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YesI, you, society, organization, state, nation and world need development. Not simply development but a Sustainable development and sustainable development benefits social, economic, technological, and environmental benefits. Power (electricity and !eat plays a ma"or role for development# it can accept all of us without any drought in our mind. $o produce chef electricity, lower emissions to the environment, in particular of %&', the main greenhouse gas, better cycle efficiency, improved local and general security of supply, electricity demand and supply and to increase employment we need better technology for generation of electricity. (es %ogeneration, %ombined !eat and Power (%!P can fulfill it for long way.
What Is Cogeneration,

%ogeneration or %!P (combined heat and power is the simultaneous production of electricity and heat using a single fuel such as bagasse, natural gas, coal, waste gas, biomass, li)uid fuels and renewable gases. $he heat produced from the electricity generating process (for e*ample from the e*haust systems of a gas turbine is captured and utilised to produce high and low level steam. $he steam can be used as a heat source for both industrial and domestic purposes and can be used in steam turbines to generate additional electricity (combined cycle power . %ogeneration for on+site power and heat is well established overseas, especially in Scandinavian countries. Its use is gradually increasing in ,ustralia, although optimistic forecasts
of rapid implementation and growth in the last couple of years have yet to be realized.

The Benefits of Cogeneration Provided the cogeneration is optimized in the way described above (i.e. sized according to the heat demand , the following benefits can be obtained Increased efficiency of energy conversion and use .ower emissions to the environment, in particular of %&', the main greenhouse gas In some cases, biomass fuels and some waste materials such as refinery gases, process or agricultural waste (either anaerobically digested or gasified , are used. $hese substances which serve as fuels for cogeneration schemes, increases the cost+effectiveness and reduces the need for waste disposal .arge cost savings, providing additional competitiveness for industrial and commercial users while offering affordable heat for domestic users also ,n opportunity to move towards more decentralized forms of electricity generation, where plants are designed to meet the needs of local consumers, providing high efficiency, avoiding transmission losses and increasing fle*ibility in system use. $his will particularly be the case if natural gas is the energy carrier ,n opportunity to increase the diversity of generation plant, and provide competition ingeneration. %ogeneration provides one of the most important vehicles for promoting liberalization in energy mar/ets. Principle of Cogeneration,Combined heat and power (CHP ! $he principle behind cogeneration is simple. %onventional power generation, on average, is only 012 efficient 3 up to 412 of the energy potential is released as waste heat. 5ore recent combined cycle generation can improve this to 112, e*cluding losses for the transmission and

distribution of electricity. %ogeneration reduces this loss by using the heat for industry, commerce and home heating6cooling. In conventional electricity generation, further losses of around 1+782 are associated with the transmission and distribution of electricity from relatively remote power stations via the electricity grid. $hese losses are greatest when electricity is delivered to the smallest consumers. $hrough the utilisation of the heat, the efficiency of cogeneration plant can reach 982 or more. In addition, the electricity generated by the cogeneration plant is normally used locally, and then transmission and distribution losses will be negligible. %ogeneration therefore offers energy savings ranging between 71+:82 when compared against the supply of electricity and heat from conventional power stations and boilers. ;ecause transporting electricity over long distances is easier and cheaper than transporting heat, cogeneration installations are usually sited as near as possible to the place where the heat is consumed and, ideally, are built to a size to meet the heat demand. &therwise an additional boiler will be necessary, and the environmental advantages will be partly hindered. $his is the central and most fundamental principle cogeneration. <hen less electricity is generated than needed, it will be necessary to buy e*tra. !owever, when the scheme is sized according to the heat demand, normally more electricity than needed is generated. $he surplus electricity can be sold to the grid or supplied to another customer via the distribution system (wheeling . %ogeneration plant consists of four basic elements7. , prime mover. '. ,n electricity generator. 0. , heat recovery system. :. , control system.

