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SMASSE INSET MALAWI PROGRESS REPORT IV REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP March 2004

SMASSE INSET MALAWI PROGRESS REPORT IV

SMASSE INSET MALAWI PROGRESS REPORT IV REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP March 2004 Yoshihito

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

REPORT IV REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP March 2004 Yoshihito NAKAYAMA Education Planning Adviser

March 2004

Yoshihito NAKAYAMA Education Planning Adviser Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Malawi

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

Contents

Abbreviation

 

4

I: Overview

5

1: Background

5

2. Purposes 1) SMASSE INSET Malawi 2) Counterpart Training

6

6

6

3. Expected Outputs 1) SMASSE INSET Malawi 2) Counterpart Training

6

6

6

4. Approach

 

7

5. Programme 1) Planned Programme 2) Actual Programme 3) Participant

7

7

8

8

II. Presentation 1 - SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW -

9

1. Overview of SMASSE INSET Malawi Activities in 2002/03 1) History of SMASSE Initiatives in Malawi – Preliminary Stage – 2) Activities in 2003/03 3) Main Outputs and Challenges/Remaining Issues

9

9

9

9

2. Evaluation of Trial INSET (Sep. 2003) 1) Purposes 2) Expected Outputs 3) Programme

11

11

11

12

4) Evaluation of Action Plan of Preparation for Trial INSET 5) Evaluation of Implementation Ability among National Core Trainers

12

13

 

a) Methodology

13

b) Mean of Evaluation Score

13

c) Analysis

14

6) Evaluation of TRIAL INSET Workshop

14

 

a)

Methodology b) Valid Figures

14

 

15

 

c)

Results

15

7) Achievements 8) Challenges/ Remaining Issues

17

17

3. Report SMASSE C/P training in Kenya

17

III. Presentation 2 - Experience of Secondary Teacher Training in Zambia –

24

1.

SMASTE-ZAMBIA

24

1) Background of SMASTE (Strengthening of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education)

 

24

2) Vision Statement

24

3) Mission Statement

24

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

4) Goals

24

5) Objective

24

2. ZASE (Zambia Association for Science Education)

25

1) Background of ZASE

25

2) Aims and Objectives

25

3) Current Activities

25

4) Future Plan

26

3. JETS (Junior Engineers, Technicians and Scientists)

26

1) Background of JETS

26

2) JETS Vision

26

3) JETS Goal

26

4) JETS Objectives

26

5) JETS Activities

27

6) Management Structure

27

7) JETS Membership

27

8) Future Plans

27

9) JETS Fairs

28

10) JETS Regions

28

IV. Presentation 3 – Counterpart Training in Japan –

29

1. Practice of Science Education in Secondary Schools/Mr. T.J. Sanudi

29

2. IT for School Teachers and Staffs/Mrs. Kamala

30

3. Local Education Seminar for Sub-Saharan African Countries/Mrs. Chikondano C. Mussa 30

V. Plan for the Next SMASSE INSET MALAWI

34

1. Listing of Remaining Issues/Challenges and Activities

34

2. Proposed Action Plan for SMASSE INSET MALAWI in 2004-06

35

1) Categorisation of activities for the future

35

2) The Proposed QUICK Way Forward

36

Budgeting INSET activities

36

Approval of TORs for Technical and Steering Committee

36

Finalising Action Plan

36

Preparation for the further Baseline Survey

36

VI. Evaluation of the Workshop

37

1. Results of Evaluation

37

2. Problem Analysis

39

1) Planning of the Workshop

39

2)

Management of the Workshop

40

3. Achievement Evaluation on Expected Outputs

41

Annex 1: List of Participants Annex 2: Proposed Action Plan for SMASSE INSET MALAWI in 2004-06 Annex 3: Evaluation of SMASSE INSET MALAWI Review Meeting Annex 4: Draft of TORs for the Steering Committee and the Technical Committee (revised in Aug. 2003)

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

Abbreviation

ASEI

:

Activity, Student-centred, Experiment and Improvisation

CDC

:

Curriculum Development Centre

CIDA

:

Canadian International Development Agency

C/P

:

Counterpart

CPD

:

Continuing Professional Development

DCE

:

Domasi College of Education

INSET

:

In-Service Education and Training

JETS

:

Junior Engineers, Technicians and Scientists

JICA

:

Japan International Cooperation Agency

JOCV

:

Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers

KSTC

:

Kenya Science Teachers’ College

MoEST

:

Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Malawi

NEC

:

National Executive Committee

PDSI

:

Plan, Do, See, Improve

P.E.O

:

Provincial Education Officer

SMASSE

:

Strengthening Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education

SMASSE-ECSA

:

