Acorus calamus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acorus_calamus

Acorus calamus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Acorus calamus (also called Sweet Flag or Calamus, among many common names[1]) is a tall perennial wetland monocot of the Acoraceae family, in the genus Acorus. In spite of common names that include the words "rush" and "sedge," it is neither a rush or sedge.[2] The scented leaves and more strongly scented rhizomes have traditionally been used medicinally and to make fragrances, and the dried and powdered rhizome has been used as a substitute for ginger, cinnamon and nutmeg.[2][3]

Common Sweet Flag

Contents
1 Names 1.1 Etymology 2 Botanical information 3 Uses 3.1 History 3.2 Cultural uses 3.3 Herbal medicine 3.4 Recreational drug 3.5 Horticulture 3.6 Modern Research 4 Chemistry 5 Cultural symbolism 6 Safety and Regulations 7 Notes and references 8 External links

Sweet flag

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Plantae Angiosperms Monocots Acorales Acoraceae Acorus A. calamus Binomial name

Names

Species:

Acorus calamus In addition to "sweet flag" and "calamus" other common names include beewort, bitter pepper root, calamus root, flag root, L. gladdon, myrtle flag, myrtle grass, myrtle root, myrtle sedge, pine root, rat root, sea sedge, sweet cane, sweet cane, sweet cinnamon, sweet grass, sweet myrtle, sweet root, sweet rush, and sweet sedge.[1] Common names in Asia include: "vacha"; "bacch" (Unani); "bajai," "gora-bach," "vasa bach" (Hindi); "vekhand" (Marathi); "vashambu" (Tamil); "vadaja," "vasa" (Telugu); "baje" (Kannada); "vayambu" (Malayalam); "bhutanashini," "jatila" (Sanskrit).[2]

Etymology

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The Latin word acorus is derived from the Greek #$&'( (áchórou) of Dioscorides (note different versions of the text have different spellings). The word #$&'( itself is thought to have been derived from the word )$&* (kóri), which means pupil (of an eye), due to the juice from the root of the plant being used as a remedy in diseases of the eye ('darkening of the pupil').[4][5][6] The Latin word calamus (meaning "cane") is derived from Greek +-/0135 (kálamos, meaning "reed"), which is cognate to Latin culmus (meaning "stalk") and Old English healm (meaning "straw"), and derived from Proto-Indo European *kole-mo- (thought to mean "grass" or "reed"). The Arabic word 68 98 ; (qálam, meaning "pen") and Sanskrit !" (kaláma, meaning "reed used as a pen", and a sort of rice) are thought to have been borrowed from Greek.[7][8][9][10] The name sweet flag refers to its sweet scent and its similarity to Iris species, which are commonly known as flags in English since the late fourteenth century.[11][12]

Botanical information
There are three cytotypic forms distinguished by chromosome number: a diploid form (2n=24), an infertile triploid form (2n=36), and a tetraploid form (see below). The triploid form is the most common and is thought to have arisen relatively recently in the Himalayan region through hybridisation of the diploid with the tetraploid.[13] Probably indigenous to most of Asia, the triploid form Acorus calamus var. calamus (also known as var. vulgaris or var. verus) has now been introduced across Europe, Australia, New Guinea, South Africa, Réunion and North America.[2][3][13][14][15][16][17][18] The tetraploid form Acorus calamus var. angustatus is native throughout Asia, from India to Japan and the Philippines and from Indonesia to Siberia.[14] The diploid form Acorus americanus or Acorus calamus var. americanus is found in northern subarctic North America and scattered disjunct areas throughout the Mississippi Valley, and furthermore diploids are also found in Mongolia, central Siberia (Buryatia), Gilgit–Baltistan in Pakistan (claimed by India) and northern Himachal Pradesh in India. It is extinct in some parts of the United States and Canada. It may not been native to some of these areas, Pre-Columbian populations are thought to have dispersed it across parts of the United States.[14][19][20][21] Currently the taxonomic position of these forms is contested. The comprehensive taxonomic analysis in the Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families from 2002 considers all three forms to be distinct varieties of a single species.[14][22] Sue A. Thompson in her 1995 Phd dissertation and in her 2000 entry in the Flora of North America considers the diploid form to a distinct species. Note Thompson only analyses North American forms of the diploid variety in her treatment, and does not analyse the morphology of Asian forms of the diploid variety. Also note that in older USA literature the name Acorus americanus may be used indiscriminately for all forms of Acorus calamus occurring in North America, irrespective of cytological diversity (i.e. both the diploid and triploid forms).[19] The recent treatment in the Flora of China from 2010, which is followed in the Tropicos database system, considers all varieties to be synonyms of a single taxonomically undifferentiated species, pointing to morphological overlap in the characteristics singled out by Thompson.[13][23] According to Thompson the primary morphological distinction between the triploid and the North American forms of the diploid is made by the number of prominent leaf veins, the diploid having a single
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prominent midvein with on both sides of this equally raised secondary veins, the triploid having a single prominent midvein with the secondary veins barely distinct. Thompson notes a number of other details which she claims can be used to tell the different forms apart in North America, such as flower length, average maximum leaf length, relative length of the sympodial leaf with respect to the vegetative leaves, the average length of the spadix during flowering, and tendency of the leaf margin to undulate in the triploid. She notes that many of these characteristics overlap, but that in general the triploid is somewhat larger and more robust on average than most North American forms of the diploid. According to Heng Li, Guanghua Zhu and Josef Bogner in the Flora of China there is clear overlap in these characteristics and the different cytotypes are impossible to distinguish morphologically.[13][19] Triploid plants are infertile and show an abortive ovary with a shrivelled appearance. This form will never form fruit (let alone seeds) and can only spread asexually.[19] The tetraploid variety is usually known as Acorus calamus var. angustatus Besser. A number of synonyms are known, but a number are contested as to which variety they belong. It is morphologically diverse, with some forms having very broad and some narrow leaves. It is furthermore also cytotypically diverse, with an array of different karyotypes.[14][21][24] A further hexaploid form exists in central and northwestern Yunnan and Kashmir. This form has not been given taxonomic status. At least 3 different karyotypes have been classified as hexaploid; 2n=66in Yunnan and 2n=54 and 2n=72 in Kashmir.[21][24] Diploid plants in North America apparently produce no or only trace amounts of b-asarone. According to one study, triploids produce a small amount, constituting around 0.3% of the rhizome in crude content, whereas tetraploids may be found in at least two chemotypes, one with 2.0%, and one with 4.0 to 8.0%.[25]

Uses
A. Calamus has been an item of trade in many cultures for thousands of years. It has been used medicinally for a wide variety of ailments, and its aroma makes calamus essential oil valued in the perfume industry. The essence from the rhizome is used as a flavor for pipe tobacco. When eaten in crystallized form, it is called "German ginger". In Europe Acorus calamus was often added to wine, and the root is also one of the possible ingredients of absinthe. It is also used in bitters.[3] In Lithuania Ajeras (Sweet flag) is added to home baked black bread.