Technologies in Cogeneration, Combined

Separate heat and power (S!P refers to the widespread practice of centrally generating electricity at large+scale power plants and separately generating useful heat onsite for applications such as industrial processes or space and water heating. S!P leads to energy losses in both processes. In the =nited States, conventional coal and natural gas power plants are, on average, 00 and :7 percent efficient, respectively, in converting the energy in their fuel into electricity# although, the efficiency rates vary by technology with new natural gas combined cycle plants capable of greater than 18 percent efficiency.: $ypical S!P has a combined efficiency of about :1 percent while cogeneration systems that combine the power and heat generation processes can be up to >8 percent efficient.1 ;ecause cogeneration ta/es place on+site or close to the facility it also results in less energy lost during the transmission and distribution process (usually about 9 percent of net electricity generation

?ig.7 Separate !eat and Power

?ig.' %ogeneration %ombined !eat and Power.

%ogeneration systems can be powered by a variety of fuels, including natural gas, coal, oil, and alternative fuels such as biomass. In recent years, natural gas has been the predominant fuel for %!P systems, but biomass and opportunity fuels (i.e., wastes or by+products from industrial processes, agriculture, or commercial activities are e*pected to gain a larger share with growing environmental and energy security concerns.@,> Some cogeneration technologies can operate with multiple fuel types, ma/ing the system less vulnerable to fuel availability and volatile commodity prices. %ogeneration is appropriate in situations where a facility has a continuous demand for heating or cooling as well as demand for electrical or mechanical power. %ogeneration systems can provide electricity or mechanical power (e.g., for driving rotating e)uipment li/e compressors, pumps, and fans and heat energy that can be used for- steam or hot water# process heating, cooling and refrigeration# and dehumidification. Classification "f #as Turbine $here are two types of cogenerationABtopping cycle and Bbottoming cycle. $he most common type of cogeneration is the Btopping cycle where fuel is first used to generate electricity or mechanical energy at the facility and a portion of the waste heat from power generation is then used to provide useful thermal energy. $he less common Bbottoming cycle type of cogeneration systems first produce useful heat for a manufacturing process via fuel combustion or another heat+generating chemical reaction and recover some portion of the e*haust heat to generate electricity. B;ottoming+cycle %!P applications are most common in process industries, such as glass and steel, that use very high temperature furnaces that would otherwise vent waste heat to the environment. $he following description of cogeneration systems focus on Btopping cycle applications.

$our t%pes of topping c%cle cogeneration s%stems

&!Combined'c%cle topping s%stem

, gas turbine or diesel engine producing electrical or mechanical power followed by a heat recovery boiler to createsteam to drive a secondarysteam turbine

(!)team'turbine topping s%stem

$he second type of system burns fuel (any type to produce high+pressure steam that then passes through a steam turbine to produce power with the e*haust provides low+pressure process steam.
*!Heat reco+er% topping s%stem

$his type employs heat recovery from an engine e*haust and6or "ac/et cooling system flowing to a heat recovery boiler, where it is converted to process steam 6 hotwater for further use.

,!#as turbine topping s%stem

, natural gas turbine drives a generator. $he e*haust gas goes to a heat recovery boiler that ma/es process steam and process heat. Bottoming c%cle In a bottoming cycle, the primary fuel produces high temperature thermal energy and the heat re"ected from the process is used to generate power through a recovery boiler and a turbine generator. ;ottoming cycles are suitable for manufacturing processes that re)uire heat at high temperature in furnaces and /ilns, and re"ect heat at significantly high temperatures. $ypical areas of application include cement, steel, ceramic, gas and petrochemical industries.

;ottoming cycle plants are much less common than topping cycle plants. ?igure 9 illustrates the bottoming cycle where fuel is burnt in a furnace to produce synthetic rutile. $he waste gases coming out of the furnace is utilized in a boiler to generate steam, which drives the turbine to produce electricity.

