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# 1.two cards are drawn without replacement from a deck of 52 cards. What is the probability of drawing two queens?

There are 4 queens out of 52, so the the probability of drawing one on the first draw is 4/52 = 1/13. On the second draw there are 3 queens and 51 cards left, so the prob for the second draw is 3/51 = 1/17. So, just multiply those two, and that is a prob of 1/221

2. What is the probability that one throw of two dice (one red and one green) will result in a sum of 10? The total number of possibilities is 36 because there are 6 sides per die and 6 * 6 is 36. The possible combos of dice that add up to ten are: die 1 die 2 4 6 5 5 6 4 So 3/36 = 1/12 is the prob

3. A bag contains 3 white marbles and 2 black marbles. Two marbles are drawn from the bag with the first marble not being returned to the bag for the second drawing. What is the probability of getting 1 white marble and 1 black marble? There are 5 marbles total On the first draw, there is 3/5 chance of getting a white. On the second draw there are 4 marbles left, and there is a 1/2 chance of getting a black since there are only 2 whites and 2 blacks left. So 1/2 * 3/5 = 3/10 chance

4. A committee of 4 is to be picked from 6 men and 4 women. What is the probabilty that half of the commitee will be made up of women? For each member chosen, there is a 4/10 or 2/5 chance that the person will be female. So for four people, we have 2/5 * 4 = 8/5 of those people are female. For two of those people to be female, we take 8/5 divided by 2, which is 8/10 or 4/5 chance that 2 of them will be female

5. In tossing one die, what is the probability that you will get a six on the first toss, not a six in the second toss, and not a six on the third toss? first toss: 1/6 chance second toss: 5/6 chance third: 5/6 chance 1/6 * 5/6 * 5/6 = 25/216

6. A coin is tossed 3 times. What is the robability of getting: (a) 3 heads (b) 2 heads, 1 tail (c) 1 head, 2 tails, (d) 3 tails?

for each scenario, there is exactly a 1/2 chance of getting either a head or a tail for each toss. Since there are 2 sides, and you toss the coin three times, there are 2^3 = 8 possible outcomes. Here are the outcomes: 1st try 2nd try 3rd try H H H H H T H T H H T T T H H T H T T T H T T T So, a) 3 heads = 1/8 chance b) 2 heads, 1 tail = 3/8 c) 1 head, 2 tails = 3/8 d) 3 tails = 1/8 As you can see, these combos all add up to 8/8.

7. There are 6 red balls and 9 blue balls in a box. (a) if the first ball is replaced before the second ball is drawn, what is the probability of drawing 2 red balls? (b) If the first ball is not replaced before the second ball is drawn, what is the probability of drawing 2 red balls? Total balls = 15 a) first try: 6/15, second try: 6/15 6/15 * 6/15 = 4/25 b) first try = 6/15, second try = 5/14 6/15 * 5/14 = 1/7

8.Two dice (one green and one white) are tossed. (a) What is the probability of getting a sum of 2 or a sum of 12? (B) What is the probability of getting an even number (the sum is even) or a sum that is greater than or equal to 9? A) Colors don't matter here Possible combos of 2: Die 1 Die 2 1 1 Possible combos of 12: Die 1 Die 2 6 6 Only 2 combos out of 36 give you a 2 or a 12, so prob is 2/36 = 1/18 B)Possible combos where sum is even: Die 1 Die 2 1 1 1 3 1 5 2 2 2 4 2 6 3 1 3 3 3 5

4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6

2 4 6 1 3 5 2 4 6

Possible combos where sum is even = 18 Possible combos where sum >= 9 Die 1 Die 2 3 6 4 5 4 6 5 4 5 5 5 6 6 3 6 4 6 5 6 6 Total = 10 Total of that 10 that do not add up to an even sum = 6 Since this is an or problem, we only care about evens or greater than or equal to 9, so we can disregard all greater than or equal to 9s that are even since we already counted the evens. So we have a total of 18 + 6 = 24 combos that work for part B. 24/36 = 2/3 probability

