuna. 7. Stratification 10

In many species of temperate regions, such as Abies, Acer, Prunus and Juglans, walnut dormancy can be overcome by keeping the seeds at low temperatures (generally 1C to 5C) with abundant aeration and moisture for periods varying from 30- 120 days. Alternating temperatures treatments (like day & night) may also be required for some species. After stratification, seeds are immediately sown. Sometimes seeds are kept in sand or soil under snow in the nurseries for natural stratification. 8. Light Requirements Providing illuminated white light to the hydrated seeds can terminate dormancy of many tree species. Seeds of Albizia procera (safed siris), Casia fistula (Amltas), Gmelina arborea (Gamari), Pterocarpus dalbergioides and Pinus merkusii are positively photo plastic and light hastens the termination of seed dormancy. 9. Use of Hormones and chemicals A number of chemicals (Thiourea and Hydrogen peroxide etc.) and hormones (Gibberellins, Cytokinins and Ethylene) in different concentrations can also be used to treat dormancy. 10. Cow dung slurry treatment Some times fruits of species like Terminalia chebula (Harar) and Melia azedarach (Bakain) are mixed with cow dung slurry and kept in pits for about 7-14 days to remove the thick seed coat. This also helps to over come dormancy. 11. Shell cracking Seeds of species like tropical Simarouba (Ash) or Zizyphus (Ber) can be cracked using a piece of wood or light hammer before sowing. 12. Other species specific treatments Some species require specific treatments to seeds for initiation of germination. Atriplex (salt bush) seeds are washed for 1 to 2 hours in cold water to remove salt from the seeds. Horizontal shaking of Acacia farnesiana seeds with glass pieces gives upto 30% germination in 43 days as against 2 % when no treatment is given. Acacia cariacea is pre-treated by manual nicking.



(1) ACACIA ARABICA (Babul) Immersed in boiled water (after removing from fire) for 24 to 48 hours. Babul seeds obtained from goat pens also germinate well. Keeping the seed in moist cow dung heap for 2-3 days Putting the seeds in conc. Sulphuric acid for 10-15 minutes. ACACIA CATECHU (Khair) Soaking in water for 24 to 28 hours. Soaking in cooling, boiled water for 6 hours Treatment with sulphuric acid for 2-5 minutes. ACACIA TORTILIS (israili babul) Soaking in water for 24 hours Dipping in hot water (80-90 C.) and soaking it overnight. Treatment with 50 % commercial sulphuric acid for 30-40 minutes, followed by washing and then drying in shade. ALBIZZIA LEBBEK; ALBIZZIA PROCERA Soaking (24 hours) in water brought to boil and allowed to cool. CASSIA FISTULA (AMALTAS) AND EXOTIC CASSIAS Seed testa is hard and impermeable; pretreatment is done by soaking in boiling hot water for five minutes then allowing it to cool for 24 hours. Treatment of seed with sulphuric acid will reduce the germination CELTIS AUSTRALIS (KHARIK) Soaking seeds in cooling boiled water for 48 hours. CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA (KAPUR) Soaking in warm water for 24 hours DELONIX REGIA (GULMOHAR) Putting in hot water (80C), allowed to cool and soaked for 5 days. DIOSPYROS MELANOXYLON (TENDU, BIDI PATTA) Soaking in cold water for 24 hours or more. Alternate soaking and drying for few days. PROSOPIS CINERARIA (KHEJRI) Putting in hot water (80C) and then allowing it to cool and soak for 24 hours. PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (VILAYATI BABUL) 12











Covering the seed with boiling water, allowing it to cool and soak for 24 hours. Feeding pods to animals and collecting seeds from their droppings. Soaking the seed in 20% Sulphuric acid for one hour or conc. Sulphuric acid for about 10-15 minutes. A pit of suitable cross section and one metre depth is dug and pods are placed inside it and left to soak in water. The pulp is allowed to decompose for about 15 days. After the pods become dry, they are beaten with a wooden mallet or bamboo or trampled under the roofs pair of bullocks, which results in clean single seeded segments. Before sowing these segments should be soaked in water for 48 hours, which would give germination as high as 80 to 90 percent.


PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM (BIJASAL) Soaking pods in cow dung slurry or camphor water for 48 hours. The pods and dead leaves are placed alternately in a pit. The pit is kept flooded with water. After few days pods start germinating. The germinated pods are picked up and sown. PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS (RED SANDERS) Soaking in ordinary cold water for 3 days. Putting in cow dung slurry for 48 hours before sowing. SAPINDUS MUKOROSSI (RITHA) Soaking in cold water for 24 hours. Keeping in cow dung paste till it germinates. TERMINALIA ALATA Cold water treatment for 48 hours. TERMINALIA BELIRICA (bahera) Alternate soaking and drying for few days. TERMINALIA CHEBULA (HIRDA) The fruit should not be collected from the tree. It should be collected form the ground a soon as it falls on the ground. The seed is depulped and soaked in water for 2-3 days before sowing. Alternate soaking and drying is also effective. TECTONA GRANDIS (TEAK, SAGWAN) Seeds are immersed in cold water for several days Weathering method- In the weathering method, seeds are spread over on the ground or a cemented platform in the first week of August. The 13







thickness of spread should be nearly 6 to 9 inches. The seeds are allowed to be weathered up for 6-8 weeks. The seed is turned upside down after every two to three days so that every seed, gets sunlight and shade alternately and constantly. The seeds remain wet either due to rains or are kept wet by pouring water over them. Too much wetting is not desirable as some seeds may start germinating. This process helps to soften the outer hard coating of the seeds. The seeds are dried and kept in gunny bags or baskets for use in April-May or even next year. Seeds can be placed in a paste of cowdung and water or in fresh dung heap for a few days. Teak seeds can be treated with conc. Sulphuric acid or boiling water. Alternate soaking and drying for 48 hours each, for 15 days or more. Pit methodThe pit is thoroughly watered. After the water is absorbed by the pit, teak leaves are in a layer at the bottom and also on the sides of the pit. Seeds are soaked for 48 hours outside the pit and then laid in the pit with alternate layers of teak leaves in between the seed. But before doing so, five bamboo tubes, one in middle and one at each corner are placed in position with holes drilled into them, so that water can reach to all seed layers through them. The seed is retained in the pit for about 10 to 15 days and watered alternate days. The pit is then opened, seed is collected, dried and kept ready for sowing. Too much watering should be avoided.


ZIZYPHUS MAURITIANA (BER) AND Z. NUMMULARIA (BORDI) Seed coat should be broken mechanically with a wooden machete or a small hammer and seeds should be soaked in water for one day before sowing. Care should be taken that seed is not damaged while breaking the seed coat Treatment with 20% Sulphuric acid for 45-60 minutes hastens and improves germination process. ABIES PINDROW (FIR) Prechill for one month at 3-5C. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS (AMLA, AONLA) The aonla fruits are put in a container or gunny bags in moist medium and allowed to rot. Within a week the pericarp becomes loose and can be separated manually from seed- stone. The seed stones are washed and kept in trays covered with cloth or polythene under strong sunlight. Within 3 days the stones break open with a sound and give out seeds.




Essential to assess the physical and biological aspects of seed. Can be done immediately after extraction and before actual sowing. It is also done periodically on seed lots kept in long storage. For small nurseries, common sense, clean hands, a clean working table and one good knife are sufficient for most seed testing tasks. Seed lot - Defined as a specified quantity of seeds of reasonably uniform quality from particular geographic source. Purity Test It determines what proportion of the seed sample by weight has pure seed and what proportion is other material. The four recognized components of a seed lot are Pure seeds, Other seeds, Damaged seeds and Inert matter (seed wings, twigs, stone, soil, other non-seed materials. Separation is done manually by placing seeds on a working table. Immature, shriveled, cracked, damaged seeds larger that one-half of original seedsize, including those with internal insect damage, those starting to germinate, are designated as pure seeds. Thus, if the initial weight of a seed sample is 50 gm and the pure portion weighed 40 gm, purity of the lot is: 40 x 100 = 80% 50 Seed Weight It is normally expressed for 1000 pure and full seeds. Factors - size, moisture content and proportion of full seeds in the lot. Generally calculated by taking 8 random samples of 100 seeds from a pure lot. If the difference between any two replicates exceeds 10% of the mean weight, additional replicates should be drawn. Seed Moisture Content Essential to determine the viability and storage conditions. Seeds of high MC cannot be stored and over drying can affect viability. Determined by drying 10g sample in oven -103C (17 hrs) or 130 C (1- 4 hrs.). MC% = Original weight Oven dry weight X100 Original wt. Of seed