SMASSE-Eastern, Central and Southern Africa

SMASSE-WECSA

:

SMASSE-Western, Eastern, Central and Southern Africa

SMASTE-Zambia

:

Strengthening of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education -Zambia

SSTEP

:

Secondary School Teacher Education Project

TED

:

Teacher Education and Development

UNZA

:

University of Zambia

WSSD

:

World Summit for Sustainable Development

ZAME

:

: Zambia Association of Mathematics Education

ZASE

:

Zambia Association of Science Education

ZATE

:

Zambia Association for Technology Education

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

I: Overview

I: Overview

1: Background

In February 2000, the SMASSE Kenya Team conducted a regional study in Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia to assess the possibility of regional cooperation for capacity building in science and mathematics education at secondary level. This study proposed the dissemination of experiences of SMASSE Kenya towards other neighbouring countries by combination of the third country counterpart training and in-country training in the mid-/long-term support. In August of the same year, JICA Education Planning Adviser, two officers from the Ministry (Principal Education Methods Adviser in the Headquarter and Senior Education Methods Adviser in South East Education Divisional Office) and the Head of Science Faculty at Domasi College of Education participated in the 2 nd National SMASSE INSET to learn SMASSE activities in Kenya. In February of the following year, 2001, the 1 st SMASSE-ECSA Regional Conference was held in Nairobi where 11 countries 1 were invited to discuss about the issues that each country was facing in secondary education. At the end of the conference, it was agreed to formulate the regional network to elaborate the cooperation to improve secondary education, especially, mathematics and science. It was proposed, on the process of discussions for the regional cooperation with SMASSE Kenya, that from the point of the urgent necessity for supports with immediate effectiveness and efficiency, establishing sustainable INSET system collaborated with the experience and know-how of SMASSE Kenyan experience was important. It also appealed that it would not be imported automatically from Kenya but should be applied in the context of Malawi’s conditions of existing teacher training system, contents of INSET and needs for training. With this appraisal study, the JICA Education Planning Adviser in Malawi visited the 3 rd SMASSE National INSET in August 2001 to make a plan for the Kenya-Malawi Joint SMASSE Workshop for the sensitisation of SMASSE approach to Malawian counterparts. In January 2002, Kenya-Malawi Joint SMASSE Workshop was organised at Domasi College of Education in which ASEI (Activity, Student-centred, Experiment and Improvisation) approach, the features of SMASSE teaching methodology, was demonstrated in Malawi for the fist time. Through this workshop, the importance and necessity to establish SMASSE-typed sustainable INSET system was addressed and be shared among the Malawian counterparts. And March of the same year, the overall action plan to support in-service training system for secondary mathematics and science education in Malawi with special emphasis on regional cooperation was formulated under the tripartite agreement among Kenya Science Teachers’ College (KSTC: the implementing organisation of SMASSE Kenya), JICA Malawi and JICA Kenya Office. Based on this tripartite agreement, between August and November 2002, two counterparts from Malawi (Mrs. Soko, Principle Education Methods Adviser and Mrs. Sineta, Senior Education Methods Adviser 2 ) were participated in the 4 th SMASSE National INSET and the 2 nd SMASSE District INSET in Kenya in order to learn INSET management skills such as planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating and financial management. With these counterparts, JICA Education Planning Adviser based on Lilongwe and Science Education Adviser in Domasi, Malawi visited Nairobi in August 2002, to make detailed schedule and action plan based on the original made in March. Having followed the action plan, 1 st and 2 nd stakeholders’ meeting and needs assessment survey were conducted in between October and December

2002.

1 11 countries are Kenya, Uganda, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Delegates at the 2 nd Regional conference in June 2002, changed the name of the Association from SMASSE-ECSA to SMASSE-WECSA, (Strengthening Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education in Western, Eastern, Central, And Southern Africa), to reflect the inclusion of Ghana representing West Africa.

2 Job titles for two counterparts are as of August 2003.

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

In March and April 2003, the National Trainers’ Training Workshop with SMASSE Kenya Team was held at Domasi College of Education (DCE). This was the second Joint Workshop that both Malawian and Kenyan Team gathered to expose their teaching methodologies in mathematics and science. Moreover, this joint workshop had been taken for not only “continuous workshop to promote mutual relationships with Kenya” but also “the opportunity to appraise the REAL OWNERSHIP to precede SMASSE INSET Malawi”. And in September 2003, SMASSE Malawi core members conducted TRIAL INSET where they actively participated in organising INSET workshop from planning, implementing to monitoring and evaluation. With these experiences since 2000, especially after 2002, we are aware that the overall review on activities is critical to understand what has been done or not been done to move this initiative forward . Moreover, we realise that it is necessary to develop our own action plan in 2004/05 with strong sense of ownership for activities in the past were mainly conducted by following planned schedule made by the Education Planning Adviser in MoEST.