History
Although probably not native to Egypt, this plant was already mentioned in the Chester Beatty papyrus VI dating to approximately 1300 BC. The ancient Egyptians rarely mentioned the plant in medicinal contexts (the afore-mentioned papyrus mentioned using it in conjunction with several ingredients as a bandage used to sooth an ailment of the stomach), but it was certainly used to make perfumes.[26] The first Chinese source to mention the plant is the (Shennong Bencao Jing), thought to be written anywhere between 200BC to 200AD (attributed to Shennong, a legendary demi-god, who is said to have wrote it 2737BC, but first mentioned in the (Qilu) catalogue written 502-557AD by

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(Ruan Xiaoxu), and complied and expanded in the same period (some claim 492AD) by (Tao Hongjing) as the (Bencaojing Jizhu), which was itself lost and reconstructed by Sun Xingyan ( , 1753–1818)). Acorus is listed as (chang pu), one of the primary herbal medicines. Tao Hongjing categorises it as one of the 'superior' (jun) substances; a 'hot' and 'acrid' herb used to open the orifices among other uses. Note that there is some confusion about the exact identity of the species mentioned, some sources equate it with Acorus gramineus. Initially Europeans confused the identity and medicinal uses of the Acorus calamus of the Romans and Greeks with their native Iris pseudacorus. Thus the Herbarius zu Teutsch, published at Mainz in 1485, describes and includes a woodcut of this iris under the name Acorus. This German book is one of three possible sources for the French Le Grant Herbier, written in 1486, 1488, 1498 or 1508, of which an English translation was published as the Grete Herball by Peter Treveris in 1526, all containing the false identification of the Herbarius zu Teutsch.[27] William Turner, writing in 1538, describes 'acorum' as "gladon or a flag, a yelowe floure delyce".[28] The plant was introduced to Britain in the late 16th century. By at least 1596 true Acorus calamus was grown in Britain, as it is listed in The Catalogue, a list of plants John Gerard grew in his garden at Holborn. Gerard notes "It prospereth exceeding well in my garden, but as yet bearth neither flowers nor stalke". Gerard lists the Latin name as Acorus verus, but it is evident there was still doubt about its veracity: in his 1597 herbal he lists the English common name as 'bastard calamus'.[29]

Cultural uses
In Britain the plant was also cut for use as a sweet smelling floor covering for the packed earth floors of medieval dwellings and churches, and stacks of rushes have been used as the centrepiece of rushbearing ceremonies for many hundreds of years.[30] It has also been used as a thatching material for English cottages.[31] In modern Egypt it is thought to have aphrodisiac properties.[26] For the Penobscot people this was a very important root. One story goes that a sickness was plaguing the people. A muskrat spirit came to a man in dream, telling him that he (the muskrat) was a root and where to find him. The man awoke, found the root, and made a medicine which cured the people. In Penobscot homes, pieces of the dried root were strung together and hung up for preservation. Steaming it throughout the home was thought to "kill" sickness. While travelling, a piece of root was kept and chewed to ward off illness.[32] Teton-Dakota warriors chewed the root to a paste, which they rubbed on their faces. It was thought to prevent excitement and fear when facing an enemy.[32] The Potawatomi people powdered the dried root and placed this up the nose to cure catarrh.[32]

Herbal medicine
Sweet flag has a very long history of medicinal use in Chinese and Indian herbal traditions.[33] The leaves, stems, and roots are used in various Siddha and Ayurvedic medicines.[34] It is widely employed in

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modern herbal medicine as its sedative, laxative, diuretic, and carminative properties.[3] It is used in Ayurveda to counter the side effects of all hallucinogens.[35] Sweet Flag, known as "Rat Root" is one of the most widely and frequently used herbal medicines amongst the Chipewyan people.[36]

Recreational drug
It is believed by some that calamus is a hallucinogen. This urban legend is based solely on two pages of a book written by Hoffer and Osmund entitled The Hallucinogens. The information on these two pages came from anecdotal reports from two individuals (a husband and wife) who reported that they had ingested calamus on a few occasions.[37][38] None of the components in calamus are converted to TMA (trimethoxyamphetamine) in the human organism.[38] To date there is no solid evidence of any hallucinogenic substances in calamus.
Illustration from an 1885 flora

Horticulture
This plant is sometimes used as a pond plant in horticulture.[39] There is at least one ornamental cultivar known, it is usually called 'Variegatus',[40] but the RHS recommends calling it 'Argenteostriatus'.[41]

Modern Research
Acorus calamus shows neuroprotective effect against stroke and chemically induced neurodegeneration in rats. Specifically, it has protective effect against acrylamide induced neurotoxicity.[42] Both roots and leaves of A. calamus have shown antioxidant,[43] antimicrobial and insecticidal activities.[2] Acorus calamus may prove to be an effective control measure against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.[44] A recent study showed that beta-asarone isolated from Acorus calamus oil inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and thus reduces lipid accumulation in fat cells.[45]

Chemistry
Both triploid and tetraploid A. calamus contain alpha-asarone.[3] Other phytochemicals include: Beta-asarone[46],[47][48][49] eugenol[3]

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Diploids do not contain beta-asarone (<-asarone).[50]

Cultural symbolism
The calamus has long been a symbol of love. The name is associated with a Greek myth: Kalamos, son of the river-god Maeander, who loved the youth Karpos, of Zephyrus (the West Wind) and Chloris (Spring). When Karpos drowned in a swimming race, Kalamos also drowned and was transformed into a reed, whose rustling in the wind was interpreted as a sigh of lamentation. The plant was a favorite of Henry David Thoreau (who called it "sweet flag"), and also of Walt Whitman, who added a section called the "Calamus" poems, to the third edition of Leaves of Grass (1860). In the poems the calamus is used as a symbol of love, lust, and affection. The root of the calamus (Tamil vasambu !"%) is cut into disc-shaped beads, and made into bracelets, which are typically worn by newborns for the first few months. A vasambu bracelet is a symbol of a newborn baby in Tamil culture.

Safety and Regulations
A. calamus and products derived from A. calamus (such as its oil) were banned in 1968 as food additives and medicines by the United States Food and Drug Administration.[51] The FDA ban was the result of lab studies that involved supplementing the diets of lab animals over a prolonged period of time with massive doses of isolated chemicals (<-asarone) from the Indian Jammu strain of calamus. The animals developed tumors, and the plant was labeled procarcinogenic.[37][52] Wichtl says "It is not clear whether the observed carcinogenic effects in rats are relevant to the human organism."[53] However, most sources advise caution in ingesting strains other than the diploid strain. In reality <-asarone is not actually a carcinogen but it is a procarcinogen that is neither hepatotoxic nor directly hepatocarcinogenic. It must first undergo metabolic l'-hydroxylation in the liver before achieving toxicity. Cyrochrome P450 in the hepatocytes is responsible for secreting the hydrolyzing enzymes that convert <-asarone into genotoxic epoxide structure.[54] Even with the activation of these metabolites, the carcinogenic potency is very low due to the rapid breakdown of epoxide residues with hydrolase which leaves these compounds inert (Luo, 1992).[citation needed] Additionally, the major metabolite of <-asarone is 2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid, a derivative which is not a carcinogen (Hasheminejad & Caldwell, 1999).

