Frequency Planning

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Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents
1. Frequency Planning 2. Tight Frequency Reuse 3. Frequency Hopping

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Page2

Content of Frequency Planning
Frequency resource of GSM system Concept of frequency reuse Requirement for interference and carrier-to-interference ratio 4*3 frequency reuse

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Page3

Frequency Resource of GSM System

GSM 900 :

890

915

935

960

Duplex distance : 45 MHz

1710

1785

1805

1880

GSM 1800 :
Duplex distance : 95 MHz

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Page4

Frequency Band Configuration
GSM900:
BTS receiver (uplink ): f1 (n) =890.2+ (n-1)*0.2 MHz BTS transmitter (downlink ): f2 (n) =f1 (n) +45 MHz

GSM1800:
BTS receiver (uplink ): f1 (n) =1710.2 + (n-512) * 0.2 MHz BTS transmitter (downlink ): f2 (n) =f1 (n) +95 MHz

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Page5

Concept of Frequency Reuse

Macro-cell system

{fi,fj..fk}

d Micro-cell system
{fi,fj..fk} .. {fi,fj..fk} .. {fi,fj..fk}

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Page6

The Reason of Frequency Reuse
Frequency resource is limited. If there is 8MHz frequency resource, 8 MHz = 40 channels * 8 timeslots = 320
Max. 320 users can access the network at the same time.

If every frequency is reused N times
Max. 320*N uses can access the network at the same time.

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Page7

Requirement for Interference and Carrier-to-Interference Ratio
C/I =
Useful signal

All useful signals All useless signals

=

carrier interference

Noise from environment

Other signals

GSM standard: C / I >= 9 dB In practical projects: C / I >= 12dB
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Requirement for Interference and Carrier-to-Interference Ratio
C/I =
Useful signal

All useful signals All useless signals

=

carrier interference

Noise from environment

Other signals

GSM standard: C / I >= 9 dB In practical projects: C / I >= 12dB
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Reuse Density
Reuse density is the number of cells in a basic reuse cluster.
4*3:12 n*m:n*m n: BTS number in a basic reuse cluster m: Frequency group number in a BTS
Tighter reuse
0 12

Looser reuse
20

Higher frequency reuse efficiency, but interference is serious. More technique Is needed.

Little interference, but frequency reuse efficiency is low.

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Page10

4*3 Frequency Reuse
C1 C2 A1 A2 C3 D1 C1 C2 D2 A3 B1 A1 A2 B2 D3 C3 D1 D2 B3 A3 B1 C1 C2 C1 C2 B2 D3 A1 A2 A1 A2 B3 C1 C3 D1 C3 D1 C2 A3 D2 A3 D2 A1 A2 B1 B2 B1 B2 C3 D1 D3 C1 D3 D2 B3 C2 B3 A3 B1 A1 A2 B2 D3 C3 D1 D2 B3 A3 B1 B2 D3 B3

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Illustration of Frequency Allocation of 4*3 Frequency Reuse
A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 D2 A3 B3 C3 D3 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95

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Page12

Contents
1. Frequency Planning 2. Tight frequency Reuse 3. Frequency Hopping

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Page13

Tight Frequency Reuse Technology
Multi-layer reuse pattern Underlaid and overlaid cell 1*3 or 1*1

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Page14

Multi-layer Reuse Pattern

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Page15

Multi-layer Reuse Pattern
BCCH: n1 TCH1: n2 TCH2: n3 … TCHm-1: nm n1 ≥n2≥n3 ≥n4 ≥...... ≥ nm And n1+n2+...+nm=n

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Page16

Multi-layer Reuse Pattern Frequency Allocation
Suppose that the available frequency carrier is 10MHZ, channel number is 46~94, the Multi-layer reuse pattern should be:
RC Type BCCH TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 TCH4 TCH5 Allocated Frequencies 46~57 58~66 67~74 75~82 83~88 89~94 Number of Available Frequencies 12 9 8 8 6 6

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Page17

Multi-layer Reuse Pattern Frequency Allocation
{f1,f2,f3,f4,f5...f40}

{f1,f3,f5...f23}

{f2,f4..f22,f24...f40}

BCCH

TCH1

TCH2

TCH3

TCH4

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Page18

Advantages of Multi-layer Reuse Pattern
Capacity increase when reuse density is multiplied:
Supposing there are 300 cells Bandwidth: 8 MHz (40 frequency)

Normal 4*3 reuse: reuse density=12
Network capacity = 40/12 * 300 = 1000 TRX

Multiple reuse:
BCCH layer: re-use =14, (14 frq.) Normal TCH layer: re-use =10, (20 frq.) Aggressive TCH layer: re-use = 6, (6 frq.) Network capacity = (1 +2 +1)* 300 = 1200 TRX

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Page19

Advantages of Multi-layer Reuse Pattern
Capacity increases when reuse density is multiplied:
Supposing there are 300 cells Bandwidth: 8 MHz (40 frequency)

Normal 4*3 reuse: reuse density=12
Network capacity = 40/12 * 300 = 1000 TRX

Multiple reuse:
BCCH layer: re-use =14, (14 frq.) Normal TCH layer: re-use =10, (20 frq.) Aggressive TCH layer: re-use = 6, (6 frq.) Network capacity = (1 +2 +1)* 300 = 1200 TRX

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Page20

Underlaid/Overlaid Frequency Allocation

Overlaid-cell Underlaid-cell
The inner circle covers a smaller area, and the frequency can be reused more tightly.