2.

Purposes

There is twofold of proposes in this meeting; 1) SMASSE INSET Malawi

To understand and share what has been done so far, what has not been done and why it happened by reviewing activities of SMASSE Malawi in 2002/03;

To understand our strength and weakness on implementing SMASSE MALAWI INSET by reviewing Trial SMASSE INSET in September 2003;

To plan for the year 2004/05.

2) Counterpart Training

To share knowledge and experience that our colleagues learned through counterpart training;

To apply effects of counterpart training into actual jobs.

3. Expected Outputs

1) SMASSE INSET Malawi

Abstraction of achievements, lesson learned and remaining challenges of SMASSE INSET Malawi activities in 2002/03;

Understanding of achievements, lesson learned through Trial INSET which was conducted in September 2003 for the future implementation of INSET;

Development of Action Plan for 2004/05.

2) Counterpart Training

Sharing experience and knowledge learned through counterpart training programme in Kenya and Japan with other colleagues;

Listing up recommendation to apply these into each daily work to strengthen effectiveness, redness and relevance in education system of Malawi.

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

4.

Approach

This meeting was based on the following principal approaches; Participatory: All participants, who are mainly core members, ministry officials who are

responsible for strengthening INSET system for secondary sub-sector, are encouraged to contribute from their own perspectives and job positions; Output-based: Participatory discussions should lead to productive outputs that would be 1) understanding about our strength, weakness and obstacles, 2) sharing knowledge and experience with colleagues, 3) concrete action plan for the way forward; Subjective: All participants need to participate in the meeting with a strong sense of ownership and self-consciousness that all are subjective of SMASSE activities.

in the meeting with a strong sense of ownership and self-consciousness that all are subjective of

5. Programme

1) Planned Programme

Time

Programme

 

Presenters/Facilitators

7:50-8:10

:

:

:

Registration Welcome Remarks Introduction of Participants

 

All

8:10-8:20

Chairperson

8:20-8:30

All

8:30-12:00

:

Review of Activities 2002/3 under SMASSE INSET Malawi

8:30-8:50

:

:

1) Overview of Activities 2000-2003 2) Evaluation of Trial INSET (Sep.2003)

 

Mr. Y. Nakayama Mr. P-Shonga & Mr. Y. Nakayama Mr. Ndolo + ALL

8:50-9:20

9:20-10:00

:

:

:

3) Discussion: Achievement & Issues ==============Tea Break============== 4) Report SMASSE C/P training in Kenya

10:00-10:30

 

10:30-11:00

Mr. Ndolo & Mr. Msekandiana Mr. Mwanza

11:00-11:30

: 5) Discussion: How can we share/institutionalise their experience into SMASSE Malawi? 6) Presentation from Zambian C/P - Experience of Secondary Teacher Training in Zambia - 7) Q & A : ================Lunch===============

11:30-11:50

 

11:50-12:00

Mr. Mwanza

12:00-13:30

13:30-15:45

: Sharing Knowledge & Experience of C/P Training in Japan

13:30-14:00

:

:

:

:

1) Practice of Science Education for Secondary School Q & A 2) IT for School Teachers and Staffs Q & A

Mr. Sanudi

14:00-14:15

Mr. Msekandiana

14:15-14:45

Mrs. Kamala

14:45-15:00

Mr. Msekandiana

15:00-15:30

:

3)

Local

Educational

Administration

for

Sub-Saharan

Mrs. Muusa

 

African Countries

 

15:30-15:45

:

:

:

Q & A ==============Tea Break============== Plan for the Next

Mr. Msekandiana

15:45-16:00

16:00-17:00

:

- Discussion:

 

Sub-Facilitators:

Identifying; 1) Achievements; 2) Remaining Issues and; 3) Strength, Weakness, Opportunities & Threats (SWOT) 4) What’s next? – List what we should/wish to do

Mr. P-Sohnga

Mr. Ndolo

Mrs. Meke

Mr. Makocho

Mrs. Kamala

Mr. Sanudi

:

:

=> Outputs: Plan for 2004/5 Closing Remarks

 

17:00-17:15

 

Chairperson

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

2) Actual Programme

 

Time

Programme

 

Presenters/Facilitators

8:00-9:00

:

:

:

:

:

:

Registration Welcome Remarks Introduction of Participants Review of Activities 2002/3 under SMASSE INSET Malawi 1) Overview of Activities 2000-2003 2) Evaluation of Trial INSET (Sep.2003)

