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T because giving me an opportunity to finish my assignment and help me to succeed the task that have been given to me .Then, I would like to thank to our lecturer Encik. Asran Bin Md.Amin because he gives me the task and tells us what to do in orders to finish the task. I also would like to thank to my fellow friends because give me support and information in order to find the resource that is useful to my assignment. Also to the person who also involve behind me to finish up the assignment according to time that has been given. In this assignment I know that the type of plant reproductive,as we know the plant is an organisms that is live and produce it’s young in order to continue its heredity.Plant like bamboo plant,flower like water lily,onion,ginger and anything called plant are producing it’s young by many way. The plant are undergo two different type of reproduction,is either by sexual reproduction or asexual reproduction.Sexual reproduction are happen in certain plant using male and female dormant.And asexual reproduction are also happen among the certain type of plant for example producing spores and vegetative reproduction. As a conclusion I would like to thank to everyone and anyone who help me to finish my assignment. Last but not least, I hope I can do better when doing another assignment
SCHEDULE OF COURSEWORK WEEK ACTIVITIES ACTIONS PROBLEMS
-Receive the assignment. -Make a plan to find the article. -Confirm the chosen
-Understand and analysis the question. -Make a assignment draft format -Collect and explore suitable books and journals. -Task given are hard to predict. -The sources cannot be accept and many error on the data collect -A lot of information are out of topic. -
article -Seek for the data at library. -Find as many sources from internet and books
-Surf the internet for additional sources and data. -Continue work to cease the coursework.
-Pick the right information. -make our own sentence in order to make a good report -
8 September 2009
-Dead line for submit the assignment.
Sexual Reproduction In Plant Flower is the center of the reproduction in plant .Flower attracts insect, birds and other animal. Look at the flower diagram, Figure 1.0 below, it show the basic part of the flower. Each part play important role in order to work. Example flower that have almost similar part is, buttercup and daffodil.
Figure 1.0 Part And Function Part of Flower Sepal Discription • each parts of the calyx of the flower • Petal Filament (Part of Stamen) Anther (Part of Stamen) • • • • • • Stigma Style Ovary • • • • • Pistil
usually green,protect the flower bus and support the petal each parts of the corolla of a flower provide colour and scent to attract insect male reproductive organ of a flower support the anther part of the stamen that produces the pollen when flower is matured, anther bursts releasing yellow powdery pollen part of the pistil that receives the pollen central part of the pistil stalk connecting stigma to ovary lower part of the pistil which produces eggs contain one or more ovules and eventually become the fruits the set of female parts of a flower. ( Stigma, Style, Ovary )
The Pollinating flowering Cycle
Bulb Type of Plant Reproduction
The paramecium undergo binnary fission
Buding of hydra
Pollination Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred in plants, thereby cause fertilisation and sexual reproduction. The pollen grains, which contain the male gametes (sperm) attached to the female gamete(s) that are contained in the carpel; in gymnosperms the pollen is directly applied to the ovule itself. Pollination is a important process in the reproduction of flowering plants, resulting in the production of offspring that are genetically diverse. Type of pollination
Abiotic pollination (Self Pollination) Pollination is mediated without the involvement of other organisms.Transfer of pollen from any stigma on the same plant (not necessarily the same flower).Result in fewer varieties of offspring than cross-pollination.
Self pollination occurs when pollen falls onto its own stigma.As the pollen fall to the stigma, the fertilization occur. Cross Pollination Transfer of pollen of one plant to the stigmas of another plant of the same species.Thus rose pollen landing on an apple stigma will not germinate there.Result in a great variety of offspring.Since variety assist survival,many plants have means of improving the chances of cross-pollination
Biotic pollination Requires pollinators (Pollinating Agent): organisms that carry or move the pollen grains from the anther to the receptive part of the carpel or pistil. Pollinating Agent Insect Type of Pollination Insect Pollination Discription and Example(Picture) A bee is attracted to a flower from color, aroma, or sweet nectars. As the bee sucks up the nectar, pollen from the anther(s) gets stuck on to the bee’s body/fur.
When the bee moves on to the next flower, some pollen that was stuck to the bee from previous flowers falls off and onto the stigma of the new flower.Other insect pollinating agent such as the Wind Wind Pollination butterfly, beetle, wasp and flies. When wind blows, pollen is picked up with the wind and can be carried to other flowers. Pines produce great amounts of pollen and often use this method.Example plant like lalang,
Occurs mainly with plants growing on water. Pollen uses water as medium for transportation.
Animal carry the pollen or seed to other place and it germinate.Pollinating happen when the animal move to another plant of flower.Below show the humming bird that suck the honey that produced by the flower.