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Page21

Overlaid/Underlaid Frequency Configuration

Super fn Regular fm

Super fn Regular fm

Super fn Regular fm

BCCH 15f

Regular 24f

Super 12f

BCCH Super TCH

TRX reuse density: 15 TRX reuse density: 6

Regular TCH TRX reuse density: 12

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Page22

1*3 or 1*1Reuse Patterns
1BCCH+12’TCH

BCCH14+TCH36: :
1*3 1BCCH+3TCH 1BCCH+12’TCH 1BCCH+12’TCH

1BCCH+36’TCH

1BCCH+3TCH

1BCCH+3TCH

1*1

4*3
1BCCH+36’TCH 1BCCH+36’TCH

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Page23

Illustration of 1*3 or 1*1 TCH Frequency Allocation
TRX1 TRX2 ... TRX7 TRX1 TRX2 ... TRX7

TRX8 TRX9... TRX14 TRX8 TRX9... TRX14 TRX15 TRX16...TRX21

TRX15 TRX16...TRX21

The red items are BCCH RCs

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Page24

Frequency Planning Principle
There should be no co-channel frequency carriers in one BTS. The frequency separation between BCCH and TCH in the same cell should be not less than 400K. When frequency hopping is not used, the separation of TCH in the same cell should be not less than 400K. In non-1*3 reuse mode, co-channel should be avoided between the immediately neighbor BTS. Neighbor BTS should not have co-channels facing each other directly. Normally, with 1*3 reuse, the number of the hopping frequencies should be not less than twice of the number of frequency hopping TRX in the same cell. Pay close attention to co-channel reuse, avoiding the situation that the same BCCH has the same BSIC in adjacent area.

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Page25

Example of Frequency Planning
. An example network in a specific place, BTS are densely

located. The topography is plain. The maximum BTS configuration is S3/3/2 Initial planning:

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Page26

Example of Frequency Planning
Final frequency planning:

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Page27

Example of 1*3 Frequency Reuse
Suppose 900 band: 96~124 BTS configuration: S3/3/3 BCCH layer: 96~109 reuse pattern: 4*3 TCH layer: 110~124 reuse pattern: 1*3

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Page28

TCH Consecutive Allocation Scheme

Group 1 (MA1): 110 111 112 Group 2 (MA2): 115 116 117 Group 3 (MA3): 120 121 122

113 118 123

114 119 124

Cell1 Cell2 Cell3

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Page29

TCH Interval Allocation Scheme
Group 1 (MA1): 110 Group 2 (MA2): 111 Group 3 (MA3): 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 Cell1 Cell2 Cell3

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Page30

Comparison Between Multi-layer Reuse and 1*3
For Multi-layer reuse pattern, either Base band hopping or RF hopping can be used. But for 1x3 reuse, only RF hopping can be used. The frequency planning for the 1x3 mode is simple and it is easy to plan the frequency for new added BTS. 1x3 mode requires a rather regular BTS location distribution. For the cells with fixed number of TRX, when the traffic is heavy, the 1x3 provides higher service quality than that of Multi-layer reuse pattern. TRX can be easily added to the 1x3 network, but TRX number of hopping should not exceed the product of the allocated hopping frequency number and the max RF load ratio. BCCH of Multi-layer reuse pattern can take part in the frequency hopping, while BCCH in 1x3 mode can not.

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Page31

Contents
1. Frequency Planning 2. Tight Frequency Reuse 3. Frequency Hopping

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Page32

Content of Frequency Hopping
Class of hopping Advantages of hopping Parameter of hopping Collocation of hopping data

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Page33

Frequency Hopping

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Page34

Advantages of Hopping
Get an agreeable radio environment.

Provide a similar communication quality for every user.

Tighter reuse patterns are possible to be used for larger capacity.

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Page35

Frequency Diversity of Hopping

Smoothen the rapid fading (Rayleigh fading)

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Page36

Interference Diversity of Hopping

Smoothen and average the interference
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Class of Hopping
Hopping can be implemented in two ways
Base-band hopping RF hopping

Class according to the min hopping time unit
Timeslot hopping Frame hopping

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Page38

Base Band Hopping Principle

FH bus

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Page39

RF Hopping Principle

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Page40

Class of Hopping
Frame hopping
Frequency changes every TDMA frame. The different channel of one TRX uses the same MAIO.

Timeslot hopping
Frequency changes every timeslot. The different channel of one TRX uses the different MAIO.

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Page41

Hopping Parameters
All the parameters which are related to hopping are configured in cell/configure Hopping data Hopping mode: the mode used by the BTS system, including three options: not hopping, base band hopping and RF hopping. MA (Mobile Allocation Set): the set of available RF bands when hopping, containing at most 64 frequency carriers. The frequency being used must be those of the available frequency

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Page42

Hopping Parameters
HSN:hopping sequence number(0~63) HSN=0:cycle hopping. HSN≠0:random hopping. Every sequence number corresponds a pseudo random sequence.

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Page43

Hopping Parameters
MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset): used to define the initial frequency of the hopping. Be careful to configure the MAIO of same timeslot in all channels, otherwise interference occurs. At the air interface, the frequency used on a specific burst is an element in MA set. MAI is used for indication, referring to a specific element in the MA set. MAI is the function of TDMA FN, HSN and MAIO.

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Page44

Thank you
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