All

9:00-9:20

Chairperson

9:20-9:30

All

9:30-12:30

9:30-9:50

Mr. Y. Nakayama Mr. P-Shonga & Mr. Y. Nakayama Mr. Mwanza

9:50-10:20

10:20-10:45

: 3) Q & A, Discussion: How can we share/institutionalise their experience into SMASSE Malawi? ==============Tea Break============== : 6) Presentation from Zambian C/P - Experience of Secondary Teacher Training in Zambia - 5) 4) Report SMASSE C/P training in Kenya

:

:

10:45-11:00

 

11:00-11:30

Mr. E. Tindi /Mrs. Ngalande Mr. Ndolo & Mr. Msekandiana Mr. Mwanza

11:30-12:00

12:00-12:30

:

:

7) Q & A ================Lunch=============== Plan for the Next SMASSE INSET Activities - Discussion:

12:30-14:00

 

14:00-15:45

Mr. P-Sohnga

15:45-16:00

:

Identifying; 1) Achievements; 2) Remaining Issues and; 3) Strength, Weakness, Opportunities & Threats (SWOT) 4) What’s next? – List what we should/wish to do ==============Tea Break==============

Mr. Ndolo

16:00-17:30

:

:

:

Sharing Knowledge & Experience of C/P Training in Japan 1) Practice of Science Education for Secondary School 2) IT for School Teachers and Staffs

16:00-16:20

Mr. Sanudi

16:20-16:40

Mrs. Kamala

16:40-17:10

:

3)

Local

Educational

Administration

for

Sub-Saharan

Mrs. Muusa

 

African Countries

 

17:10-17:30

:

Q & A

Mr. Mwanza

:

:

Evaluation of the Meeting/Questionnaire Closing Remarks

 

17:30-17:45

 

Mrs. Mussa

 

/Mr. Mwanza

3) Participant

See Annex 1

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

II. Presentation 1 - SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW -

1. Overview of SMASSE INSET Malawi Activities in 2002/03

1) History of SMASSE Initiatives in Malawi – Preliminary Stage –

Feb. 2000: Regional Study (Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia)

Aug. 2000: Participated in the 2 nd National SMASSE INSET Kenya

Feb. 2001: The 1 st SMASSE-ECSA Regional Conference

Aug. 2001: Participated in the 3 rd National SMASSE INSET Kenya Jan. 2002: Joint SMASSE INSET Workshop at DCE Mar. 2002: Agreement of regional Cooperation between Malawi and Kenya (JICA Kenya, JICA Malawi and KSTC)

2) Activities in 2003/03 Aug. 2002: Participating the 4 th National SMASSE INSET Kenya Aug.-Nov. 2002: Counterpart Training under Regional Agreement Oct. 2002: The 1 st Stakeholders’ Meeting Nov.-Dec.2002: Needs Assessment Survey* Dec. 2002: The 2 nd Stakeholders’ Meeting* Jan. 2003-: Sensitisation within the Ministry Mar. 2003: Participated WSSD Follow-up Meeting @KSTC, Nairobi Apr. 2003: INSET National Trainers’ Training SMASSE Joint Workshop* Aug. 2003: Meeting MoEST and JICA Malawi on Rolling Plan for the way forwardSep. 2003: Trial INSET @DCE* * With technical support from SMASSE Kenya

3) Main Outputs and Challenges/Remaining Issues

Date Activities   Main Outputs   Challenges/Remaining Issues

Date

Activities

 

Main Outputs

 

Challenges/Remaining Issues

     

Two ministry officers, one is working for the headquarter and the other is for divisional education office, were trained in INSET management and became core facilitators of the programme;

Although the counterparts who participated training programme could obtain the knowledge of INSET management, the impact through their job positions (Principal and Senior Education Methods Adviser) were not strong enough to influence the dicision making process in the Ministry; Building the common consensus on policy for INSET programme in the Ministry is identified crutial matter for making progress of the programme; Having compared with the the case of SMASSE Kenya, the capacity at Domasi College of Edcuation has been facing less full-time staff beloging to INSET programme only; A colaboration with other development partners, especially CIDA which has been conducting SSTEP project at Domasi College of Education is still under discussion.

Questionnaires

for

Needs

Third

Country

Assessment Study was developed as the output of training; The draft of Action Plan was made.

Aug.-

Training

1

Nov.

Programme/

 

2002

Technical

Exchange

Programme

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

Oct.