Notes and references
1. ^ a b Sylvan T. Runkel, Alvin F. Bull (1979, 2009). Wildflowers of Iowa Woodlands (http://books.google.com/books?id=QZAhYVPeRL0C&pg=PA119&lpg=PA119& dq=%22Acorus+calamus%22+beewort&source=bl&ots=ramTIM9V3e& sig=DDyedX1vQYmA22tbZOsqbiDGbXM&hl=en&ei=68PnTsrAN8jg2QWltYSjCQ& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBw#v=onepage& q=%22Acorus%20calamus%22%20beewort&f=false). Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa Press. p. 119. Retrieved 13 December 2011.

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2. ^ a b c d e Balakumbahan, R.; K. Rajamani and K. Kumanan (29 December 2010). "Acorus calamus: An overview" (http://www.academicjournals.org/jmpr/PDF/pdf2010/29Dec/Balakumbahan%20et%20al.pdf). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4 (25): 2740–2745. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 3. ^ a b c d e f Gualtiero Simonetti (1990). Stanley Schuler, ed. Simon & Schuster's Guide to Herbs and Spices. Simon & Schuster, Inc. ISBN 0-671-73489-X. 4. ^ Pliny the Elder; The Natural History, book 25, chapter 100; http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer /L/Roman/Texts/Pliny_the_Elder/25*.html 5. ^ Dioscorides, Pedanius; !" ##$% &&'"(*(% (De Materia Medica), Ch. 2, pg. 11; 50-70; translation by Sprengel, Karl Philipp; 1829 6. ^ http://www.scientificlatin.org/philbot/pb240.html 7. ^ Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary; Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries; http://www.sanskritlexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/monier/serveimg.pl?file=/scans/MWScan/MWScanjpg/mw0260-karSaphala.jpg 8. ^ Liddell, Henry George and Scott, Robert; A Greek-English Lexicon, ) =!^>'?; Oxford University Press; 1925; http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0057:entry=ka/lamos& highlight=acorus 9. ^ Harper, Douglas; Online Etymological Dictionary; http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=shawm; accessed 9 July 2013 10. ^ Avadhani, Mythili et al.; The Sweetness and Bitterness of Sweet Flag [Acorus calamus L.] – A Review; Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page No. 598; April–June 2013; http://www.rjpbcs.com/pdf/2013_4%282%29/%5B67%5D.pdf 11. ^ Harper, Douglas; Online Etymological Dictionary; http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=flag& allowed_in_frame=0 12. ^ http://www.rook.org/earl/bwca/nature/aquatics/acorus.html 13. ^ a b c d Heng, Li ( ), Guanghua, Zhu ( ); and Bogner, Josef; Flora of China, Vol. 23, Acoraceae; Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden; Beijing & St. Louis; 2010; accessed at http://www.efloras.org /florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200027130 14. ^ a b c d e Govaerts, R.; World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; 2002; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/namedetail.do?name_id=2309; accessed 9 July 2013 15. ^ African Plant Database, Acorus calamus; Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques & South African National Biodiversity Institute; last modified 2007-02-14; http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa /details.php?langue=an&id=30524; accessed 9 July 2013 16. ^ Euro+Med Plantbase; http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/PTaxonDetail.asp?NameId=77936& PTRefFk=8000000; accessed 9 July 2013 17. ^ Randall, R.P.; The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status; CRC for Australian Weed Management; Glen Osmond; September 2007; accessed at http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/objtwr /imported_assets/content/hort/intro_flora_australia.pdf 18. ^ Index de la flore vasculaire de la Réunion; http://www.tela-botanica.org/eflore/BDNFM/2006.01/nn/118; accessed 9 July 2013 19. ^ a b c d Thompson, Sue A.; Flora of North America, Acorus; 2000; http://www.efloras.org /florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=100307 20. ^ Gilmore, Melvin R., Dispersal By Indians a Factor in the Extension of Discontinuous Distribution of Certain Species of Native Plants, Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 13 (1931): 89–94; http://triscience.com/General/dispersal-by-indians-a-factor-in-the-extension-of-discontinuousdistribution-of-certain-species-of-native-plants/doculite_view 21. ^ a b c Ogra, R. K. et al.; Indian calamus (Acorus calamus L.): not a tetraploid; Current Science, Vol. 97, No. 11, 10 December 2009; Current Science Association; Bangalore; http://www.currentscience.ac.in /Downloads/article_id_097_11_1644_1647_0.pdf 22. ^ The Plant List; http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/search?q=acorus+calamus; accessed 9 July 2013 23. ^ Tropicos; Missouri Botanical Garden; http://www.tropicos.org /NameSearch.aspx?name=Acorus+calamus&commonname=; accessed 9 July 2013 24. ^ a b Hong, Wang, Wenli, Li, Zhijian, Gu and Yongyan, Chen; Cytological study on Acorus L. in