Germination Test The most reliable test of seed viability is to germinate a representative sample (four replicates of 100 seeds each) under laboratory conditions. Under field conditions cutting the seeds into two equal parts can test viability. Seeds having fully grown, firm and undamaged embryo can be presumed to be good. However, this is not a reliable test for stored seeds. Laboratory germination counts Seeds (100 nos.) are placed on moist blotting paper or cotton wool in a petridish after giving the necessary pre-treatment. In case of very small seeds, e.g Eucalyptus and kadamb, one-gram seed is taken. Petridishes are placed in a warm (not hot) place / germinators ( 20 30 C ) and kept moist. The number of seeds, which germinate, is counted every day and after 4 weeks or more LGC is calculated as: LGC%= No. of seed germinated X 100 No. of seeds sown in petridish

TTZ Test Tetrazoliun (TTZ) staining test indicates the presence of live tissue. Fully imbibed seeds, which have been cut opened length-wise without damaging the embryo are soaked overnight (18 -24 hrs in dark at 30C) in1% solution of TTZ (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride). Live embryo, cotyledons and other tissues stain pink to red indicating that the seeds are viable. Comparatively larger seeds like Albizia, Bauhinia, Phoebe goalparensis, etc. can be conveniently tested. Germination energy Measure of the speed of germination and hence assumed as value of seed vigour and seedlings it produce. Percentage of seeds that germinate up to the time that the rate of germination reaches a peak. No. of seeds germinate in time Ax100 GE% = No. of seeds sown in the petridish Seedling Evaluation Germination is defined as the emergence and development from seed embryo of those essential structures, which are indicative of the ability of seed to produce a normal plant under favourable conditions. Normal seedlings are those, which if grown in good quality soil, free from disease organisms, or foreign seeds, under favourable conditions of temperature, water and light, show the capacity to develop into normal plants. Those, which do not show such capacity, are called emergence fall. Seeds that germinate abnormally are included in the germination count. 16


Control of insect pests and fungi during seed storage and in forest nurseries.
Sl. No.

Common or chemical name Nepthalene


Mode of action

Solubility in water

Risk to human health Unlikely to present acute hazards Unlikely to present acute hazards Unlikely to present acute hazards

Seed protection


30 mg/1

PChlorobenz ene

Seed protection in storage



Leaf eating & sapsucking insects in nurseries, seed dressing, cutworms in nurseries Seed dressing, ants, termites & locusts in nurseries Seed fumigation, termites in wooden articles & buildings

Contact poison

0.2 mg/1


Contact and stomach poison Fumigant acaricide, nematicide insecticide

2 mg/1

Moderately hazardous

Methyl bromide

13.4 g/kg

For control of seed fungi in seed stores, treat the seeds with Carbendazim, thiram or Captan at rate of 1g/100 g seed.



Seed containers. Sacks and bags (can be re-used). Cotton bags, canvas sacks (dispatched with seed). Tree markers, e.g. plastic tape, paint &b brush. Climbing equipment. Foot spurs or tree bicycles or ladders, Safety belt, safety ropes, safety helmets, tool lines. Seed cutters, e.g. cone hooks, cone rakes, pruning shears and saws, secateurs (hand). Plastic sheeting (heavy gauge) for protection when storing fruits, extracting seed, etc. Binoculars for studying tree crowns, fruit development, etc, Hand lens for closer observation of seed, fruits. Insecticidal and fungicidal powders for seed protection (handle & use with care). Axe, Saw, Machete, Knife. Rope, string, labels, felt marking pens.


