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Recommendations for Physica • • • • P annin! and De"e o#ment
Development activity may initially be directed to a limited number of areas. Specialized themes to be selected for the development of the diverse tourism resources. All schemes need to be oriented towards sustainable development. An effective mechanism for community awareness, motivation, organisation and participation must be incorporated from the planning stages through to the implementation of new tourism developments. Institutions in the private sector require capacity building. Priorities in the management of tourism resources are conservation, preservation, restoration and improvement, enforcement of development controls in tourist areas, preparation and distribution of development guidelines, and de! centralization of functions to the local level
"f the #ourism Development Areas specified earlier, certain tourism clusters have been identified as having particular potential to be developed in the short term, which could have an immediate impact on tourist arrivals. $ecommendations for these areas include • • • • • • • • • • %ahawalpur develop desert safaris in the &holistan Desert and 'al Sohanra (ational Par) 'ahore offer a cultural trail Peshawar tours of the historical inner city Salt $ange offer discovery trips *ardan general development because it is on the main route to Swat, Dir and &hitral Swat +alley enforce restrictions on tourist movements, establish alternative destinations, and design and implement an urban development plan for ,alam and surrounding areas Shogran, (aran and %ala)ot comprehensive plan preparation -ilgit develop tourism facilities and infrastructure .unza physical development plan required S)ardu development of safe adventure tourism
#he development of these areas will need the coordinated efforts of government ministries such as the *inistry of &ulture, #ourism, /outh and *inority Affairs, the *inistry of 0nvironment and 1orestry, and the *inistry of Agriculture, along with support from the regional &onstruction and 2or)s Departments for infrastructure pro3ects. Pro3ect *anagement 4nits can coordinate the pro3ects with the support of local (-"s and community organizations. Recommendations for Po icy #ourism should be developed as a contributor to the national ob3ectives, such as the alleviation of poverty, the creation of employment, the increase of foreign e5change and foreign and domestic investment, and the preservation of Pa)istan6s cultural heritage and ecological environment. #he *aster Plan on #ourism 7888 includes over eighty strategic recommendations for the planned development of sustainable tourism in the short and medium term and 99 supporting policies have been suggested. #hese policies range from the broader emphasis on the need for necessary legislation to upgrade e5isting tourism acts or to initiate new laws, to more specific suggestions to withdraw constraints on photography and visa requirements for tourists. #he proposed policies cover five broad areas • • • • • 'egislation, *anagement, "rganization and 1acilitation Investment, 1unding, Infrastructure, #ransport, #a5 and &oncessions *ar)eting, Promotion and Product Development 0nvironment, &onservation and Planning .uman $esource Development and &ommunity Development
It is clear that the government is already cognizant of the importance of the involvement of the private sector in future policy direction. #here have been a number of recent seminars to achieve this ob3ective, with participation by the *inistry of #ourism, the Pa)istan #ourism Development &orporation, the 2orld #ourism "rganization, and the 4(DP. Recommendations for Mana!ement #ourism is a commercial sector and needs intensive promotional and mar)eting activities. A recent survey conducted by the 2orld #ourism "rganization on the changing role, structure and activities of (ational #ourism Associations and the involvement of governments in tourism
suggests that current global trends veer towards public!private sector partnership management. 2hile government must continue to ta)e responsibility for the underpinning policy, for providing the legal and regulatory framewor) and the basic physical infrastructure such as roads, airports, power, communications, water and sanitation, the private sector is increasingly playing a )ey role. #he organization and management of tourism in Pa)istan needs to be restructured and enhanced by strengthening the e5isting institutional framewor). #he *inistry is developing mechanisms of effective dialogue with private and public sector actors and this is indispensable for effective management and promotion of tourism. In many countries private public tourist board is the statutory body responsible for tourism and this could be considered in the long term for Pa)istan depending on the level of development of the industry.
Recommendations for Le!a Mechanisms If tourism is to be developed with long!term sustainability, its legal machinery must be reviewed, updated and implemented. "n one hand, the industry is overburdened with laws, which prohibit the facilitation of tourists, and on the other, the laws in the areas of product standards, training and facilitation either do not e5ist or are not enforced. #herefore, the e5isting three Acts relating to tourism need to be re!evaluated, updated and rewritten where necessary. Secondly, there is a need for the creation of a #ourism Protection, &onservation and Safety "rdinance6 which would prescribe the proper use of natural, cultural and heritage resources and the protection of the environment from pollution, damage or encroachment by individuals and organizations. 1or the #ourism 'aw to be implementable, there must be close coordination between policy ma)ers at the national level, implementers, regulatory bodies for environmental protection at national and provincial levels, private sector investors, (-"s, community elders, religious and tribal leaders, promoters, pressure groups, various agencies of local bodies and provincial governments. Recommendations for In"estment #he )ey recommendation for investment is to prepare a viable, appropriately funded mar)eting campaign: in other words, to invest in increasing the volume of visitors which would provide the base for improved occupancies, employment and business opportunities. Pro3ects that would have a potential appeal to international and local funding sources would be those where economic development can be allied with complementary accommodation and facilities development. #he proposed 05port Processing ;one and port e5pansion at -wadar is
an apt e5ample of this: the construction of road lin)s to the national highways and ,arachi has commenced, and once this access infrastructure is in place, a beach resort could be developed in the area. #he 2orld %an) is assisting a #rade and #ransport 1acilitation Pro3ect to improve the efficiency of Pa)istan6s transport systems, which would impact positively on tourism. #he I1& can sometimes play a coordinating role to establish a viable integrated pac)age with internal revenue lin)ages. Another area where the I1& might give consideration would be in the privatization of government tourist assets. Recommendations for $%ndin! #he Short and *edium #erm *ar)eting Strategy $eport prepared by the 4(DP<2#"<-"P for the Assistance on #ourism Development and *anagement Pro3ect 7888 estimates that the funding for increased promotional activities can be met by a redirection of current tourism budgets. #he budget required to fund the mar)eting programme in /ear "ne is less than = > of Pa)istan6s tourism revenue, and this is a reinvestment, which will bring further economic returns. Recommendations for Internationa Mar&etin! #he recommended strategy for the ne5t five years is one of consolidation and optimizing e5isting assets. As most hotels and tour operators are wor)ing much below capacity, the primary aim must be to raise occupancies before further e5pansion is considered. #o achieve the ob3ectives of increasing foreign visitors and developing domestic tourism in a sustainable way, a four!pronged approach is suggested • Sustained mar)et research for and monitoring of promotional activities, through an analysis of immigration < disembar)ation card statistics, foreign tour companies6 services and brochures, and consumer and travel trade surveys.