Cach cogeneration system is adapted to meet the needs of an individual building or facility. System design is modified based on the location, size, and energy re)uirements of the site. %ogeneration is not limited to any specific type of facility but is generally used in operations with sustained heating re)uirements. 5ost %!P systems are designed to meet the heat demand of the energy user since this leads to the most efficient systems. .arger facilities generally use customized systems, while smaller+scale applications can use prepac/aged units. %ogeneration systems are categorized according to their prime movers (the heat engines , though the systems also include generators, heat recovery, and electrical interconnection components. $he prime mover consumes (via combustion, e*cept in the case of fuel cells discussed below fuel (such as coal, natural gas, or biomass to power a generator to produce electricity, or to drive rotating e)uipment. Prime movers also produce thermal energy that can be captured and used for other on+site processes such as generating steam or hot water, heating air for drying, or chilling water for cooling. $here are currently five primary, commercially available prime movers- gas turbines, steam turbines, reciprocating engines, microturbines, and fuel cells. Steam turbines and gas, or combustion, turbines are the prime movers (heat engines best suited for industrial processes due to their large capacity and ability to produce the medium+ to high+ temperature steam typically needed in industrial processes.

#as Turbine Heat -eco+er% Boiler Technolog%!

Das turbine systems operate on the thermodynamic cycle /nown as the ;rayton cycle. In a ;rayton cycle, atmospheric air is compressed, heated, and then e*panded, with the e*cess of power produced by the turbine or e*pander over that consumed by the compressor used for power generation. Das turbine cogeneration systems can produce all or a part of the energy re)uirement of the site, and the energy released at high temperature in the e*haust stac/ can be recovered for various heating and cooling

applications (see ?igure . $hough natural gas is most commonly used, other fuels such as light fuel oil or diesel can also be employed.

Das $urbine !eat Eecovery ;oiler $echnology

$he typical range of gas turbines varies from a fraction of a 5< to around 788 5<. Das turbine cogeneration has probably e*perienced the most rapid development in recent years due to the greater availability of natural gas, rapid progress in the technology, significant reduction in installation costs, and better environmental performance. ?urthermore, the gestation period for developing a pro"ect is shorter and the e)uipment can be delivered in a modular manner. Das turbines have a short start+up time and provide the fle*ibility of intermittent operation. $hough they have a low heat to power conversion efficiency, more heat can be recovered at higher temperatures. If the heat output is less than that re)uired by the user, it is possible to have supplementary natural gas firing by mi*ing additional fuel to the o*ygen+rich e*haust gas to boost the thermal output more efficiently.

"pen'c%cle gas turbine cogeneration s%stems 5ost of the currently available gas turbine systems, in any sector of applications, operate on the open ;rayton (also called Foule cycle when irreversibilityGs are ignored cycle where a compressor ta/es in air from the atmosphere and derives it at increased pressure to the combustor. $he air temperature is also increased due to compression. &lder and smaller unit separate at a pressure ratio in the range of 71-7, while the newer and larger units operate at pressure ratios approaching 08-7.

$he air is delivered through a diffuser to a constant+pressure combustion chamber, where fuel is in"ected and burned. $he diffuser reduces the air velocity to values acceptable in the combustor. $here is a pressure drop across the combustor in the range of 7.'2. %ombustion ta/es place with high e*cess air. $he e*haust gases e*it the combustor at high temperature and with o*ygen concentrations of up to 71+ 742. $he highest temperature of the cycle appears at this point# the higher this temperature is, the higher the cycle efficiency is. $he upper limit is placed by the temperature the materials of the gas turbine can withstand, as well as by the efficiency of the cooling blades. <ith current technology this is about

$he high pressure and temperature e*haust gases enter the gas turbine producing mechanical wor/ to drive the compressor and the load (e.g. electric generator . $he e*haust gases leave the turbine at a considerable temperature (:18+488H% , which ma/es high+temperature heat recovery ideal. $his is affected by a heat recovery boiler of single+pressure or double pressure, for more efficient recovery of heat. $he steam produced can have high pressure and temperature, which ma/es it appropriate not only for thermal processes but also for driving a steam turbine thus producing additional power. Closed'c%cle gas turbine cogeneration s%stems In the closed+cycle system, the wor/ing fluid (usually helium or air circulates in a closed circuit. It is heated in a heat e*changer before entering the turbine, and it is cooled down after the e*it of the turbine releasing useful heat. $hus, the wor/ing fluid remains clean and it does not cause corrosion or erosion. Source of heat can be the e*ternal combustion of any fuel. ,lso, nuclear energy or solar energy can be used.