2002

The 1 st

2 Stakeholders

The key principle of SMASSE INSET Malawi and basic policy to support from JICA were formally informed and sensitised to the Four key areas, 1) financial, 2) management and organization, 3) INSET policy, and 4) participation,

were identified and recommendations

MoEST needs to prepare SMASSE-INSET budget and incorporate it into the National Budget; The way of cost sharing between the school level, divisional level and the ministry level is still unclear; The resistance based on ‘allowance syndrome’ is still not overcome; The perspective of INSET is not decided yet, in other words, how extend this programme can be targeting, only mathematics and science or covering all other subjects is not clear; Strengthening the network system with other stakeholders is necessary.

Meeting

 

were set.

   

Staffs of Domasi College of Education (DCE) were given a research opportunity so that it strengthened their research ability; By inviting counterparts from SMASSE Kenya to support data analysis, the regional cooperation was promoted; The following baseline data was collected; General information such as teacher

qualification, experience,

specialization and subjects actually

Although the data collected was good as the first study, it was not enough to support the development of INSET curriculum so that the futher study is prerequisit for the next step; Analytical tools and a logical framework need to be improved;

Nov.-

3 Dec.

Needs

Assessment

2002

Survey

teaching; Teachers’ and students’ attitude in Mathematics and Sciences towards new curriculum, assessment and teaching methodology; Topics that teachers and students find difficult; The factors which make students like/dislike Mathematics and Sciences; Possible ways of improving performance in Mathematics and Science.

4 Dec.

2002

The 2 nd

Stakeholders

The identified issues of mathematics and science in secondary education through Needs Assessment Study were reported and shared with stakeholders;

Through the discussion among

The draft of TOR was not approved and constituted by stakeholders due to the lack of authority to commit issues at policy level;

Meeting

 

stakeholders on the draft of Terms of References (TOR) (See Annex 1) in which overall programme design was specified, a sense of ownership and commitment were promoted.

 

Coordination

 

Jan.

2003

in the

5 Ministry on

Identify the list of members of steering committee and technical committee for the programme

Revise the TOR originally made in October 2002 to be approved by the Ministry

TOR with

New PS

 

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

     

Receive and discuss a report on the Needs Assessment Survey for the pilot project

6 Mar.

2003

WSSD

Follow-up

Meeting

(baseline study data) and suggest the way forward;

Approve ToRs and working schedule for the INSET programme for each stakeholder; Formulate the Steering and Technical committee for the project.

   

INSET

Involvement of Qualified Secondary Teachers in the Pilot area and SSTEP area supervisors as core members of INSET National Trainers;

Shortage of DCE staffs seems to be perpetual; Enough budgets for INSET are not surely secured; No clear policy or guidelines of INSET for secondary teachers.

National

Trainers’

7 Apr.

2003

Training

Joint

Workshop

Cooperation with SSTEP Project (CIDA); Budget Planning at DCE and SEED for INSET activities in the next fiscal year.

   

with

 

SMASSE

Kenya

   

Meeting with MoEST on the JICA

Ensure the JICA Policy toward SMASSE INSET MALAWI and Necessary undertakings by Malawian

 

8 Aug.

2003

Rolling Plan for Education Sector

side for the way forward; Identify memberships and roles of Steering Committees and Technical Committee.

     

Capacity in INSET Management for SMASSE Malawi core trainers was strengthen; Inset curriculum, materials and information collection for further

Implementing capacity of DCE in terms of school calendar and shortage of staffs; Vulnerable management structures (no-full time staffs in both Ministry and DCE); Lack of pro-active based attitude for preparation; Problem awareness for further quality improvement; Need to build sustainable funding system;

Need to create incentives for teachers to institutionalise INSET.

Sep.

2003

9 Trial INSET

improvement were verified;

Africa Regional Cooperation under SMASSE-WECSA was promoted; Ownership was strengthen; Some cost-sharing was achieved; Framework of cooperation with CIDA SSTEP was strengthen.

   

2. Evaluation of Trial INSET (Sep. 2003)

1) Purposes

The purposes of this TRIAL INSET were as follows; To strengthen the capacity of National Core Trainers of SMASSE Malawi in INSET planning,

management and evaluation by conducting TRIAL INSET;

To verify the validity of INSET curriculum, lesson plans that were made for this workshop so that they can be improved for further activities;

To promote African Regional Cooperation between Malawi and Kenya.

2) Expected Outputs

The followings were expected outputs in order to achieve the above three main purposes. 1)-1National Core Trainers of SMASSE Malawi shall learn logistical procedures in planning INSET programme and running training workshop; 1)-2National Core Trainers of SMASSE Malawi shall enhance self-confidence in planning and management of INSET as well as sense of ownership through conducting TRIAL INSET; 2)-1Developed INSET curriculum and lesson plans shall be tested their validities; 2)-2Information for improving INSET curriculum shall be collected; 2)-3Teaching methodologies based on ASEI/PDSI shall be more sensitised among participant;

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

3)-1Knowledge and experiences for the lesson reform shall be shared with Kenya SMASSE Team; 3)-2Human resource networks under SMASSE-WECSA Association shall be strengthen among the members of SMASSE Kenya, MoEST Malawi, and National Core members of SMASSE Malawi.

