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1) MIME S/MIME-Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension It is a security enhancement to the MIME internet email format standard based on technology

from RSA data security. The fi e headers are MIME ersion-!.!" content typetype/subtype" content transforms encoding" content I#" content description.

2) PGP (Pretty good privacy) $%$ &as in ented by phil 'immer maan to pro ide email &ith pri acy" integrity and authentication. It can be used to create secure email message or to store a file securely for future retrie al.

3) Modification detection code:

M#( is a message digest that can pro e the integrity of the message) that message has not been changed. Alice can create message digest" M#( and send both to bob.bob can create ne& M#( from the message and compared &ith recei ed M#(. if they are same the message is not changed.

4) Chinese remainder theorem: It is used to sol e a set congruent e*uations &ith one ariable but different moduli"&hich are relati ely prime as sho&n belo& +,a!-mod m!. +,a/-mod m/. . . +,a0-mod m0. ) !irthday attac": A birthday attac0 is a type of cryptographic attac0 that exploits the mathematics behind the birthday problem in probability theory. This attac0 can be used to abuse communication bet&een t&o or more parties. The attac0s depends on the higher li0elihood of collisions found bet&een random attac0 attempts and a fixed degree of permutations -pigeonholes..

#) $ni%&e properties of hashing: Speed of generation of result 1o& uniform the result are There are minimum number of collisions If there are collision it should ha e pro ision of mapping it to the other location

') (ifference )et*een Information sec&rity and Comm&nication sec&rity: Information sec&rity Comm&nication sec&rity

It is a practice of defending information from unauthori'ed access" use" disclosure" disruption" modification" perusal inspection" recording or destination The elements are confidentiality" integrity" possession" authenticity" utility a ailability

It is the discipline of pre enting unauthori'ed interceptors from accessing telecommunications in an intelligible form &hile still deli ering content to the The specialties are crypto security" emission security" physical security" traffic flo& security 2 transmission security

+) Characteristics of good cipher: 3arge 0ey to resist brute-force search $ublished" re ie&ed algorithm a. Security depends entirely on secret of 0ey b. Security cannot depend on algorithm secrecy Resistance to chosen plain text attac0

,) -o.e of mod&.ar arithmetic and prime n&m)ers in cryptographic a.gorithm: Mod&.ar arithmetic: !. In modular arithmetic" &e are interested in only one of the outputs" the remainder 4r5 &e don5t care about the *uotient 4*5. /. This implies that &e can change the abo e relation into a binary operation &ith inputs 4a5 2 4n5 and one output 4r5. Prime n&m)ers: $rime number is a natural number greater than ! that has no positi e di isors other than ! itself. The property of being prime is primarily. it is used in public 0ey cryptography algorithms and also in hash ta0es and pseudorandom number generators. T&o integers a and b are relati ely prime if gcd -a"b.,!. Eg) gcd-/6"7.,gcd-7"/6 mod 7. ,gcd-7"8. ,gcd-!"6. , !.

1/) Compare 0I-$1 and 23-M 0I-$1 23-M a. (omputer irus attaches itself to a a. A &orm is similar to a irus but by program or file enabling it to spread form design is considered to be a sub class of one computers to another" lea ing irus .9orm spread from computer to infections as it tra els. computer. b. iruses &hich re*uires the spreading of b. 9orms are programs that replicate infected host file themsel es from system to system c. Spread &ith uniform programmed &ithout the use of the host file. c. 9orms spread more rapidly than iruses.