Process .lternates
&!Bac/pressure Technolog%: $he first type of technology in cogeneration available was the ;ac/pressure, where combined heat and power (%!P is generated in a steam turbine. $he ?ig. 0 shows the process flow of bac/pressure type cogeneration (%!P .

(!01traction Condensing Technolog%: $he second type of technology in cogeneration available was the C*traction %ondensing. , condensing power plant is generating only electricity whereas in an e*traction condensing power plant some part of the steam is e*tracted from the turbine to generate also heat. $he ?ig shows the process flow of C*traction %ondensing type cogeneration (%!P .

C*traction %ondensing $echnology. *!Combined C%cle Technolog%: $he forth type of technology in cogeneration available was %ombined cycle. , combined cycle power plant consists of one or more gas turbines connected to one or more steam turbines. $he ?ig. 4 shows the process flow of %ombined %ycle cogeneration (%!P .

%ombined %ycle $echnology. 4.Reciprocating Engine Technology: The fifth type of technology in cogeneration available was Reciprocating Engine. Instead of a gas turbine, a reciprocating engine, such as a diesel engine, can be

combined with a heat recovery boiler, which in some applications supplies steam to a steam turbine to generate both electricity and heat. In a reciprocating engine power plant heat can be recovered from lubrication oil and engine cooling water as well as from exhaust gases.

Eeciprocating Cngine $echnology. ,bove technologies are readily available, mature, and reliable. $hree other technologies have recently appeared on the mar/et, or are li/ely to be commercialized within the ne*t few years2!3icro'turbines: $his new type cogeneration technology to be commercialised. 5icro+turbines are smaller are smaller than conventional reciprocating engines, and capital and maintenance costs are lower. $here are environmental advantages, including low N&* emissions of 78+'1 ppm (8' 3 712 e)uivalent or lower. 5icro+turbines can be used as a distributed generation resource for power producers and consumers, including industrial, commercial and, in the future, even residential users of electricity. Significant opportunities e*ist in five /ey applications$raditional cogeneration, Deneration using waste and bio+fuels, ;ac/up power, Eemote Power for those with I;lac/ StartJ capability, Pea/ Shaving. 4!$uel cells: ?uel cells convert the chemical energy of hydrogen and o*ygen directly into electricity without combustion and mechanical wor/ such as in turbines or engines. In fuel cells, the fuel and o*idant (air are continuously fed to the cell. ,ll fuel cells are based on the o*idation of hydrogen. $he hydrogen used as fuel can be derived from a variety of sources, including natural gas, propane, coal and renewable such as biomass, or, through electrolysis, wind and solar energy. , typical single cell delivers up to 7 volt. In order to get sufficient power# a fuel cell stac/ is made of several single cells connected in series.

Cven if fuelled with natural gas as a source of hydrogen, the emissions are negligible- 8.8:1 ppm N&*, ' ppm %&, : ppm !%.

A number of different types of fuel cells are being developed. The characteristics of each type are very different: operating temperature, available heat, tolerance to thermal cycling, power density, tolerance to fuel impurities etc. They are also in very different stage of development and some of them have not emerged from the laboratory. ome are approaching commercial brea!through. This will be covered by other briefings from "#$E% Europe. 5!)tirling engines!

$he Stirling engine is an e*ternal combustion device and therefore differs substantially from conventional combustion plant where the fuel burns inside the machine. !eat is supplied to the Stirling engine by an e*ternal source, such as burning gas, and this ma/es a wor/ing fluid, e.g. helium, e*pand and cause one of the two pistons to move inside a cylinder. $his is /nown as the wor/ing piston. , second piston, /nown as a displacer, then transfers the gas to a cool zone where it is recompressed by the wor/ing piston. $he displacer then transfers the compressed gas or air to the hot region and the cycle continues. $he Stirling engine has fewer moving parts than conventional engines, and no valves, tappets, fuel in"ectors or spar/ ignition systems. It is therefore )uieter than normal engines, a feature also resulting from the continuous, rather than pulsed, combustion of the fuel. $here are some low capacity Stirling engines in development or in the mar/et. $he electrical efficiency is still not very high and in the range of 782 (018 <e engine # 7'.12 (>88 <e engine up to '12 (0,888 <e engine , but it should be possible to design then with at least '12 electrical efficiency and total efficiency of 982.