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southwestern China, with some cytogeographical notes on A. calamus; Acta Botanica Sinica, 2001, 43(4):354-358; http://europepmc.org/abstract/CBA/348223/reload=0; jsessionid=tdWTGuYlZomEXqtMfwaO.6 ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17402025 ^ a b Manniche, Lisa; An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, pg. 74; American University in Cairo Press; Cairo; 2006; ISBN 977 416 034 7 ^ Rohde, Eleanour Sinclair; The Old English Herbals; Longmans, Green and Co.; 1922; accessed at http://www.gutenberg.org/files/33654/33654-h/33654-h.htm ^ Turner, William; Libellus de re herbaria, pg. Aii; 1538; in Jackson, Benjamin Daydon; Libellus de re herbaria novus, by William Turner, originally pub. in 1538, reprinted in facsimile, pg. 36; private print; London; 1877; accessed at http://archive.org/stream/libellusdereherb00turn#page/n36/mode/1up ^ Jackson, Benjamin Daydon; A catalogue of plants cultivated in the garden of John Gerard, pg. 1, 23; private printing; London; 1876; accessed at http://archive.org/details/mobot31753002733357 ^ Hüsken, Wim N. M (1996), "Rushbearing:a forgotten British custom" (http://books.google.com /books?id=Ozq_Blw38NEC&pg=PA17&dq=Rushbearing&hl=en&ei=yWgqTaz7Eoa4hAewzeS2Cw& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Rushbearing& f=false), English parish drama., p. 17, ISBN 90-420-0060-0 ^ Hirsch, Pamela; Gladstar, Rosemary (2000). Planting the future: saving our medicinal herbs. Rochester, Vt: Healing Arts Press. p. 85. ISBN 0-89281-894-8. ^ a b c Erichsen-Brown, Charlotte (1989). Medicinal and Other Uses of North American Plants: A Historical Survey with Special Reference to the Eastern Indian Tribes. Dover Publications. pp. 231–232. ISBN 978-0-486-25951-2. ^ Mukherjee P.K., Kumar V., Mal M., Houghton P.J. "Acorus calamus: Scientific validation of ayurvedic tradition from natural resources"Pharmaceutical Biology 2007 45:8 (651–666) ^ "Vasambu" (http://tamilnadu.com/herbs/vasambu.html). Tamilnadu.com. 1 April 2013. ^ Dr. Vasant K. Lad, Ayurveda: The Science of Self-Healing ^ Johnson, Derek; Linda Kershaw; Andy MacKinnon; Jim Pojar (1995). Plants of the Western Boreal Forest & Aspen Parkland. Lone Pine Publishing. ISBN 1-55105-058-7. ^ a b http://www.herbcraft.org/calamus.html ^ a b http://www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/var002.htm ^ Oudhia, P. (2002).Rice-Acorus intercropping: a new system developed by innovative farmers of Chhattisgarh (India).International Rice Research Notes.27 (1):56. ^ Missouri Botanical Garden; http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/gardens-gardening/your-garden/plantfinder/plant-details/kc/a634/acorus-calamus-variegatus.aspx; accessed 9 July 2013 ^ Royal Horticultural Society; http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=56; accessed 9 July 2013 ^ Shukla PK, Khanna VK, Ali MM, Maurya R, Khan MY, Srimal RC. "Neuroprotective effect of Acorus calamus against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced ischaemia in rat" Hum Exp Toxicology (April 2006) 25(4):187-94. PMID 16696294;Shukla PK, Khanna VK, Ali MM, Maurya RR, Handa SS, Srimal RC. "Protective effect of acorus calamus against acrylamide induced neurotoxicity" Phytother Res. (May 2002) 16(3):256-60. PMID 12164272 ^ S. Asha Devi; Deepak Ganjewala, "Antioxidant Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Sweet-Flag (Acorus calamus) Leaves and Rhizomes" Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants Volume 17, Issue 1, 2011, Pages 1 – 11 ^ Ghosh S, Sharma AK, Kumar S, Tiwari SS, Rastogi S, Srivastava S, Singh M, Kumar R, Paul S, Ray DD, Rawat AK "In vitro and in vivo efficacy of Acorus calamus extract against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus." Parasitol Res. 2011 Feb;108(2):361-70 ^ Meng-Hwan Lee, , Yun-Yu Chen, , Jung-Wei Tsai,Sheue-Chi Wang, Takashi Watanabe and Ying-Chieh Tsai, Inhibitory effect of <-asarone, a component of Acorus calamus essential oil, on inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Food ChemistryVolume 126, Issue 1, 1 May 2011, Pages 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.08.052 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.foodchem.2010.08.052) ^ Streloke, M. et al. ; Ascher, K. R. S.; Schmidt, G. H.; Neumann, W. P. (1989). "Vapor pressure and volatility of <-asarone, the main ingredient of an indigenous stored-product insecticide, Acorus calamus

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oil". Phytoparasitica 17 (4): 299–313. doi:10.1007/BF02980759 (http://dx.doi.org /10.1007%2FBF02980759). ^ Paneru, R.B. et al.; Lepatourel, G; Kennedy, S (1997). "Toxicity of Acorus calamus rhizome powder from Eastern Nepal to Sitophilus granarius (L.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)". Crop Protection 16 (8): 759–763. doi:10.1016/S0261-2194(97)00056-2 (http://dx.doi.org /10.1016%2FS0261-2194%2897%2900056-2). ^ Marongiu, Bruno et al.; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Scorciapino, Andrea (2005). "Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil and Supercritical CO2 Extract of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and of Acorus calamus L.". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (20): 7939–7943. doi:10.1021/jf051100x (http://dx.doi.org/10.1021%2Fjf051100x). ^ Raina, V. K. et al. ; Srivastava, S. K.; Syamasunder, K. V. (2003). "Essential oil composition of Acorus calamus L. from the lower region of the Himalayas". Flavour and Fragrance Journal 18 (1): 18–20. doi:10.1002/ffj.1136 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1002%2Fffj.1136). ^ Essential oil composition and antimicrobial assay of Acorus calamus leaves from different wild populations, J Radušien@, A Judžentien@… – Plant Genetics, 2007 – Cambridge Univ Press, 1982; Lander and Schreier, 1990 ^ {{cite web url=http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=189.110 |title=Code of Federal regulations, title 21}} ^ Natural carcinogenic products, EK Weisburger – Environmental Science & Technology, 1979 – ACS Publications ^ Wichtl, Max,Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals: a handbook,2004 ^ American Herbal Products Association's botanical safety handbook, By American Herbal Products Association, Michael McGuffin

External links
Proper Use of Acorus Calamus (http://www.erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=8800) Family Araceae (http://delta-intkey.com/angio/www/araceae.htm) in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval. (http://delta-intkey.com/angio/) http://delta-intkey.com Calamus Acorus Calamus Online Herb Guide (http://www.allaboutherbs.org/calamus-acoruscalamus) Caldecott, Todd (2006). Ayurveda: The Divine Science of Life. Elsevier/Mosby. ISBN 0-7234-3410-7. Contains a detailed monograph on Acorus calamus, A. americanus (Vacha; Calamus; Sweet Flag), as well as a discussion of health benefits and usage in clinical practice. Available online at http://www.toddcaldecott.com/index.php/herbs/learning-herbs/339-vacha Acorus calamus L. (http://libproject.hkbu.edu.hk/was40/detail?lang=en&channelid=1288& searchword=herb_id=D00135) Medicinal Plant Images Database (School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University) (traditional Chinese) (English) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Acorus_calamus&oldid=586505127" Categories: Monocots Plants used in Ayurveda Spices Entheogens Herbal and fungal hallucinogens Herbal and fungal stimulants Absinthe Aquatic plants First Nations culture Flora of Nepal Plants used in traditional Native American medicine Plants described in 1753 This page was last modified on 17 December 2013 at 15:55. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms

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Acorus calamus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Calamus Root |Tinctures-Liquid Herbal Extracts &Their Uses

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Summary CUSTOMER REVIEWS (2) Price by Size Calamus root is well known throughout Asia for the medicinal properties. The Sanskrit word for Calamus root is "vacha", which means speech. Calamus Root, or Sweetflag, has been used as a brain tonic and to improve memory, as well as, respiratory problems, hysteria, convulsions, coma and epilepsy for over two thousand years. Although it is mainly for relieving flatulence, colic, indigestion, appetite loss, and stomach cramps, it also has a calming effect and was prescribed in traditional medicine for nervous disorders. It helps with circulation and rheumatism when added to a bath, and as a mouth rinse for gum disease and other conditions, even toothaches. The herb is pungent and bitter, with astringent qualities. It is a stimulant, and useful in periods of weakness. Some herbal practitioners claim it even clears the mind and has also believed to be useful as an effective aphrodisiac. Calamus root is an aromatic stimulant that has been used for centuries in many cultures mainly for digestive complaints. It stimulates and strengthens stomach function, and is said to benefit digestion, increase the appetite and ease dyspepsia also relaxing common stomach problems. The herb is often used to relieve the discomfort of flatulence, as well as check the growth of the bacteria. Calamus tincture is also considered a parasiticide that has been used to destroy and expel parasites from the intestines. Calamus Root relieves distended and uncomfortable stomachs, and also treats the intense headaches that are generally related to weak digestion. As an anti-emetic, it eases nausea and specifically treats the dizzy/queasy feeling in the stomach that comes with motion sickness, promptly bringing relief. As an Ayurvedic brain tonic, this plant improves the brain's ability to process information and supports the nervous system, making it one of several therapies to have a beneficial impact on the mind, without the negative side effects. A natural remedy for improving memory is to take this tincture with honey each morning. Calamus Root has long been used for cognitive disorders and has been found to be effective in treating seizures and convulsions in patients with cerebral trauma and is used to enhance memory in amnesia, Alzheimer's disease and dementia patients. As one of the ayurvedic herbs for memory, Calamus root improves the brains ability to process information and supports the nervous system, making it one of the herbs to have around for that have a beneficial impact on the