Planned product development, which includes the improvement of facilities and levels of training, and the development of effective tourism circuits. #argeted promotions in the core mar)ets which have been specified above. A positive image for Pa)istan as a tourist destination to be developed in embassies and PIA offices abroad. &o!operative promotions should be planned with neighbouring countries to benefit from long!haul mar)ets.
Planned approach to promotional material, with an adequate budget for targeted distribution of brochures, informational material and pro!active Internet websites.
Recommendations for Domestic To%rism Identify the unique culture, history and leisure amenities of each province, and encourage provincial e5changes. • • • Publicize local festivals and sporting events through the media and the #ourist Information &entres. Improve access, signage and facilities at tourist sites. Develop budget!priced accommodation and camping sites. Develop a specific mar)eting campaign: for e5ample, ?+isit Pa)istan6 e5hibitions with multi!media displays of the tourist sites and the local crafts and activities available. #his could be complemented with special offers for transport and accommodation. *ar)eting should incorporate raising awareness of the environment for which the celebration of the International /ear of *ountains and the International /ear 0cotourism in 7887 present a valuable opportunity.
Recommendations for '%man Reso%rce De"e o#ment .uman resource development in tourism and hotel management requires the following measures • • • • • 4pgrading the faculty of all tourism training institutes. Development of curricula, syllabi and resource materials for the institutes. 0nvironmental sensitization should be incorporated into courses and training. Providing equipment for the )itchens, ba)ery, restaurant, front office, house)eeping and computer laboratories of the PI#.*. Stoc)ing institute libraries with updated boo)s and audio!visual materials.
&ontributing to the creation of favourable wor)ing conditions, improving the image of the industry and launching awareness programmes for increasing women6s employment in the sector.
Recommendations for S%staina( e Ecoto%rism • Tourism Policy and Planning for Environmental Sustainability o #here is no other economic activity that cuts across so many sectors, levels and interests as tourism. #herefore, it is vital to integrate planning for nature, heritage and community!based tourism with national development and area management plans. An integrated programme of environmental planning, legislation and management is required, which would eliminate the fragmentation of responsibilities for environmental issues across different agencies. • Strategic Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation: o Strategic assessment of the environmental impact of proposed policy, plans, programmes or proposals at the earliest stage of decision!ma)ing is important. 2hen implementing the tourism strategy, evaluation and monitoring procedures must be in place. Performance indicators should not be restricted to quantifiable environmental change, such as the number of visitors or the quality of water, but should record aspects of social behavior, community management and institutional policy interventions. • Community Participation o #he involvement of local and user communities in the development of integrated resource management is essential to the success of any tourism development programme. #here are already a number of such pro3ects being underta)en in rural and urban communities by the 221, the Aga ,han 1oundation and the 2orld &onservation 4nion @I4&(A, as well as a number of smaller (-"s. #he communities need to be fully involved with developments from the initial stages of data collection to that of co!management. #hrough local organizations, pro3ects can be instigated at the grass roots level rather
than be government!led, and thus have a better chance of adoption by the community. • Environmental Education o #he environment should be infused into core sub3ects at all levels in schools, and teachers trained in the area. 2hile it is important to put this education in a global conte5t, materials specific to Pa)istan6s resources need to be developed, so that they address local issues in local languages. #he media is already drawing attention to environmental issues, and this can be integrated with dance, drama, and religious education. o It is important to promote wor)ing relationships between schools, government departments and environmental (-"s to produce teaching materials and learning programmes for urban and rural areas. #here is also considerable scope to develop environmental programmes for adult education through the Allama Iqbal "pen 4niversity and other universities. Structured wor)shops, group discussions, courses to promote craft development, and training to enhance understanding of rural conditions, waste disposal, resource use and other environmental impacts can all be utilised. *uch wor) is already being done by (-"s li)e 221, I4&(, the (ational $ural Support Programme @($SPA, and the Aga ,han $ural Support Programme @A,$SPA.
S#ecific Recommendations from the UNDP)*TO)+OP Assistance on To%rism Mana!ement and De"e o#ment Pro,ect -... • • • Implementation of the 'and 4se Planning and 0nvironmental *anagement Programme. A sewage treatment and solid waste management programme for the Swat valley. #he establishment of an 0nvironmental Protection Agency $egional "ffice in the (orthern Areas #he preparation of a #ourism Development Plan for the (orthern Areas. An integrated resource management and environmental enhancement plan for the .unza +alley.
#he promotion of a +isitor Awareness Programme for the priority tourism development areas of Peshawar, %ahawalpur, and .unza and Swat valleys.
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