Site description
Note book, description forms. Maps (outline copies also for plotting). Compass Geographical Positioning System. Meteorological equipment (hydrometer, max/min thermometer). Soil survey equipment (auger, colour charts, pH test kit). Tree measuring equipment (altimeter, diameter tapes, bark gauge, calipers etc.) Camera and related equipment (wide angle lens). Also Medical supplies, camping equipment, Vehicles and other equipment as appropriate.

(Modified from: A Guide to Forest Seed Handling, FAO Publ.)




(Based on FAO/DANIDA Seed Centre, Humbleback) FILE NO SEED COLLECTION DATA-Forest Research Institute Scientist name: Common name: A Latitude: B Longitude: C Altitude A Map reference: Detail location Soil type: S Slope I Drainage: T Monthly rainfall distribution: E Nearest weather station: Plant association S Density T Height A Diameter N Stand condition D Comments: C Method: O Number of trees: L Amount of seed/cones L Potential for commercial scale collection: E Comments: C T I O N S Extraction method; E Yield per unit of volume: E Comments: D Description Written by Treatment: Germination Open Uneven Age: Bole: Date of collection: Spacing of trees: Condition of seed/cones Provisional number: Provenance: Country: Provenance Region and/ or Administrative unit

Orientation: Annual rainfall Dense Regeneration method



SAMPLE SEED COLLECTION SHEET (BASED ON COMMONWEALTH FORESTRY INSTITUTE, OXFORD) Species: Country: District: Latitude: Seed No.: Provinces: Area: Altitude:


Situation: for e.g. slope, boundaries and association general description of the place.

Soil: For e.g soil texture, type, chemical composition H etc. Climate: Mean annual rainfall distribution (mm): J F H A M J J A S O

Temperature: Description of stand: e.g the condition, density of forest, situation of the stand

Whether plane sloppy, regeneration, growth.

Come bearing trees:


Height: Branch angle: Boles:

Collection method:

Collection date:




A guide to forest seed handling (with special reference to tropics)- R.L Willan. FAO Forestry Paper 20/2, 1985.


Containerized tropical Nursery Practices. Land resources series No.6. The World Bank (Agriculture and Natural Resources Deptt). 1993.


Practical Handbook on Nursery and Plantation Technology. TFRI Publication No.12 (ICFRE) Mohit Gera, Neelu Gera and RL Srivastava.

4. 5.

Information on Important tree species. Pub by FRI, Dehradun 1985. Seed Technology, N.S. Bisht and S. P. Ahlawat, SFRI, D/O Environment & Forest, Govt of Arunachal pradesh, 1999.


Nursery and Plantation Practices in Forestry. Vinod Kumar, Scientific Publishers, 1999.




Sl. No.


Common name

Fruit/seed collection season Sept.-Nov. Oct.-Nov. Dec.-Feb.

Number of seed per 100 g. 2720 1670 4000

Seed viability (months /year) 3m

Pre-sowing seed treatment Not required Not required

Sowing season

Germination percent

Germination period in nursery (days) 42 30

1. 2. 3.

Abies pindrow Abies spectabilis Acacia auriculiformis Acacia catechu Acacia farnesiana Acacia modesta Acacia nilotica Acacia senegal Acacia tortilis Acer oblongum Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Adina cordifolia

Silver fir Himalayan fir Australian Babul Akashmani Khair Pissi babul Phulai Babul Khor Israeli kikkar Maple Mundani Haldu

Oct.-Nov. February April

10-65 50-70 50-67

6-12 m

Scarification, Hot water Scarification, Hot water Scarification, Hot water

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Jan.-March July onwards Oct.-Dec. April-June Spring Nov.-Feb. Jan.-April April-June Jan-Mar

4000 970-1210 2100-3500 7,000-1100 700 1200 2000-3000 3000 11,00,000

6-12 m

MarchApril May Feb.March March June-July Feb. March March May-June May

60-80 60-70 60-90 88 60-70 40-60 50 75 50

30 30 30 30 30 60 14-35 30

2-3 y 2-3 y 12m 1-2 y 6m 6-12 m

Scarification, Hot water Scarification, Hot water Scarification, Hot water Not required Not required Hot water H2SO4 Not required


13. 14.