Process 0fficienc%
Performance Terms 6 7efinitions

0nerg% 0fficienc% "pportunities in a #as Turbine Cogeneration )%stem Cnergy efficiency improvements can be made in the following sections of Steam $urbine %ogeneration Systems&! .ir Compressor: Please refer to the 5odule I%ompressors and %ompressed ,ir SystemJ (! #as Turbine: Das temperature and pressure- If the gas temperature and pressure conditions at the inlet to the gas turbine vary from the design optimum conditions, the turbine may not be able to operate at ma*imum efficiency. Kariations in gas conditions can be due to errors in plant design (including sizing or incorrect plant operation. Part load operation and starting L stopping- $he efficiencies of the generating unit at part loads can be maintained close to the design values by paying due attention to all the above items. !owever, mar/et decisions to operate the generating unit at certain loads for certain periods will have the ma"or influence on its average thermal efficiency. Similarly, mar/et decision on when the plant is to come on and off line also has a bearing on average thermal efficiency because of energy losses while starting or stopping the system. $he temperature of the hot gas leaving the combustors. Increased temperature generally results in increased power output# $he temperature of the e*haust gas. Eeduced temperature generally results in increased power output# $he mass flow through the gas turbine. In general, higher mass flows result in higher power output# $he drop in pressure across the e*haust gas silencers, ducts and stac/. , decrease in pressure loss increases power output# Increasing the pressure of the air entering or leaving the compressor. ,n increase in pressure increases power output. *! Heat -eco+er% )team #enerator: Please refer to the 5odule I<aste !eat EecoveryJ

"PTI"8) T" I8C-0.)0 0$$ICI08CY

$his section includes the most important energy efficiency options for cogeneration =sing the e*haust gas to heat the air from the compressor (mainly used in cold weather conditions # Mivide the compressor into two parts and cool the air between the two parts# Mivide the turbine into two parts and reheat the gas between the two parts by passing the gas through additional burners and combustors located between the two parts# %ooling the inlet air. $his is mainly used in hot weather conditions# Eeducing the humidity of the inlet air# Increasing the pressure of the air at the discharge of the air compressor# In"ect steam or water into the combustors or turbine# <ash or otherwise clean the fouling from the blades of the air compressor and turbine at regular intervals and %ombinations of the above methods.

Techno'economic ad+antages of cogeneration technolog%

?ollowing techno+economical advantages are derived by ma/ing application of cogeneration technology to meet the energy re)uirements of the industries. ?irst and foremost is the cogeneration technologyGs conformance to vital and widely discussed concept of energy conservation due to highly efficient use of fuel energy through system optimisation studies prior to pro"ect e*ecution. <ith relatively lower capital cost and low operating cost, due to high overall plant efficiency, the cost of power and steam becomes economically )uite attractive for the industry. Eecurring costs are also lesser. Industrial cogeneration plants supplement the efforts of the state electricity boards to bridge the ever+widening gap between supply and demand of power by very efficient power generation in+house. ,s electricity from a cogeneration system is generally not re)uired to be transferred over a long distances, the transmission and distribution losses would be negligible. Eeliability of cogeneration systems is very high, which also reduces dependency of industries on the state electricity board grids for power re)uirements to bear minimum. $his would save the plant from une*pected disturbances of power system. Impact on environmental pollution from cogeneration system is low in comparison to large size power plants due to less consumption of fuel and efficient operation. If cogeneration systems are implemented in sugar mills or rice mills, totally renewable source of energy or waste fuel such as bagasse or rice hus/ can be used to fire the boiler to generate steam. $his steam can be used to drive the steam turbine. $his would save the precious national fossil fuel resources.
Mepending on type of process or engineering industry, its re)uirement of power and steam, their essentiality, etc., an appropriate cogeneration system can be easily selected by considering all the factors described below.

