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K thut Cauchy bt i

V Quc B Cn - Phm Th Hng


Trng i hc Y Dc Cn Th
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Lnh vc bt ng thc l mt lnh vc c quan tm nhiu nht ton s cp. Trong , cc dng bi ton
i xng hoc hon v l nhng dng thng gp nht lnh vc ny. Trong bi vit trc, chng ti gii
thiu cng cc bn k thut CYH, mt k thut rt hay v mnh gii quyt cc dng ton ny. tng
ca k thut l a mt bt ng thc hon v (i xng) ban u v mt bt ng thc hon v (i xng)
khc nhng d chng minh hn. y cng l iu m mi ngi hay lm khi s dng bt ng thc Cauchy
Schwarz-Holder. Th nhng, bao gi cc bn th dng Cauchy Schwarz-Holder a mt bi ton t i
xng sang bt i cha? i vi phn ng cc bn am m bt ng thc, hu ht u cha th qua vi vic
ny, v n lm mt tnh tnh i xng ca bi ton (mt tnh cht rt quan trng c th c ng dng gii
c nhiu bi ton). Tuy nhin, tn ti mt k thut nh th, mc d ta a bi ton v khng i xng na
nhng ta vn c th gii c bi ton, l "K thut Cauchy bt i". y l mt tm ti nh ca chng ti
v nhng k thut s dng bt ng thc kinh in. Rt mong nhn c s trao i, ng gp kin ca cc
bn.
K thut ca chng ta ch c mt tng n gin l s-p xp th t ca cc bin trc. Sau ch l s dng
bt ng thc Cauchy Schwarz-Holder.
lm r cho tng ny, chng ta s xt nhng v d sau (bn s thy l tng ht sc n gin v d
hiu nn chng ti cng khng bnh lun g thm mi v d)
V d 1 Cho cc s khng m a; b; c; khng c 2 s no ng thi bng 0: Chng minh rng
(ab + bc + ca)
_
1
(b + c)
2
+
1
(c + a)
2
+
1
(a + b)
2
_

9
4
:
(Iran 1996, Ji Chen)
LI GII. Do tnh i xng nn khng mt tnh tng qut, ta c th gi s a b c: Khi , s dng bt
ng thc Cauchy Schwarz, ta c
1
(b + c)
2
+
1
(c + a)
2

1
2
_
1
a + c
+
1
b + c
_
2
=
(a + b + 2c)
2
2(a + c)
2
(b + c)
2
Nn ta ch cn chng minh c
(ab + bc + ca)
_
(a + b + 2c)
2
2(a + c)
2
(b + c)
2
+
1
(a + b)
2
_

9
4
T y, s dng tnh thun nht, ta hy chun ha cho a + b = 1 v t x = ab )
1
4
x c(1 c): Bt
ng thc tr thnh
f(x) = x + c +
(1 + 2c)
2
(x + c)
2(c + c
2
+ x)
2

9
4
0
Ta c
f
0
(x) = 1
(1 + 2c)
2
(c + x c
2
)
2(c + c
2
+ x)
3
1
The love makes us stronger 2
f
00
(x) =
(1 + 2c)
2
(c 2c
2
+ x)
(c + c
2
+ x)
4
0
Nn f
0
(x) ng bin, suy ra
f
0
(x) f
0
_
1
4
_
=
(2c 1)(8c
3
+ 20c
2
+ 38c + 7)
(2c + 1)
4
0
Do f(x) nghch bin, vy nn
f(x) f
_
1
4
_
=
c(1 2c)
2
(1 + 2c)
2
0:
Bt ng thc c chng minh xong. ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a = b = c hoc a = b; c = 0 hoc cc
hon v tng ng.
V d 2 Cho cc s khng m a; b; c; khng c 2 s no ng thi bng 0: Chng minh rng
(b + c)
2
a
2
+ bc
+
(c + a)
2
b
2
+ ca
+
(a + b)
2
c
2
+ ab
6:
(Darij Grinberg)
LI GII. Do tnh i xng nn khng mt tnh tng qut, ta c th gi s a b c: Khi , s dng bt
ng thc Cauchy Schwarz, ta c
(b + c)
2
a
2
+ bc
+
(c + a)
2
b
2
+ ca