3) Programme 5 days: 1 st – 5 th September Summary of Main Activities on each day1 st DaySetting up the workshop with lecture-based seminar 2 nd DayASEI Lesson exposure by National Core Trainers followed by peer 3 rd DayDeveloping lesson plans based on ASEI and holding lecture-based seminar 4 th DayPeer teaching based on lesson plans for further improvement and holding seminar 5 th DayExposing lessons developed at neighbouring secondary schools and wrapping up the workshop

4) Evaluation of Action Plan of Preparation for Trial INSET

It cannot to be said that the actual practice of action plan, which was made by strong initiatives from Malawian counterparts as mentioned above, was on/along the schedule. Table 3 shows evaluation for each activity.

EVALUATION OF IMPLEMENTATION ABILITY OF ACTION PLAN

 

Activities

Evaluation

a

Set up College Based INSET Committee

b

Further Baseline Study

×

c

Finalise INSET Curriculum

×

d

Develop INSET Modalities

e

Subject Group Meeting

f

Develop Training Manuals

×

g

Plan Lessons (resources)

h

Procurement of Materials

j

Peer Teaching Among Core Trainers

k

INSET Programme

l

Identify Trainees from Secondary Schools

m

Invitation of Trainees

◎ :Done on schedule

○ :Delayed to implement, however, there was no negative impact on programme

△ :Delayed to implement so that there were negative impact on programme

× :Not Done

“Setting up college based INSET committee” was the only activity done on/along the action plan. All other preparations were delayed to practice or never done.

This report should point out, especially, that there are three activities undone; 1) Further Baseline Study; 2) Finalise INSET Curriculum; and 3) Develop Training Manuals. Concerning to 1), the

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

proposal made by DCE came out; however, it was after the middle of July so that time could not allow us to conduct. Moreover, there was inconsistency between expected outputs and its study approach. About 2), the INSET curriculum for this TRIAL INSET was developed but the comprehensive one for each subject has not completed yet. And there is almost no progress on activity 3). It suggests that more effective and structured technical assistance is necessary in these areas to avoid to be forced to manage INSET at day-to-day basis in the future. Besides, the activities which are evaluated as “” – delayed to implement, however, there was no negative impact on the programme – also should be reflected on the way forward, otherwise, it can be understood that “if there was no problem, it was not problem” but this logic is really lack of critical thinking.

5) Evaluation of Implementation Ability among National Core Trainers

a)

Methodology

On the final day of the workshop, wrap-up discussion was conducted by all participants and in which one of the main purposes of the workshop – strengthening the capacity of INSET management among core trainers and its evaluation – was explained again and had an open discussion. After that, evaluation questionnaire (Annex 4) was distributed with instructions from facilitators to participants for filling the form.

b) Mean of Evaluation Score

There are two categories in evaluation form; 1) Plan, and 2) Do. Contents of evaluation and their indicators are as follows.

4: Excellent, 3: Very Good, 2: Good, 1: Average, 0: Below Average 3.5 M 4.0: Attained, 2.5 M 3.5: Attaining, 0.0 M 2.5: Needs Effort

Evaluation against implementation ability among National Core Trainers

Category

Contents of Evaluation

Mean

Overall

 

3.077

P1

Appropriateness of INSET Programme/Work Plan

2.913

P2

Appropriateness of INSET materials

3.391

P3

Arrangement of facilities and equipment used in INSET workshop

3.130

P4

Local availability of INSET materials

3.087

P5

Demonstration of appropriate INSET

3.130

P6

On-time distribution of INSET materials along the programme

2.609

P7

Participation approach in planning INSET programme

2.826

P8

Fairness of roles taken by each core trainers

3.130

D1

Management capacity along INSET programme

2.870

D2

Time Management

2.565

D3

Appropriateness of usage of local available resources

3.217

D4

Effective and efficient usage of INSET materials

3.217

D5

Participation approach in implementation of INSET programme

2.957

D6

Effective facilitation of sessions

3.304

D7

Harmonised and collaborative relationships among core trainers, participants and support staffs

3.304

D8

Ensuring participations of trainees

3.391

D9

Ensuring training evaluation on appropriate time

3.261

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

Overall

4.000 D9 P1 3.500 D8 P2 3.000 2.500 D7 P3 2.000 1.500 1.000 D6 P4
4.000
D9
P1
3.500
D8
P2
3.000
2.500
D7
P3
2.000
1.500
1.000
D6
P4
0.500
0.000
D5
P5
D4
P6
D3
P7
D2
P8

D1

c)

Analysis

OverallAll indicators show “Attaining” stage. The ability to conduct INSET of SMASSE Malawi National Core Trainers was evaluated as “Fair” although this was the first INSET for them. However, there can be observed some fluctuations in categories. Categories given less than “3” need immediate action for improvement and the ones given more than “3” need further development.