Aegle marmelos Aesculus indica

Bel Wood apple Horse chestnut Bankhor Maharukh Ardu Lallei, Kansar Siris San tree Kalan Siris, Kokko Ceylon rose wood, siris Safed Siris Alder (Ultis) Alder (Sarol) Shaitan wood Cashewnut Axlewood (Bakli) Kardhai Kadam

March-May Sept-Oct.

550 1-6 m 3-4 12

Not required Stratification

Soon after collection Soon after collection Soon after collection Soon after collection Feb.-July April-May April-May March February May-June April-May June February

56 80-90

21 -

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

Ailanthus excelsa Albizia amara Albizia chinensis Albizia lebbek Aibizia Odoratissima Albizia procera Alnus nepalensis Alnus nitida Alstonia scholaris Anacardium occidentale Anogeissus latifolia Anogeissus pendula Anthocephalus chinensis

May-June Feb.-April Dec.-March Jan-March Feb-May Jan-April Dec-Jan. Nov.-Dec. May-July Mar-June Mar-May Dec.-March Jan.-Feb. Aug.-Oct.

950 1400 3-4000 800-1300 150 2100 57,000 88700 3000-6000 14-17 13,000 9600 93000270000

3-4m 2y 1y 2-3 y 2-3 y 2-3 y 6m 6m 6m 6m 1y

Not required Sacrification, Hot water Sacrification, Hot water Sacrification, Hot water Hot water Sacrification, Hot water Stratification Stratification Not required Soak in water Soak in water Not required Not required

70-90 80 50 60-94 47 80-90 70 90 10-20 10 25-40

45 7 60 30 21 28-42 50 15 15 21


28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

Anona squamosa Artocarpus chaplasha Artocarpus heteropyllus Azadirachta indica Bambusa arundinacea Barringtonia acutangula Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia racemosa Bauhinia variegata Bauhini Malabarica Betula alnoides Betula cylindrostachys Bomaox ceiba Boswellia serrata Bridelia retusa Buchanania Lanzan Butea monosperma

Sitaphal, Sharifa Chaplash Kathal Neem Bans Hijal Kanair Jhinjhora, Kanchan Kachnar Kachnar Bhojpatra Birch Semul Salai Khaja, Kateain Chironji, Char Dhak, Palash

Sep.-Octo. June-Aug. May-July June-Aug. Feb.-July Aug-Sept. Jan-May Dec.-April May-June April-June Jan-March Jan-Mar Mar.-May March-June Jan.-Feb. April-May May-July

2700-6600 200 4-5 330 7500-10,500 140 (fruits) 400-500 700-900 280-352 1129 14,00,000 14,00,00 21,00-38,50 14,00-1500 1500 300-500 10,00-15,00

1y 1m 4-6 m 1m 1y 4-6 m 6-8 m 2y

Not required Not required Not required Not required Soak in water Not required Hot water Boiling water Not required July-Aug. July July April MarchApril May May

40 80 75 100 50 90-100 80-100 95 95 14-18 Sept Soon after collection May 10 10 14-75 50 75 60-7-

21 14 21 21 14-21 15-20 30 30 30 30 56 60 25 6-15

1y 1y 4-6 m 1-2 y 1-6m 1y 1y

BW Stratification Stratification Not required CW2

15-23 75

Not required




45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

Calliandra calothysus Celtis australis Cassia fistula Cassia siamea Casuarina equisetifolia Cedrus deodara Celtis australis Chloroxylon swietnia Chukrasia velutina Cinnamomum camphora Cochlospermum religiosum Cordia myxa Syn dichotoma Cryptomeria japonica Cupressus torul0sa Dalbergia latifolia Dalbergia sissoo

Challiandra Khirak, Nettle tree Amaltas Kassod Iiron wood Beef wood (Sura) Deodar Kharik Bhirra, Satin wood Chickrassi Camphor (kapur) Kumbli, torchwood tree Lasora, gunda Suji (Dhupi) Himalayan cypress Rosewood Shisham

April-May Oct.-Nov. Mar.-April Mar.-April June-Dec. Oct.-Nov. Oct.-Dec. May August Jan-Feb. Oct.-Nov.