(a + b + 2c)
2
a
2
+ b
2
+ c(a + b)
Nn ta ch cn chng minh c
(a + b)
2
c
2
+ ab
+
(a + b + 2c)
2
a
2
+ b
2
+ c(a + b)
6
T y, s dng tnh thun nht, ta hy chun ha cho a + b = 1 v t x = ab )
1
4
x c(1 c): Bt
ng thc tr thnh
1
x + c
2
+
(1 + 2c)
2
1 + c 2x
6
,f(x) = 12x
2
(7 + 2c 16c
2
)x + 1 + c 5c
2
2c
3
+ 4c
4
0
Ta c
f
0
(x) = 24x 7 2c + 16c
2
Xt cc trng hp sau
Trng hp 1. 16c
2
2c 1 0; khi
f
0
(x) = 6(4x 1) + 16c
2
2c 1 0
)f(x) f
_
1
4
_
=
1
2
c(1 + 2c)(1 2c)
2
0
Trng hp 2. 8c
2
22c + 7 0; khi
f
0
(x) = 24x 7 2c + 16c
2
24c(1 c) 7 2c + 16c
2
= (8c
2
22c + 7) 0
)f(x) f (c(1 c)) = (1 2c)
3
0
V Quc B Cn ~~~ Phm Th Hng
The love makes us stronger 3
Trng hp 3.
_
16c
2
2c 1 0
8c
2
22c + 7 0
,
5
16
<
p
17+1
16
c
11
p
65
8
<
3
8
; khi ta c
f
0
(x) = 0 ,x =
7 + 2c 16c
2
24
T y, ta d dng suy ra
f(x) f
_
7 + 2c 16c
2
24
_
=
1
48
(1 20c + 20c
2
+ 32c
3
+ 64c
4
) =
1
48
g(c)
D thy g(c) l hm li nn
g(c) < max
_
g
_
5
16
_
; g
_
3
8
__
= max
_

1751
1024
;
47
64
_
< 0:
Bt ng thc c chng minh xong. ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a = b = c hoc a = b; c = 0 hoc cc
hon v tng ng.
V d 3 Cho cc s khng m a; b; c; khng c 2 s no ng thi bng 0: Chng minh rng
1
b
2
+ bc + c
2
+
1
c
2
+ ca + a
2
+
1
a
2
+ ab + b
2

9
(a + b + c)
2
:
(Vasile Cirtoaje)
LI GII. Khng mt tnh tng qut, gi s a b c: Khi , s dng bt ng thc Cauchy Schwarz, ta
c
1
a
2
+ ac + c
2
+
1
b
2
+ bc + c
2

(a + b + 2c)
2
(b + c)
2
(a
2
+ ac + c
2
) + (a + c)
2
(b
2
+ bc + c
2
)
Nn ta ch cn chng minh c
(a + b + 2c)
2
(b + c)
2
(a
2
+ ac + c
2
) + (a + c)
2
(b
2
+ bc + c
2
)
+
1
a
2
+ ab + b
2

9
(a + b + c)
2
Do tnh thun nht nn ta c th chun ha cho a + b = 1; t x = ab th ta c
1
4
x c(1 c): Khi , bt
ng thc trn tr thnh
f(x) =
(1 + 2c)
2
2x
2
+ 3cx + 2c
4
+ 3c
3
+ 2c
2
+
1
1 x

9
(1 + c)
2
0
Ta c
f
0
(x) =
(1 + 2c)
2
(3c + 4x)
(2x
2
+ 3cx + 2c
4
+ 3c
3
+ 2c
2
)
2
+
1
(1 x)
2
f
00
(x) =
2(1 + 2c)
2
(12x
2
+ 18cx + 5c
2
6c
3
4c
4
)
(2x
2
+ 3cx + 2c
4
+ 3c
3
+ 2c
2
)
3
+
1
(1 x)
3
M
12x
2
+ 18cx + 5c
2
6c
3
4c
4
12c
2
(1 c)
2
+ 18c
2
(1 c) + 5c
2
6c
3
4c
4
= c
2
(35 48c + 8c
2
) 0
_
do
1
2
c 0
_
V Quc B Cn ~~~ Phm Th Hng
The love makes us stronger 4
Nn f
00
(x) > 0; suy ra f
0
(x) ng bin, do
f
0
(x) f
0
_
1
4
_
=
16
9

64(1 + 3c)
(1 + 2c)
2
(1 + 2c + 4c
2
)
2

16
9

64
(1 + 2c)
2
(1 + 2c + 4c
2
)
2
=
16
9
_
1
36
(1 + 2c)
2
(1 + 2c + 4c
2
)
2
_

16
9
_
1
36
(1 + 1)
2
(1 + 1 + 1
2
)
2
_
= 0
Suy ra f(x) nghch bin nn
f(x) f
_
1
4
_
=
8
4c
2
+ 2c + 1
+
4
3

9
(1 + c)
2
=
(1 2c)
2
(4c
2
+ 14c + 1)
3(c + 1)
2
(4c
2
+ 2c + 1)
0:
Bt ng thc c chng minh xong.
V d 4 Cho cc s khng m a; b; c; khng c 2 s no ng thi bng 0: Chng minh rng
(a + b + c)
_
1
p
a
2
+ ab + b
2
+
1
p
b
2
+ bc + c
2
+
1
p
c
2
+ ca + a
2
_
4 +
2
p
3
:
(V Quc B Cn)
LI GII. Khng mt tnh tng qut, gi s a b c: Khi , s dng bt ng thc Holder, ta c
1
p
b
2
+ bc + c
2
+
1
p
c
2
+ ca + a
2