PlanPlanning for the usage of INSET materials is obtained fairly high point of evaluation. However, “P6On-time distribution of INSET materials along the programme” and “P7: Participation approach in planning INSET programme” are with the grade of lower than “3”. That can lead to comparative lower score on “P1: Appropriateness of INSET Programme/Work Plan”.

DoIndicators relating to human relationships such as “D6: Effective facilitation of sessions”, “D7Harmonised and collaborative relationships among core trainers, participants and support staffs” are relatively high. On the other hand, “D1: Management capacity along INSET programme” and “D2: Time Management” reveal lower evaluation from participants. Insufficient preparations for the programme and a lack of understanding about necessary roles undertaken by each trainer possibly affect negative impact on these indicators. Concerning to “D5: Participation approach in implementation of INSET programme”, it is presumed that insufficient practices on planning stage could affect on implementation stage.

6) Evaluation of TRIAL INSET Workshop

a)

Methodology

The Pre- and Post-Evaluation were conducted before and after this TRIAL INSET in order to assess impact of this workshop toward participants. The Pre-evaluation was done on the first day soon after morning break; however, it was not with appropriate instructions from core trainers so many invalid answers or oversight of questions were found. Then, on the second day, that was taken again with sufficient instructions. The Post-evaluation was conducted after the wrapping-up discussion on the final day.

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Grade

b) Valid Figures

Subject

Pre

Post

Mathematics Science & Technology Biology Home Economics

15

9

7

4

8

5

4

4

Total

34

22

c) Results

A B C D E F

A

B

C

D

E

F

       

Ability to

 

Ability to evaluate pupils’ understanding and teaching methodologie s of their own

Ability to use variety of teaching methodologie s to help understanding

Ability to develop lesson plans and use local available resources

handle under

Ability to

Contents of

Consistency purposes of lessons and its methodology

poor

apply and

Evaluation

conditions

introduce

in each

with

local available

category

experiment

resources into

 

and teaching

lesson

   

materials

No. of

           

Questions

8

15

9

9

7

19

Criteria of Scoring 4: Strongly Agree, 3: Agree, 2: Not Sure, 1: Disagree, 0: Strongly Disagree 3.5 M 4.0: Can be sustained, 2.5 M 3.5: Positive but needs confirmation 0.0 M 2.5: Define change of attitude required

Math.
Math.

4.000

3.500

3.000

2.500

2.000

1.500

1.000

0.500

0.000

Pre Post 3.250 3.148 3.158 3.063 3.000 2.951 2.873 2.667 2.554 2.474 2.416 2.391 2.341
Pre
Post
3.250
3.148
3.158
3.063
3.000
2.951
2.873
2.667
2.554
2.474
2.416
2.391
2.341
2.067
Overall
Category A
Category B
Category C
Category D
Category E
Category F

Graph 1::::Impact Evaluation of the Workshop (Mathematics)

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Science & Technology Pre Post 4.000 3.500 3.219 3.063 3.056 3.083 3.107 3.079 2.833 2.815
Science & Technology
Pre
Post
4.000
3.500
3.219
3.063
3.056
3.083
3.107
3.079
2.833
2.815
2.810
3.000
2.533
2.508
2.429
2.390
2.500
2.246
2.000
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
Overall
Category A
Category B
Category C
Category D
Category E
Category F
Grade

Graph 2::::Impact Evaluation of the Workshop (Science & Technology)

Biology Pre Post 4.000 3.771 3.700 3.716 3.689 3.639 3.493 3.467 3.500 2.900 2.917 2.895
Biology
Pre
Post
4.000
3.771
3.700
3.716
3.689
3.639
3.493
3.467
3.500
2.900
2.917
2.895
3.000
2.813
2.813
2.768
2.583
2.500
2.000
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
Overall
Category A
Category B
Category C
Category D
Category E
Category F
Grade

Graph 3: Impact Evaluation of the Workshop (Biology)

Home Economics Pre Post 4.000 3.833 3.700 3.667 3.637 3.625 3.614 3.381 3.500 3.000 2.594
Home Economics
Pre
Post
4.000
3.833
3.700
3.667
3.637
3.625
3.614
3.381
3.500
3.000
2.594
2.500
2.367
2.250
2.124
1.917
1.905
2.000
1.711
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
Overall
Category A
Category B
Category C
Category D
Category E
Category F
Grade

Graph 4::::Impact Evaluation of the Workshop (Home Economics)

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7) Achievements Core trainers were capacity built in INSET Management; INSET Curriculum, Materials and Information Collection for Further Improvement were verified; Africa Regional Cooperation Under SMASSE-WECSA was promoted; Ownership was strengthened; Cost-Sharing was achieved; Framework for Cooperation with CIDA SSTEP Project was strengthen.