1400 460 600-700 3,700 7,60,00 700-900 460 3500-6000 1,00,00 5,00-11,00

1y 1y Many years 2-4 y 1-6 m 1-2y 6m

Not required 60-70 Scarification, Hot water Scarification, Hot water Soak in water for 24 hrs. Stratification Hot water Mar.-April June-Aug. Jan.-Feb. Nov.-Dec. Oct.-Nov.

75 3-4 22-60 85-98 70 60-90 60-70 70

1-2 28 3-4 7-10 3-4 7-10 200-300

Not required 2-3 m Soak in lukewarm water for 24 hrs.

Jan.-Feb. March

70-90 47




56. 57. 58. 59. 60.

April-June July-Dec. April-July Jan.-March Nov-Mar

600 3,35,00 65,00 3,00,00 18,50-40,00 53,00

6m 6-12

Not required Not required Stratification February June Mar-April March

20-25 80 50-60 45-80 90-100

12 21-28 90 21 15

6-12 m 6-12 m

Soak in water Soak in water


61. 62.

Dendrocalamus strictus Diospyros melanoxylon Diospyros peragrina Dipterocarpus macrocarpus Dipterocarpus Indicus Emblica officinalis Erythrina indica Erythrina suberosa Eucalyptus citriodora Eucalyptus globulus Eucalyptus tereticornis Feronia elephantum Fraxinus excelsa Fraxinus floribunda Gmelina arborea

Narbans Tendu Kendu Kala tendu Hollong Common gurjan Amla Pangara, coral tree Orky coral tree Lemon scented spotted gum Blue gum Mysore gum Kawat, Kaitha European Ash Angu Gamhar

April-June April-June

3,200-4,000 880-140

6-12 m 6-12 m

Soak in water Alternate wetting and drying Not required Not required Hot water

May-June Mar-April

24-30 50-60

10-30 90

63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69.

May-Aug. Feb.-March May-June Nov.--Feb. May-June May-June April-June

780-900 120 (Fruits) 154 (fruits) 6,800-8,900 600 635 1,55,00

4-6 m 10-15 days <1 m 2-6m 2-3 y 2-3 y 6m

July Soon after collection Soon after collection March

12 25-80 82 40 54-82

12-21 days onwards 13 days onward 7-23 30 10-35 60

Not required



70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75.

Mar-May Sept Oct. Oct.-March Sept Oct. Feb.-Mar Sept-Oct. May-June

2,500 3,67,40 150-500 740 900 (fruits) 250-260

1y Poor 1-2y 8-12 m 6-12m

Not required Not required

Mar-April Sept.-Oct.

30-80 90 -

10 5-15 48 180-300 10-15`

Stratification Soak in water

Nov.-Jan. Sept.-Oct. Mar-April Mar-April

40-70 75 13-85


76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85 86 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93.

Grevillea robusta Hardwickia binate Hevea brasiliensis Holoptelia integrifolia Jacaranda mimosaefolia Juglans regia Lagerstroemia parviflora Lagerstroemia speciosa Machilus edulis Machilus gammieana Madhuca latifolia Mangifera indica Melia azedarach Mesua ferrea Michelia champaca Michelia lanuginosa Moringa oleifera Morus alba

Silver oak Anjan Pararubber tree Kanju Niligulmohur Walnut Lendia Ben teak Jarul Dudri Lali Mahua Mango Bakain Nagkesar Champa Gogay champ Sahjan Munga Mulberry (Tut)

June April-May July-Sept April-May De. Sept-Oct. Dec.-May Jan-Feb Nov.-Jan. Nov.-Dec. June-Aug. April-July Jan-Feb July-Sept Aug.-Sept. Nov-Dec. April-June May-June

10,0000 390 (fruits) 2,700 5000 5-10 2,800 12,000 29 282 45 10-237 750-917 260-500 1,500 1,000 800-900 4,28,004,65,00