_
(a + b + 2c)
3
(a + c)
3
(b
2
+ bc + c
2
) + (b + c)
3
(a
2
+ ac + c
2
)
Nn ta ch cn chng minh c
_
(a + b + 2c)
3
(a + c)
3
(b
2
+ bc + c
2
) + (b + c)
3
(a
2
+ ac + c
2
)
+
1
p
a
2
+ ab + b
2

2
_
2
p
3 + 1
_
p
3(a + b + c)
Chun ha cho a + b = 1; t x = ab )
1
4
x c(1 c) th bt ng thc tr thnh
f(x) =
_
(1 + 2c)
3
(1 + 4c)x
2
+ cx(1 + 3c 2c
2
) + 2c
5
+ 4c
4
+ 4c
3
+ c
2
+
1
p
1 x

2
_
2
p
3 + 1
_
p
3(1 + c)
0
Ta c
f
0
(x) =
[2(1 + 4c)x + c + 3c
2
2c
3
](1 + 2c)
3=2
2[(1 + 4c)x
2
+ cx(1 + 3c 2c
2
) + 2c
5
+ 4c
4
+ 4c
3
+ c
2
]
3=2
+
1
2(1 x)
3=2
f
00
(x) =
(1 + 2c)
3=2
A
4[(1 + 4c)x
2
+ cx(1 + 3c 2c
2
) + 2c
5
+ 4c
4
+ 4c
3
+ c
2
]
5=2
+
3
4(1 x)
5=2
vi
A = 8(1 + 4c)
2
x
2
+ 8cx(1 + 4c)(1 + 3c 2c
2
) c
2
(20c
4
+ 108c
3
+ 65c
2
+ 14c + 1)
8c
2
(1 c)
2
(1 + 4c)
2
+ 8c
2
(1 c)(1 + 4c)(1 + 3c 2c
2
)
c
2
(20c
4
+ 108c
3
+ 65c
2
+ 14c + 1)
= c
2
(172c
4
444c
3
33c
2
+ 82c + 15) 0
_
do
1
2
c 0
_
V Quc B Cn ~~~ Phm Th Hng
The love makes us stronger 5
Nn f
00
(x) > 0; suy ra f
0
(x) ng bin, do
f
0
(x) f
0
_
1
4
_
=
16(2c
2
4c 1)
(1 + 2c)
2
(1 + 2c + 4c
2
)
3=2
+
4
p
3
9

16(2c
2
4c 1)
(1 + 2c)
2
(1 + 1 + 1
2
)
3=2
+
4
p
3
9
=
4
3
p
3
_
1 +
4(2c
2
4c 1)
(1 + 2c)
2
_
=
4(4c
2
4c 1)
p
3(1 + 2c)
2
< 0
Suy ra f(x) nghch bin nn
f(x) f
_
1
4
_
=
4
p
1 + 2c + 4c
2
+
2
p
3

2
_
2
p
3 + 1
_
p
3(1 + c)
Nn ta ch cn chng minh c
4(c + 1)
p
4c
2
+ 2c + 1
+
2
p
3
(c + 1) 4 +
2
p
3
,
1
p
3
c 2
_
1
c + 1
p
4c
2
+ 2c + 1
_
,
1
p
3
c
6c
2
4c
2
+ 2c + 1 + (c + 1)
p
4c
2
+ 2c + 1
,4c
2
+ 2c + 1 + (c + 1)
_
4c
2
+ 2c + 1 6
p
3c
Ta c
_
4c
2
+ 2c + 1 c + 1; 6
p
3c
21
2
c
Nn ta ch cn chng minh c
4c
2
+ 2c + 1 + (c + 1)
2

21
2
c
,
1
2
(1 2c)(4 5c) 0
_
ng do
1
2
c 0
_
:
Bt ng thc c chng minh. ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a = b; c = 0 hoc cc hon v tng ng.
Nhn xt. Xem xt li gii ny, nhiu bn s cho rng li gii qu phc tp, nhng trn quan im c nhn,
chng ti cho rng li gii ny cng rt "n gin". Bn ch cn thnh tho k thut tnh ton o hm th c
th d dng lm c bi ny theo k thut ca ta.
V d 5 Cho cc s khng m a; b; c; khng c 2 s no ng thi bng 0: Chng minh rng
2a
2
+ 5bc
(b + c)
2
+
2b
2
+ 5ca
(c + a)
2
+
2c
2
+ 5ab
(a + b)
2