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29-12-13 7:33 AM

Calamus Root |Tinctures-Liquid Herbal Extracts &Their Uses

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mind, without the negative side-effects. When brain cells are deprived of oxygen, the cells are temporarily unable to use all the oxygen when it is restored which in turn causes the oxygen to escape the biochemical pathways that usually control it and you have free radical damage as a result. This can lead to memory loss or seizures because of the tissue damage it creates to the brain. Calamus Root may help to prevent the formation of free radicals of oxygen and the resulting brain tissue damage that occurs. It is most effective in the first few days after a head injury or a stroke and even more effective when it is taken before circulation is restored. Calamus is an effective herb for stimulating cerebral functions and brain tissue. It will not necessarily increase knowledge, but it may broaden your capacity for knowledge. It energizes the brain function and at the same time promotes a feeling of relaxation and calms the nerves. It acts as a mild tonic that restores and nourishes the entire body by exerting a gentle strengthening effect. As a sedative, it does not act as a nervine, but as an anti-anxiety medicine. Sweet flag is perhaps best described as a "calming and centering" herb, and for this reason it is thought to be equal to other treatments for panic and anxiety attacks. Not for full fledged episodes, but for the 'daily' anxiety attacks, that most of us can relate to. Additionally, the anti-anxiety effects are the reason it has been used for quitting smoking. Calamus root has a very sketchy reputation as a 'hallucinogen', although it is mildly psychoactive, it does not produce the effects similar to LSD. Furthermore, high doses of the herb could cause agonizing nausea, stomach cramps and extreme vomiting. The root is also found to be beneficial for throat colds, sore throat, chest colds and head colds. It is an antibacterial and antiviral, as well. It is thought to fight the infection and stimulate the body to help overcome that run down feeling. It is also an effective expectorant that clears nasal and respiratory passages. Calamus has been used for sinus infections, sinus headaches, hay fever, dry coughs, bronchitis and bronchial asthma by eliminating mucus and calming the mind. Calamus has been used to stimulate the uterus and regulate menstrual flow and has been used in cases of amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea. It has been used as a disinfectant for vaginal infection and discharge, especially after childbirth. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, it would be best to avoid Calamus root in an form, as it stimulates the uterus and could cause a miscarriage. Inflammatory skin condition may respond well to Sweet Flag extracts as well. In a February 2009 issue of "Journal of Ethnopharmacology", one study showed a tissue culture study of human skin cells, Sweet Flag, or Calamus, inhibited activity of several different immune molecules that promote inflammation. When used externally, it is thought to relieve burns, skin problems such as eczema and skin eruptions, rheumatic pains and neuralgia. Calamus has also been applied in a carrier oil or paste in the treatment of scabies, lice and crabs. It has also been found to be an effective remedy for bedbugs. Ingredients: Calamus Root, Distilled Water, 20% Alcohol. Instructions: Use 6-12 drops in juice or water, under the tongue or as desired. May be taken 3 times daily. Shake well. Store in cool dark place. Keep out of reach of children. Contraindications: Pregnant and nursing women should not use Calamus Root Herbal Supplement, as it is considered a uterine stimulant. Overuse (many times the recommended dosage) should be avoided, as it may cause vomiting and further serious problems. Also, it may be harmful if consumed for an extended time period. It is highly recommended that any use of Calamus be conducted only under the care of a qualified health care provider. Disclaimer: The information presented herein by New Way Herbs is intended for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent disease. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

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29-12-13 7:33 AM

Muira Puama|Tinctures-Liquid Herbal Extracts & Their Uses

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Muirapauma, aka Muira Pauma, is being used and is known worldwide as a powerful aphrodisiac for both men and women. In Europe, it is used to treat impotence, infertility, nerve pain, menstrual troubles, and rheumatism. Germany has adopted this herbal remedy for its use in treating hookworms, while in the United States, herbalists and health practitioners used it to relieve conditions of the central nervous system. Muira Puama root extract is also classified as an energizer, cognitive enhancer, and sexual performance enhancing herb. Other suggested benefits of Muira Puama include help in treating depression, infectious disease and memory loss. The native peoples of the Amazon combined this herb with Catuaba for improving libido, for treating erectile dysfunction and impotence in men. In some circles it is considered to be 'herbal viagra'. Both men and women can benefit from Muira Puama's ability to enhance sensation, in terms of sexual arousal, as well as in other areas of the body. Combining the sex drive and higher energy levels may help to correct sexual dysfunction in some women. When taken for long periods of time, it may also increase the production of sexual and reproductive hormones in the body, as well as helping to acheive sustained periods of arousal and possible multiple orgasms. Muira Puama root plays a role in bodybuilding as well and when combined with other performance herbs, it increases the levels of natural testosterone in the body, which can be important when performing stressful activities that require endurance. Testosterone is also known to be responsible for building lean muscle mass. The role it plays in improving mental focus and clarity may also be useful, as it requires an extreme ability to focus on performance. And, its ability to treat exhaustion and promote healthy nervous system function is also beneficial. Muira Puama tincture does have a stimulant effect that can leave the user with a general feeling of well-being, when taken in the proper dosage. However, large doses can cause overstimulation, and leave the user feeling restless and it may affect sleep. But, this can have a positive action on conditions of mental and physical fatigue, and stress related sexual dysfunction. Since the herb is not an artificial stimulant, it is said to fortify the