1-2y 6-12m 2-4m 4-6m 1y 6m 6m 1y 4-6m 4-6m 4-6m <1 m 1y 6-12m <1m <1m 6m <2y

Stratification Not required Not required Not required

Nov.-Dec. Apri.-May Soon after collection Soon after collection

60-80 79 60 70

21 28 7-21 10 40-45 35-50 28 10-30 180 180 15 30 20-40 60 60 180 20-30 45

Stratification Not required Soak in water Not required Soak in water Hot water Soak in water Stratification Soak in water Not required

November Feb.-Mar. Feb.March February February July-Aug. July-Aug. Feb.-May Soon after collection Soon after collection Soon after collection June

70-80 Very poor 90 50 90 85-95 80-90 70-80 90 70-80 60 66 70


94 95. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111

Olea ferruginea Ougeinia oogeinensis Picea smithiana Pinus kesiya Pinus roxburghii Pinus wallichiana Pithecellobium dulce Pongamia pinnata (Derris indica) Prosopis chilensis Prospopis cineraria Prunus nepalensis Pterocarpus dalbergioides Pterocarpus Santalinus Sterculia Villosa Sterculia urens Swietenia macrophylla Syzygium cumini

Indian olive (Kan) Sandan Himalayan spruce Khasi pine Chir Kail Jangli jalebi Karanj Kikkar Jand Saiong Padauk Red sanders Udal Karaya Mahogany Jamun

Sept-Dec. May-June Oct.-Nov. Feb.-March Feb.-April Sept-Nov. April Mar.-May May-June June-Aug. Oct._Nov. Jan-Mar. Feb.-April May-June April Dec-Mar. June

900 2,800-2,300 63,928 4,900-5,800 880-1230 1,924 670 80-150 1250 2500 135 145 (fruits) 100 (fruits) 560-600 441-636 215 120

6-12 2-6 m 8-12m 1y 1y 2y 1y 6-12 m 1-2y 1-2y 4-6m 12 m 8-12 m 6m 6m 1y < 1m

Acid scarification Soak in water Not required Not required Not required Not required Soak in water Soak in water Scarification, soak in water Scarification, soak in water Scarification Soak in water Soak in water Not required Not required Not required

Sept-Oct. May-June June-July February Soon after collection Mar-April Feb.-Mar. July-Aug. March June Mar-April May May-June May-June Soon after collection Soon after collection Soon after ll i

45-65 75 22-65 87-100 80-90 Poor 45 80 85-95 65 85 35-40 10-80 50-70 88 20-40 90

28 30 21 20 15-21 50 35 30 14 14 42 90 10 days 15-20 90 30


collection 112 113 Tamarindus indica Tectona grandis Imli Teak Mar.-April Nov.-Jan. 180 185-310 12 m 1-2 y Soak in hot water Alternate wetting and drying Soak in water Soak in water Alternate wetting & drying Alternate wetting & drying Not required Soak in water Not required Not required Soak in water hot cracking of seed coat February June-July April-May April April 66 1060 15-20 15 days onwards 25 50 30-60

114 115 116.

Terminalia alata Terminalia arjuna Terminalia bellirica

Laurel Arjun Bahera

Feb.-May Feb- May Nov.-Feb.

1,300 775 40-45

1y 1y 1y

April April-May Mar.-April

35-70 50-686-100


Terminalia chebula Terminalia crenulata Terminalia myriocaspa Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Wrightia tinctoria Xylia dolabriformis Xylia xylocarpa Ziziphus mauritiana Ziziphus nummularia








118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125

Laurel Hollock Toon Gutel Khirni Jambu Irul Ber

Mar.-April Jan.-Feb. April-June July, SeptDec. Nov.-Dec. Dec.-Jan. Jan-Mar. Feb.-Mar.

50(fruits) 50,000 55,000 550-800 3,100 430 330-400 120-180

6-12 m 8-12 6m 6-12 m 6m 1y 6-12m 1y

Soon after collection -doSoon after collection Feb.-Mar., May-June

70 20-30 60-80 90-100 60 80-90 80 31-95

15-35 28 10-15 60 10-15 50 12 16-87




300-400 nut / 4000 seeds