21
4
:
(Phm Kim Hng)
LI GII. Khng mt tnh tng qut, gi s a b c: Ta c bt ng thc tng ng vi
_
2a
2
+ 5bc
(b + c)
2
+ 2
_
+
_
2b
2
+ 5ca
(c + a)
2
+ 2
_
+
2c
2
+ 5ab
(a + b)
2

37
4
,2(a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
)
_
1
(a + c)
2
+
1
(b + c)
2
_
+ 9c
_
b
(b + c)
2
+
a
(a + c)
2
_
+
2c
2
+ 5ab
(a + b)
2

37
4
V Quc B Cn ~~~ Phm Th Hng
The love makes us stronger 6
S dng bt ng thc Cauchy Schwarz, ta c
1
(a + c)
2
+
1
(b + c)
2

1
2
_
1
a + c
+
1
b + c
_
2
=
(a + b + 2c)
2
2(a + c)
2
(b + c)
2
b
(b + c)
2
+
a
(a + c)
2

_
1
a+c
+
1
b+c
_
2
1
a
+
1
b
=
ab(a + b + 2c)
2
(a + b)(a + c)
2
(b + c)
2
Nn ta ch cn chng minh c
(a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
)(a + b + 2c)
2
(a + c)
2
(b + c)
2
+
9abc(a + b + 2c)
2
(a + b)(a + c)
2
(b + c)
2
+
2c
2
+ 5ab
(a + b)
2

37
4
Chun ha cho a + b = 1 v t x = ab )
1
4
x c(1 c): Bt ng thc tr thnh
(1 + c
2
2x)(1 + 2c)
2
(c + c
2
+ x)
2
+
9cx(1 + 2c)
2
(c + c
2
+ x)
2
+ 5x + 2c
2

37
4
,f(x) =
[1 + c
2
+ (9c 2)x](1 + 2c)
2
(c + c
2
+ x)
2
+ 5x + 2c
2

37
4
0
Ta c
f
0
(x) = 5
[2 + 2c 5c
2
9c
3
+ (9c 2)x](1 + 2c)
2
(1 + c + x)
3
f
00
(x) =
2[3 + 4c 11c
2
18c
3
+ (9c 2)x](1 + 2c)
2
(1 + c + x)
4
Nu 9c 2 th ta c
3 + 4c 11c
2
18c
3
+ (9c 2)x 3 + 4c 11c
2
18c
3
+ c(1 c)(9c 2)
= 3 + 2c 27c
3
= c
3
_
3
c
3
+
2
c
2
27
_
c
3
_
3
(1=2)
3
+
2
(1=2)
2
27
_
= 5c
3
0
Nu 2 9c th ta c
3 + 4c 11c
2
18c
3
+ (9c 2)x 3 + 4c 11c
2
18c
3
+
1
4
(9c 2)
=
1
4
(10 + 25c 44c
2
72c
3
)

1
4
(10 + 3c 72c
3
)
_
do
1
2
> c
_
=
1
4
c
3
_
10
c
3
+
3
c
2
72
_

1
4
c
3
_
10
(1=2)
3
+
3
(1=2)
2
72
_
= 5c
3
0
Vy nn f
00
(x) 0; suy ra f
0
(x) ng bin, do
f
0
(x) f
0
_
1
4
_
=
(2c 1)(40c
3
+ 388c
2
+ 414c + 91)
(2c + 1)
4
0
V Quc B Cn ~~~ Phm Th Hng
The love makes us stronger 7
Suy ra f(x) nghch bin nn
f(x) f
_
1
4
_
=
2c(c + 2)(2c 1)
2
(2c + 1)
2
0:
Bt ng thc c chng minh xong. ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a = b = c hoc a = b; c = 0 hoc cc
hon v tng ng.
Cui cng l mt s bi tp t luyn, xin c dnh cho cc bn
Bi ton 1 Cho cc s dng a; b; c: Chng minh rng
ab
a
2
+ b
2
+ 3c
2
+
bc
b
2
+ c
2
+ 3a
2
+
ca
c
2
+ a
2
+ 3b
2

3
5
:
(Phm Kim Hng)
CH . Bi ny c ng thc xy ra ti a = b = c v a = b =
3
2
c nn khc vi cc v d trn. Vy th ta phi
lm th no p dng k thut ny? Cc bn hy th suy ngh xem nh!
Bi ton 2 Cho cc s khng m a; b; c; khng c 2 s no ng thi bng 0: Chng minh rng
b + c
a
2
+ bc
+
c + a
b
2
+ ca
+
a + b
c
2
+ ab

6
a + b + c
:
(Vasile Cirtoaje)
Xin cm n cc bn theo di bi vit ny!
V Quc B Cn ~~~ Phm Th Hng

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