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29-12-13 7:36 AM

Muira Puama|Tinctures-Liquid Herbal Extracts & Their Uses

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system over a period of time. The herb has been used in stress management and to treat mild cases of nervous exhaustion, depression and trauma. Muira Puama root extract might be helpful in improving memory among the elderly. In 2004, an animal study conducted in Brazil showed that the herb may be effective due to inhibiting acetylocholinesterase, the enzyme which breaks down the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine. By protecting acetylcholine, Muira Puama root may have a therapeutic effect for memory and cognition, and for this reason, may be helpful in the treatment of brain related ailments such as Alzheimer's disease. It should also be noted that Muira Puama may impact levels of dopamine, noradrenalin and serotonin in the brain, producing antidepressant-like effects. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders and for the treatment of indigestion. There are some claims that Muirapauma acts as an astringent, and has been useful in cases of diarrhea and dysentery. A decoction of the root has been shown to inhibit stressinduced ulcers, and blood calcium elevation. Since the constituents of the Muira Puama root are not water soluble, they do not break down in the digestive system, so the capsules are not very effective. It is best consumed in a tincture form (alcohol extract), which can assimilate in the body quickly. Muira Puama root tinctures were also used to encourage and enhance hair growth. There are assertions that the herb helps to stimulate the circulatory system, perhaps that is the reason it has been used to naturally treat hair loss in cases of alopecia. Ingredients: Muira Puama Root, Distilled Water and 20% Alcohol. Instructions: Use 6-12 drops in juice or water, under the tongue or as desired. May be taken 3 times daily. Shake well. Store in cool dark place. Keep out of reach of children. Contraindications: Currently, there are no known warnings or contraindications with the use of Muirapuama. Due to the stimulative nature of Muira puama, those who are prone to insomnia should limit their intake of the herbal tincture. Prolonged use or high doses (more than the recommended amount) of Muira Puama may promote anxiety, anger and increase blood pressure. It has also been suggest that the herb be avoided if there is a history of peptic ulcer. Because this herb may produce antidepressant-like effects, it should not be taken with anti-depressant medications. Muirapuama extracts act on penile function by increasing circulation to the region. A possible side effect, as with all sexual dysfunction medication, is that the erection could last for hours. If this occurs, seek medical attention and discontinue the use of Muira puama. Disclaimer: The information presented herein by New Way Herbs is intended for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent disease. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

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2 of 2

29-12-13 7:36 AM

Calamus Root Effects and Medicinal Benefits | Smokable Herbs

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Calamus Root
February 27, 2013 !All herbs, Depressants hallucinogenic herbs, Herb, Sedative, sweet flag

"absinthe, calamus root, Calming, diuretic properties,

calamus root 1024x537 Calamus Root depressant alike all herbs
Rate this plant to help others

Table of Contents 1 Overview 2 History and Use 3 Common Uses 4 Methods of Use 5 E ects 6 Side E ects 7 Legality 8 Where to buy Calamus root 8.1 Related Posts 8.2 Share this:

Overview
Calamus (Acorus calamus) is a tall green monocot of flowering grass. It is a popular plant with a number of uses and a number of names including beewort, bitter pepper root, flag root, gladdon, myrtle flag, sweet flag, sweet sedge and others. It is known for its root structure or rhizomes and leaves, which have both stimulant and relaxant properties. The e ects of calamus root both energize and reduce anxiety thus why it is considered a powerful balancing herb. It has been used for healing, spiritual, and culinary uses.

History and Use
Native American Indians used Calamus root both for energy and as a spiritual tool.

1 of 4

29-12-13 7:56 AM

Calamus Root Effects and Medicinal Benefits | Smokable Herbs

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Ancient Egyptians also used Calamus root, believing it to be an aphrodisiac. It was also one of the original ingredients of European absinthe. it was commonly used as a substitute for other herbs and seasonings including ginger and cinnamon since it has sweet, sour, and heat qualities. Calamus root has been used to treat a number of ailments. It also has sedative, laxative, and diuretic properties. The Ayurvedas use Calamus Root along with hallucinogenic herbs as Calamus is believed to reduce or counter the side e ects of other drugs. The root is the most commonly used part of the plant. It can be dried and smoked or made into a tea. However, the most popular means of ingestion is chewing the root itself.

Common Uses
Used as an anti-anxiety While Calamus root fights fatigue, it also has a calming e ect. Though the two e ects would seem to contradict each other, the e ect is one of alert relaxation. Users of Calamus root report feeling both emotionally relaxed and ready to face the day. Laxative and Diuretic Calamus root has both laxative and diuretic properties, making it useful for increasing urination and relieving constipation. Counteract the Side E ects of Hallucinogens A common complaint of hallucinogens is the severity of the side e ects. Few hallucinogens are without the side e ects of nausea and dizziness. Calamus root has long been used to combat these e ects. Mild Pain Reliever Calamus root is o!en chewed to ease the sore throat and run down feeling associated with the cold or flu.

Methods of Use
Eaten as an herb Calamus is eaten both for its herbal properties as well as for its flavor. Native americans would commonly cut pieces of the root and chew it for the e ect. Calamus root can be bought whole or in pieces, very much like ginger.

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29-12-13 7:56 AM

Calamus Root Effects and Medicinal Benefits | Smokable Herbs

http://www.smokableherbs.com/calamus-root/

As an Infusion or Tea The dried root can be used to make a tea that holds the properties of the herb. As a Smoking Blend Calamus root can be bought as a dried powder or cutted to add to smoking blends. Many people add it to their spiritual and visionary blends. Native Americans also used the herb in combination with tobacco to treat headaches.

Effects
Users of Calamus root report: Alertness Feeling more energetic Feeling less anxiety Relief from sore throat Relief from headaches A decrease in the side e ects of hallucinogens Unlike many herbs used for their healing and spiritual properties, Calamus Root has a very agreeable taste. It is sometimes used as a substitute for ginger or cinnamon when a hot sweet taste is desired. This makes the most common means of ingestion, which is chewing the herb for its e ects, much more enjoyable. The results of Calamus root are varied and mainly positive.

Side Effects
Calamus was banned as a food additive by the US Food and Drug Administration a"er lab studies with a chemical in Calamus was found to be possibly carcinogenic. However, the diploid strain of the Calamus plant is believed to be a safe option as it does not contain the chemical used in the study.

Legality
Calamus root is restricted for use in food but is allowable as an herbal supplement. The herb is legal to grow, buy, own, and use.

3 of 4

29-12-13 7:56 AM

Calamus Root Effects and Medicinal Benefits | Smokable Herbs

http://www.smokableherbs.com/calamus-root/

Where to buy Calamus root
QUANTITY 4 oz (114g) 16 oz (454g) AMAZON $5.00 (0.04$/g) $11.68 (0.02$/g) BOUNCING BEAR BOTANICALS $6.00 (0.05$/g) $20.00 (0.04$/g)

Calamus root is pretty cheap. We recommend you to buy it o amazon to save some extra bucks, especially if you plan to buy a large quantity of it. Calamus Root depressant alike all herbs

Kava Kava kava kava1 150x150 5 great herbal blends you can find on Ebay KGrHqRHJDIF6fNDzSWBQ3LhU 12 1 150x150 Wormwood wormwood1 150x150 Calamus
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Untitled Smokable Herbs Nature's there for you Skip to content Home Articles Depressants Stimulants Hallucinogens Buy Herbs Search for: Calamus Root February 27, 2013All herbs, Depressantsabsinthe, calamus root, Calming, diuretic properties, hallucinogenic herbs, Herb, Sedative, sweet flag Rate this plant to help others calamus root 1024x537 Calamus Root depressant alike all herbs Table of Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Overview History and Use Common Uses Methods of Use Effects Side Effects Legality Where to buy Calamus root 8.1 Related Posts 8.2 Share this:

Overview Calamus (Acorus calamus) is a tall green monocot of flowering grass. It is a popular plant with a number of uses and a number of names including beewort, bitter pepper root, flag root, gladdon, myrtle flag, sweet flag, sweet sedge and others. It is known for its root structure or rhizomes and leaves, which have both stimulant and relaxant properties. The effects of calamus root both energize and reduce anxiety thus why it is considered a powerful balancing herb. It has been used for healing, spiritual, and culinary uses. History and Use Native American Indians used Calamus root both for energy and as a spiritual tool. Calamus Root depressant alike all herbs Ancient Egyptians also used Calamus root, believing it to be an aphrodisiac. It was also one of the original ingredients of European absinthe. it was commonly used as a substitute for other herbs and seasonings including ginger and cinnamon since it has sweet, sour, and heat qualities. Calamus root has been used to treat a number of ailments. It also has sedative, laxative, and diuretic properties. The Ayurvedas use Calamus Root along with hallucinogenic herbs as Calamus is believed to reduce or counter the side effects of other drugs. The root is the most commonly used part of the plant. It can be dried and smoked or made into a tea. However, the most popular means of ingestion is chewing the root itself. Common Uses Used as an anti-anxiety Page 1

Untitled While Calamus root fights fatigue, it also has a calming effect. Though the two effects would seem to contradict each other, the effect is one of alert relaxation. Users of Calamus root report feeling both emotionally relaxed and ready to face the day. Laxative and Diuretic Calamus root has both laxative and diuretic properties, making it useful for increasing urination and relieving constipation. Counteract the Side Effects of Hallucinogens A common complaint of hallucinogens is the severity of the side effects. Few hallucinogens are without the side effects of nausea and dizziness. Calamus root has long been used to combat these effects. Mild Pain Reliever Calamus root is often chewed to ease the sore throat and run down feeling associated with the cold or flu. Methods of Use Eaten as an herb Calamus is eaten both for its herbal properties as well as for its flavor. Native americans would commonly cut pieces of the root and chew it for the effect. Calamus root can be bought whole or in pieces, very much like ginger. As an Infusion or Tea The dried root can be used to make a tea that holds the properties of the herb. As a Smoking Blend Calamus root can be bought as a dried powder or cutted to add to smoking blends. Many people add it to their spiritual and visionary blends. Native Americans also used the herb in combination with tobacco to treat headaches. Effects Users of Calamus root report: Alertness Feeling more energetic Feeling less anxiety Relief from sore throat Relief from headaches A decrease in the side effects of hallucinogens Unlike many herbs used for their healing and spiritual properties, Calamus Root has a very agreeable taste. It is sometimes used as a substitute for ginger or cinnamon when a hot sweet taste is desired. This makes the most common means of ingestion, which is chewing the herb for its effects, much more enjoyable. The results of Calamus root are varied and mainly positive. Side Effects Calamus was banned as a food additive by the US Food and Drug Administration after lab studies with a chemical in Calamus was found to be possibly carcinogenic. Page 2

Untitled However, the diploid strain of the Calamus plant is believed to be a safe option as it does not contain the chemical used in the study. Legality Calamus root is restricted for use in food but is allowable as an herbal supplement. The herb is legal to grow, buy, own, and use. Where to buy Calamus root Quantity Amazon Bouncing Bear Botanicals 4 oz (114g) $5.00 (0.04$/g) $6.00 (0.05$/g) 16 oz (454g) $11.68 (0.02$/g) $20.00 (0.04$/g) Calamus root is pretty cheap. We recommend you to buy it off amazon to save some extra bucks, especially if you plan to buy a large quantity of it. Calamus Root depressant alike all herbs Related Posts kava kava1 150x150 Calamus Root depressant alike all herbs Kava Kava KGrHqRHJDIF6fNDzSWBQ3LhUNcw60 12 1 150x150 Calamus Root depressant alike all herbs 5 great herbal blends you can find on Ebay wormwood1 150x150 Calamus Root depressant alike all herbs Wormwood Share this: Facebook Google Pinterest StumbleUpon Twitter More Post navigation Passion Flower Salvia divinorum ! Leave a reply Browse All herbs The Secret Life of the Blue LotusBlue Lotus calamus rootCalamus Root dreamherbCalea Zacatechichi california poppyCalifornia Poppy catnipCatnip ColtsfootColtsfoot damianaDamiana ginsengGinseng gotukolaGotu Kola 50x50 kanna sceletium tortuosum (1 of 1)Kanna (Sceletium tortuosum) kava kavaKava Kava kratom powderKratom Marsh Hedge Nettle (Stachys palustris)Marihuanilla Zemanta Related Posts ThumbnailMarshmallow roots mugwortMugwort mulleinMullein passion flowerPassion Flower raspberry leafRaspberry leaf Salvia divinorumSalvia divinorum scullcapScullcap Page 3

Untitled Featuring Top 20/25 of All herbs Read more MOST POPULAR mugwort FEBRUARY 26, 2011 4,304 Mugwort mullein FEBRUARY 22, 2011 3,369 Mullein dreamherb MAY 21, 2013 2,430 Calea Zacatechichi calamus root FEBRUARY 27, 2013 2,394 Calamus Root The Secret Life of the Blue Lotus JUNE 15, 2013 2,384 Blue Lotus online poll by Opinion Stage Thanks for previous vote! Tobacco won't be added to Smokable Herbs. what do you want to see next? Quotes Life is not complex. We are complex. Life is simple, and the simple thing is the right thing. -Oscar Wilde Home Privacy Policy Disclaimers Sitemap Partners Contact us Subscribe to Blog via Email Subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Proudly powered by WordPress

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Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic by catherine yronwode

http://www.luckymojo.com/hoodooherbmagic.html

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HOODOO HERB AND ROOT MAGIC
A Materia Magica of African-American Conjure by catherine yronwode
This is the first book of its kind, presenting accurate botanical information about the roots and herbs that are employed in African-American folk-magic, with sample spells that will show you how to make and use your own mojo bags, spiritual baths, and incense. Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic is a practical manual for those working in traditions such as hoodoo, rootwork, witchcraft, spell-craft, conjure, white magick, black magick, pow-wow magic, hexenkraft, and herb magic. Included are hundreds of easy love spells, money spells,
1 of 5 29-12-13 8:18 AM

Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic by catherine yronwode

http://www.luckymojo.com/hoodooherbmagic.html

protection spells, healing spells, curses, and revenge spells, plus a wealth of botanical lore for the student of herbology. With solid sales and enthusiastic reviews, we believe that Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic is well on its way to becoming a standard in the fields of folk magic and kitchen-witchery. Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic is available in its Third Revised Edition -- more herbal entries than ever, more magic spells than ever -- and no change in price! All copies purchased from The Lucky Mojo Curio Co. Occult Shop or from our online affiliate The Herb-Magic.Com Magical Herb Shop are signed by the author. 224 pages, available in trade paperback softcover ($14.95) or limited edition clothbound hardcover ($39.95). 500 herbs, roots, minerals, and rare zoological curios, with taxonomic ("Latin") names for proper identification. 750 traditional spells, tricks, and magical recipes. These are complete, easy-to-use, and highly practical, designed for readers who want to go beyond the "romance" or symbolism of herb magic and actually mix up and make their own potions, dressing oils, bath crystals, incenses, floor washes, and mojo bags. If you grow or gather herbs, this book will teach you exactly how to use them. 50 black and white line illustrations of common magical herbs and roots of North America. 6 handy charts in which dozens of conditions -- such as love-drawing or protection -- are listed and the herbs for each condition are given in alphabetical order. This saves time when looking for ways to use herbs that are available -- and you can use these charts to find substitutions, if necessary. Cross-referencing: Every herb is accompanied by at least one spell. End-of-entry crossreferences make it easy to find other spells in which the herb is used -- no flipping back to an index: Cross-references are right in the entry itself. Bibliography: Authentic recipes are drawn from first-hand experience and 100 years of solid folkloric research. The author, Catherine Yronwode, is the proprietor of the Lucky Mojo Curio Company, a manufactory for traditional herb-based spiritual supplies. A former staff editor for Organic Gardening Magazine, she has written extensively on subjects as diverse as gardening, home crafts, antiques and collectibles, comic books, rural music, and other aspects of popular culture. She lives in Northern California with her husband, a dog, cats, and chickens. Read these six sample entries from HOODOO HERB AND ROOT MAGIC: Blood Root (Coon Root, Puccoon Root, Red Puccoon, Red Paint Root, Tetterwort) Boneset (Thoroughwort, White Snake Root) Comfrey Devil's Bit (Pincushion Flower, Scabious) Mugwort Wormwood

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Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic by catherine yronwode

http://www.luckymojo.com/hoodooherbmagic.html

HOODOO HERB AND ROOT MAGIC ISBN 0-9719612-0-4 paperback $14.95 ISBN 0-9719612-1-2 clothbound $39.95 Published by The Lucky Mojo Curio Co. 6632 Covey Road Forestville, California 95436

HOODOO HERB AND ROOT MAGIC by Catherine Yronwode, hardcover Originally published in 2002. From the proprietor of the Lucky Mojo Curio Company comes the most thorough, complete, and authentic book on how roots and herbs are used in traditional AfricanAmerican folk magic. 500 herbs, roots, minerals, and zoological curios are listed, along with their scientific names, so you will know exactly what to harvest or buy from an herb dealer. Included are an amazing 750 spells, formulas, mojo hand combinations, and candle rites, all given in workable, practical detail. Medical usages for many of the herbs, supplementary botanical notes, a series of crossindexes listing herbs by the magical conditions for which they are recommended, plus 50 beautiful black and white illustrations of herbs and vintage herb packaging round out this informative reference volume. There is no other herb encyclopedia like this one. This is the book to get if you are working traditional conjure and herb magic. If you order from Lucky Mojo, cat will inscribe your copy to you. 224 pages, cloth bound. HOODOO HERB AND ROOT MAGIC by Catherine Yronwode, paperback Originally published in 2002. From the proprietor of the Lucky Mojo Curio Company comes the most thorough, complete, and authentic book on how roots and herbs are used in traditional AfricanAmerican folk magic. 500 herbs, roots, minerals, and zoological curios are listed, along with their scientific names, so you will know exactly what to harvest or buy from an herb dealer. Included are an amazing 750 spells, formulas, mojo hand combinations, and candle rites, all given in workable, practical detail. Medical usages for many of the herbs, supplementary botanical notes, a series of crossindexes listing herbs by the magical conditions for which they are recommended, plus 50 beautiful black and white illustrations of herbs and vintage herb packaging round out

$39.95 BOO-GRI-HHHC

$14.95 BOO-GRI-HHSC

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29-12-13 8:18 AM

Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic by catherine yronwode

http://www.luckymojo.com/hoodooherbmagic.html

this informative reference volume. There is no other herb encyclopedia like this one. This is the book to get if you are working traditional conjure and herb magic. If you order from Lucky Mojo, cat will inscribe your copy to you. 224 pages, trade paperback.

copyright © 1995-2003 catherine yronwode. All rights reserved. Send your comments to: cat yronwode.

LUCKY MOJO is a large domain that is organized into a number of interlinked web sites, each with its own distinctive theme and look. You are currently reading HOODOO HERB AND ROOT MAGIC by cat yronwode. Here are some other LUCKY MOJO web sites you can visit:
OCCULTISM, MAGIC SPELLS, MYSTICISM, RELIGION, SYMBOLISM Hoodoo in Theory and Practice by cat yronwode: an introduction to African-American rootwork Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic by cat yronwode: a materia magica of African-American conjure Lucky W Amulet Archive by cat yronwode: an online museum of worldwide talismans and charms Lucky Mojo Magic Spells Archive: love spells, money spells, luck spells, protection spells, and more Sacred Sex: essays and articles on tantra yoga, neo-tantra, karezza, sex magic, and sex worship Sacred Landscape: essays and articles on archaeoastronomy and sacred geometry Freemasonry for Women by cat yronwode: a history of mixed-gender Freemasonic lodges The Lucky Mojo Esoteric Archive: captured internet text files on occult and spiritual topics Lucky Mojo Usenet FAQ Archive: FAQs and REFs for occult and magical usenet newsgroups Aleister Crowley Text Archive: a multitude of texts by an early 20th century occultist POPULAR CULTURE Hoodoo and Blues Lyrics: transcriptions of blues songs about African-American folk magic EaRhEaD!'S Syd Barrett Lyrics Site: lyrics by the founder of the Pink Floyd Sound The Lesser Book of the Vishanti: Dr. Strange Comics as a magical system, by cat yronwode The Spirit Checklist: a 1940s newspaper comic book by Will Eisner, indexed by cat yronwode Fit to Print: collected weekly columns about comics and pop culture by cat yronwode Eclipse Comics Index: a list of all Eclipse comics, albums, and trading cards ONLINE SHOPS The Lucky Mojo Curio Co.: old fashioned spiritual supplies for hoodoo and conjure Comics Warehouse: back-issue catalogue of Claypool comics and albums PERSONAL SITES

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Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic by catherine yronwode

http://www.luckymojo.com/hoodooherbmagic.html

catherine yronwode: the eclectic and eccentric author of many of the above web pages nagasiva yronwode: tyaginator, nigris (333), nocTifer, lorax666, boboroshi, ! Liselotte Erlanger Glozer: illustrated articles on collectible vintage postcards Jackie Payne: Shades of Blues: a San Francisco Bay Area blues singer ADMINISTRATIVE Lucky Mojo Site Map: the home page for the whole Lucky Mojo electron-pile All the Pages: descriptive named links to about 1,000 top-level Lucky Mojo web pages How to Contact Us: we welcome feedback and suggestions regarding maintenance of this site

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