&ut of all the variants, cogeneration systems based on combined cycle configurations with cogeneration of power and heat permit the optimal utilisation of fuel energy in the true sense of Second .aw of $hermodynamics. ;esides highest fuel efficiency and by virtue of its low capital cost, the combined cycle based option has been found the most acceptable and economical solution. Steam turbine based cogeneration systems are of greater interest to the industries with moderately large and stable steam demand, and further where it is necessary to use fuels of lower )uality li/e coal, lignite, furnace oil, etc which can not be directly fired in gas turbines. $hough high ash bearing dirty fuels li/e residual fuel oil or furnace oil can be fired in gas turbines, but only to some limited e*tent due to inherent problems associated with it.

H)0 P0-$"-3.8C0
Secure, reliable and affordable energy supplies are fundamental to economic stability and development. $he worsening misalignment between energy demand and supplyAwith ma"or conse)uences on energy prices, the threat of disruptive climate change and the erosion of energy securityAall pose ma"or challenges for energy and environmental decision ma/ers. 5ore efficient use of primary energy sources can help to mitigate the impact of these negative trends. %o+generation represents a proven technology to achieve that goal. $he average global efficiency of fossil+fuelled power generation has remained stagnant for decades at 012 to 0@2. $echnologies already e*ist today to bring the generation fleet closer to :12 efficiency and the reasons why efficiencies have not edged closer to the :12 mar/ are not dealt with in this report. Doing significantly beyond :12, for a large part, does not reflect a lac/ of incentive to research and develop new technologies to e*tract energy stored in fossil fuels in more efficient ways. It has more to do with the intrinsic, theoretical constraints on the conversion of heat into electricity. Notwithstanding gains that could come from research efforts over time, power generation efficiency will plateau below the level of overall efficiency that the best co+generation plant can achieve. %o+generation allows @12 to >82 of fuel inputs, and up to 982 in the most efficient plants, to be converted to useful energy. $he two+thirds of input energy lost globally in traditional power generation (?igure ' represent significant missed opportunities for savings on both energy costs and %&' emissions. Implementing co+generation does not, in itself, increase the power supply for a given plant# rather it increases overall energy efficiency by supplying useful heat alongside useful electricity. ;y ma/ing more efficient use of fuel inputs, co+generation allows the same level of end+use energy demand to be met with fewer energy inputs. <hen these energy inputs are fossil+based, this leads not only to less reliance on these %& '+ generating fuels, but also preserves such e*haustible materials for applications where they can less easily be substituted. %o+generation is, thus, a low+carbon energy solution.

N Increased energy efficiency leads to less emissions N .ess contribution to acid rain phenomenon N Significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions N Climination of unwanted solid wastes

,mongst all the countries, ne*t to %hina, India has to sustain the largest population of over 948 million. It is unfortunate that the per capita electricity available for consumption in India is 071 Owh only, which is one of the lowest in the <orld. $herefore, until and unless electricity generation is increased @ to >2 annually, the re)uisite growth in the national economy at the annual rate @2 cannot be sustained. Clectricity generation in India has to depend primarily on coal since India has very low reserve of other fossil fuels and natural gas. $he Clectricity generation from other sources li/e !ydel and Nuclear resources has not made sizable contribution. $he Non+%onventional energy resources have also not been developed enough to ma/e any appreciable contribution. $herefore, serious effort has to be made to use well proven and reliable technology i.e. %ogeneration %ombined !eat and Power (%!P . $hus, in power sector, huge capital investments are re)uired to be made for their proper development. Since 7997, the Dovernment of India has ta/en steps to open up the Indian economy in order to attract private and foreign investments. $hough foreign investments have been flowing in, the pace has rather been slow since there are lots of procedural bottlenec/s which need to be streamlined by the Dovernment.