Adaptation of fruit/seed dispersal Comparison of flower adapted for wind or insect pollination 1 Petal Wind pollination Not attractive:usually green,unscented; no nectar Small:leaving stamen and carpels exposed Insect pollination Attractive: coloured,scented,often with nectarines Large:protect stamen and carpels inside
Wind pollination Long filaments and large mobile anthers exposed to wind
Insect pollination Stiff filament and anther obstruct visiting insects
Large quantities(enormous chances against it all reaching stigmas).Small, dry light (easily wind-borne)
Small quantity (more certain “delivery service” )Rougher, sometimes sticky (to catch on insect “hair”)
Large, exposed to wind (to catch passing pollen)
Small, unexposed, sticky wtih stiff style (to obstruct insects)
Plantain, grasses, hazel, oak
Buttercup, deadnettle, horsechestnut ,cherry
Plant seed or fruit adaptation Dispersal of seed (a) Avoid overcrowding (more likely it is the same as the asexual reproduction for example runner).Therefore, seed do not have to compete to germinate, for light, water andmineral salts. (b) Helps colonization of new areas Example of plant Lupin, wallflower , rubber seed Picture
Way of the dispersal Splitting
The rubber seed disperse in form of explosion . Wind Dandelion, Sycamore
The dandelion act like a ‘Parachute” that carry seed when it flied.
The wing shape seed cause the seed to flied from the primary tree. Catching on fur Goose grass, Burdock
The burdock has as sticky hair that can attached the fur.
Being eaten (juicy fruit)
The strawberry and blackberries are the plant that has undigested seed. The seed will germinate as the seed is mixed with the faeces of the animal that eat them.
Different Between Sexual and Asexual reproduction Parent Asexual One Sexual Two(unless parent is hermaphrodite, i.e. both sexes in same individual, Method Mitosis from either:
e.g. flower) Zygotes grows but mitosis into new organisms
bodies, e.g. spores,tubers,or
(b) Replicates of adult
by outgrow e.g. Offspring runners Genetically identical to parent Not identical- half its genes are maternal (mother’s), half Advantages Maintains a good strain exactly paternal(father’s) Produce new varieties which, if “better” favour survival and in the long –
Species liable to be wiped out, e.g. by disease, if not resistant to it Only one arrival needed to colonize a new area Often more rapid than sexual methods Always increase population
term their evolution Excellent individual, e.g. prize milk cow, cannot give identical offspring Both sexes needed
Need not increase population (two parent may produce only one offspring, then die)
Very common among plant Almost all plant and and protists e.g. amoeba animal
Report Writing Living thing will not live forever. After certain period they will die. But in order to overcome this problem the animal and plant are reproduce them. They produce young or we call offspring. This is call reproduction. By this assignment I learned that the living thing can reproduce in two different ways that is by sexual reproduction and by asexual reproduction. We learned before this that human reproduced always sexual.This involve the union of mating of male and female. Almost all animal and some plant reproduced by sexually. But there is certain plant and animal that reproduced by asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction does not involve the union of male and female. It takes place when part of the parent is detached and allowed to grow separately. The plant is reproduced by the many type of reproduction. The plant reproduction is divided by the vegetative reproduction, budding, spores, identical twinning and binary fission.The plant reproduction has two stages that is pollination then fertilisation. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from stamen to the stigma.The flowering plant has both stamen and stigmas in the same flower.The single flower can pollinate itself that we call as the self pollinating.While the two same plant and type of flower that transfer each other pollen , then we can call this process is the cross pollinating.This process can only happen if both flower are the same type and species.That why the cross poolinated plant have the additional characteristic. The pollen of the flower can be transferred by many forms.It is transferred by the pollinating agent such wind, water, animal and insect. There is a different characteristic between the wind and insect or animal pollinating agent. Like the wind pollinating flower the flower petal is not attractive: usually green, unscented and no nectar is produced by the flower.Beside the size of the flower is small: leaving stamen and carpel exposed.Then the stamen has a long filaments and large mobile anthers exposed to wind. On the other hand the pollen are large quantities
(enormous chances against it all reaching stigmas) the size of the pollen is small, dry light (easily wind-borne).The stigmas is large, as it is exposed to wind (to catch passing pollen).Example plant like plantain, hazel and oak. While that, the insect pollinating agent flower has its own characteristic. It has attractive characteristic: coloured,scented,often with nectarines, the petal size large:protect stamen and carpels inside .Then, the stamen has stiff filament and anther obstruct visiting insects. The pollen number is small in quantity (more certain “delivery service”), the texture is rougher, sometimes sticky (to catch on insect “hair”). The size of the stigmas is small, it also unexposed, sticky with stiff style (to obstruct insects).Example of flower are Buttercup, deadnettle, horse-chestnut, cherry. By using the wind the pollen can be transferred, like the flowering the dandelion and sycamore. As we can see both of this flowering plant has a unique characteristic. Their seed are very light and has a wing to being filed by the wind. By the water pollinating agent the plant such as the coconut and water lily that float on water.As they moved by the water the pollen and the young can be transferred. There is also plant that used the insect as their pollinating agent.The insect like bee,that collecting nectar from other flower to other flower.When the bee is collecting nectar, the fur that on the bee abdomen are attached with pollen of the flower.As the bee moves from flower to other flower the pollen that attached at the body of the bee will stick to the stigma of other flower.Therefore the pollinating takes place.Other insects like butterfly, wasp, flies and beetle. The animal also become one of the pollinating agent, humming bird they are attract to the flowering plant to obtain its nectar the beak of the humming bird will be stick with the pollen.Then, when the bird went to another flower it will cause the pollen that stick with it to placed at the stigma of the flower. As the plant produce seed and fruit to dispersal, in other to reproduced.It also disperse in order to avoid overcrowding in the colony. There is also special adaptation that is have by the seed.First,by the splitting method, the seed is spread out as the fruit split, example like the wallflower. The dandelion and sycamore is example of seed used wind to disperse.The dandelion has “Parachute” of hairs that catches wind .Then it will fly carry fruit that