9. One coin and one die are tossed. Make a sample space that will represent all the possible outcomes. What is the probability of getting a tail and at least a four when the coin and die are tossed? All outcomes: COIN H H H H H H T T T T T T DIE 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

There are 12 possibilities, but only 3 yield a Tail and at least a 4. So 3/12 = 1/4 prob

10. Two cards are drawn from a deck of 52 cards without replacement. (a) What is the probability of drawing a face card on the first draw and an ace on the second draw? (b) What is the probability of getting a face card and and ace from the two draws (order is ot important)? Face cards = 4*3 (jack, queen, king) = 12 A) first draw = 12/52 = 3/13 second draw = 4/51 3/13 * 4/51 = 4/221 B) same because you want both a face and an ace. No matter what order you draw in, you get the same prob once you multiply the two probs. EX: first draw to get an ACE = 4/52 = 1/13 second draw to get a FACE = 12/51 = 4/17 1/13 * 4/17 = 4/221

11. What is ther probability if you are dealt 13 cards that they are all of one suit? (Do not calculate, just set up the problem) Here's how to setup the problem: First draw: 13/52 (because there are 13 cards per suit) Second draw: 12/51 Third: 11/50 Fourth: 10/49 Fifth: 9/48 ... Thirteenth: 1/40 AND SO ON AND SO FORTH So the formula is 13!/(52! - 39!) because we go through thirteen cards, and the probabilty's numerator goes from 13 to 1, while the probabilities denominator goes from 52 to 40. 52! - 39! = 52*51*50*...*40

If you are dealt 5 cards, what is the probability that you will get exactly 3 aces (3 of the 5 cards are aces)? (Do not calculate, just set up the problem). First draw need ace: 4/52 = 1/13 Second draw need ace: 3/51 Third draw need ace: 2/50 = 1/25 Fourth draw do not need ace: 48/49 (because only 1 ace is left) Fifth draw do not need ace: 47/48 Probability = 1/13 * 3/51 * 1/25 * 48/49 * 47/48

12. What is the probability of throwing exactly 3 aces in a single throw with 4 dice? First die want ace = 1/6 Second die want ace = 1/6 Third die want ace = 1/6 Fourth die no ace = 5/6 1/6 * 1/6 * 1/6 * 5/6 = 5/1296

13. A person rolls a 6 sided die, and an 8 sided die. (a) create the sample space. (b) also, find the probability of getting a sum of 12. (c) find the probability of getting an even sum or a sum of 11 or more. Die 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Die 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

b) Total combos = 48

Total combos that give a sum of 12 = 3 Prob of getting a sum of 12 = 3/48 = 1/16 c) To get an even sum or a sum of 11 or more, we only need to consider all cases where the sum is even or when the sum is 11, 13, or 15 because we can disregard the even sums above 11 when we already have all even sums. Even sums = 24 Sums of 11, 13, or 15 = 6 24 + 6 = 30 Prob: 30/48 = 5/8

14.The probability that a college student does not graduate is .3 (3/10). Of 5 college students chosen at random, find the probabilty (a) one will not graduate (b) three will not graduate (c) at least 4 will graduate.

a) For each student, there is a 3/10 probability, so since there are 5 students, there is .3 * 5 number of students who will not graduate. .3 * 5 = 1.5 students. But we want to know the probability of 1 not graduating, so we take 1.5/1 = 3/2, so there is a 3/2 chance

b) This works the same. We now do 1.5/3 = 1/2 chance that 3 will not graduate. c) There is a .7 chance that a student will graduate, so .7 * 5 = 3.5 students will graduate. So 3.5/4 = 7/8 chance that at least 4 will graduate.

15. Sharpshooter A hits the targe 1/4 of the time. Sharpshooter B hits the target 2/5 of the time. If they both shoot, what is the probability they at least one sharpshooter will hit the target? Out of every 4 shots, A hits the target 1 time. Out of ever 5, B hits the target twice. So for every 20, A hits 5 and B hits 8. So there are a total of 13 hits for every 20 shots, so there is a 13/20 chance of hitting the target.

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