containing seed. The sycamore fruit has wing that delay descent.When the wind hit the fruit it will filed in the way “ Helicopter rotor” decent. Like the goose grass and burdock the fruit using their characteristic to catching fur. As human or animal been struck by them the fruit will stick and drop when they are not attached to germinate. The rough and sticky fruit make the goose grass and burdock to easily attach to the fur. Last but not least there is also a plant that used to being eaten by the animal in order to disperse. The blackberry fruit has a special characteristic. The blackberries fruit contain a seed that is coated with a stone. When an animal eat the fruit it will swallow the seed, then after the animal produce faeces the seed is mix with the faeces. The seed will germinate; the stone that coated the seed protect the seed during the digestion that happened in that animal. The strawberry also adapts that special characteristic in order to disperse their seed. The strawberry fruit contain it seed in the surface of the true fruit. Then the seed also will overcome the process like the blackberries. The reproduction are divided to two types that is sexual and asexual reproduction,both have the different stages and way to process.The sexual required both parent gamete, while the asexual only have one parent.Both undergo mitosis but for the asexual only undergo mitosis to repair the body and produce adult,but for sexual, mitosis happen to zygote producing new organisms. The young for asexual are genetically same as their parent but, the sexual they offspring have a different genetically characteristic from their parent. The advantage for asexual is, they can maintain the physically strain young and for sexual they produce varieties of product (young) that is “better”.But there is a disadvantages both of this type of reproduction, for the asexual the young cannot stand the disease of the parent, if one infected the other will die at the same way.For sexual, the young that is produce cannot reproduced by having the same identical.The asexual can produce in a large number but not to the sexual reproduction.The asexual process always occur in certain plant and protists,While the sexual reproduction almost happen among plant and animal.
REFLECTION Thank to The Almighty Allah S.W.T as I can finish my biology assignment on time finally. Our lecturer gave us this task early in July and have to finish it for one month from Tuan Haji Asran Bin Md. Amin , actually we need to hand in the assignment on 8 September 2009. We admitted that at first, we felt so blur and a little bit nervous because we do not know how and what to do in doing this project. Along the way, in doing this project, I gained a lot of knowledge about the plant reproduction, occurred along the time we attempt to finish this task. So on when I tried to find choose suitable material and source for my assignment. Besides, I also do not understand what to do at the beginning of the project. After I search the information from internet, and do some discussion with my friends and with my lecture. I could understand and imagine what I should do actually to complete the task given. If there is, any improvement that I want to make is about the experiment, I think it is clearer if we applied the problem in form of experiment. So on with the theory, it is a thing that we can see and understand more clearly. See the pollination that takes place in the flower; we can see it follow such a very complex From all above, honestly I feel happy and enjoy doing this task because it relates with our life. I learn that the new finding are very meaningful and has own advantages and disadvantages. As we can see not just human being that are reproduce but animal and so on to the plant. In order to continue the heredity and population the all living things are reproduce. It is a basic process of life. If we only know our life is filled with difference and something that are actually related to our life, of course it is science. By all of these words, I prefer to say thank you to all of the member and colleague who support me. Last but not least, for the greatest Inventor Allah S.W.T...
Resourse from book and handout Adam Johnstone,Biology Fact and Practical For A Level,2000,Oxford Pub. Graham Hill,GCSE Science,2000,BPP Letts Educational Jean Martin,Core Biology,1999,Cambridge Pub Plant Reproduction Volume 1 of The Life of Plants, Richard Spilsbury,2008HEINEMANN LIB Mary Jones And Geoff Jones,Advanced Biology,2000,Cambridge Pub. Lee Ching,Pre- u Text STPM Biology Volume 2,2008,Pearson Longman Malaysia. The Resourse from the Internet "pollination." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 13 Aug. 2009 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/467948/pollination>. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Plant_reproduction http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flowering_plant http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollination http://www.answers.com/topic/what-are-effective-and-efficient-types-ofpollination http://www.essortment.com/all/seedsplantsr_rmjc.htm www.essortment.com/all/seedsplantsr_rmjc.htm www.biology4kids.com/files/plants_reproduction.html www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/vtc/plant_repro/eng/Introduction/ www.virginiasol.com/test/flower.htm
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