8) Challenges/ Remaining Issues Tight School Calendar of DCE and insufficient Implementing Capacity in staffing; Vulnerable Management Structure; Insufficient ability of “Action/Implementation” on The Preparation for Workshop; Deepening Awareness of The Issue for Further Quality Improvement; Unfixed Funding System for Creating INSET Operation Cost;

Necessity of Creating Incentives for trainees (teachers) for Institutionalising INSET into system.

3. Report SMASSE C/P training in Kenya

The third country counterpart-training programme comes under SMASSE-WECSA Association Phase II Implementation Programme with the support of WSSD (World Summit for Sustainable Development) where SMASSE-WECSA is registered with UN under type 2 Initiatives – as capacity development for science and mathematics education in Africa.

<Participants> Participants to this programme were both pre-service and in-service secondary school mathematics and science teachers/educators. These people have direct contact with the classroom teachers who are the primary focus on the programme since it wants to change the situation at classroom level. There were 42 participants from 7 countries including: Zambia, Mozambique, Lesotho, Uganda, Rwanda, Malawi and Nigeria, which came on an observer mission.

<Aims of the Project> The following are the aims of the project:

To contribute to;

- The development of human resource who will promote the advancement of developing countries;

- The promotion of mutual understanding and friendship among those who are concerned with the training programme.

<Specific Objectives> To enable participants to:

- Understand and practice ASEI/PDSI lessons;

- Develop both pre-service and in-service teacher training curricula and materials based on ASEI/PDSI;

- Understand the importance of developing sustainable in-service teacher training system;

- Share and exchange innovative and promising classroom practice.

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<Overview of the Training Programme> The course was covered through various modes of delivery including lectures, lesson demonstrations practical teaching, practical work and field trips. The course was divided into 4 themes; one theme a week as follows:

*Week 1:

Attitudes: cross cutting issues with a heavy bias on attitude namely – gender issues in science and mathematics education, new trends in maths and science education, adolescent psychology, communication, INSET system construction work planning (PDSI approach), monitoring and evaluation, country baseline survey reports, SMASSE and ASEI Movement.

*Week 2:

Subject based issues of attitude including difficult topics (country based); developing ASEI/PDSI lesson plans for actualisation in Kenya school.

*Week 3:

Actualisation of ASEI/PDSI lessons in Kenya schools; evaluation and teaching improved lessons.

*Week 4:

INSET design matrix, (focus on Kenya SMASSE-WECSA experience), planning INSET construction for individual countries, and INSET programme evaluation, evaluation of the training programme.

<Details of Weekly Activities> *Week 1 Baseline surveys The findings of baseline studies carried out in Zambia, Kenya and indeed Malawi brought out a lot of issues affecting mathematics and science education. The current INSET curriculum for SMASSE-Kenya is developed from this survey, plus findings from follow-up survey by the curriculum review committee. Of interest to Malawi, is the fact that Kenya found the second follow-up survey necessary to determine what actually was the problem with the topics identified as difficult by both the teachers and pupils. Malawi situation begs for a similar second survey even more. The first survey was conducted when most schools, teachers and pupils had not covered much of the new curriculum; meaning that many reasons were based on previous curriculum and anticipated problem areas. It is intriguing, however, to see the consistency between teachers’ and pupils’ response on the identified topics. It is also heartening to know that where curricula are similar, the difficult topics tend to be the same across the many countries in Africa obviously the countries in SMASSE-WECSA. Following the baseline survey, SMASSE-WECSA categorised the many problems affecting mathematics and science education into areas that SMASSE could handle and those it could not handle, as they required policy changes by government. Issues affecting policy, finances (such as teacher salaries), other than professional and pedagogical issues were directed to relevant authorities. The second unique thing about the Kenya INSET curriculum is that it is addressing only issues as that affects teacher professionals; pedagogy and related ones, e.g. attitude or improvisation because all their secondary school teachers are either diploma holders ore graduates. Where shortfalls occur in staff, the ones hired on temporary basis are teachers with A-level qualification. The question of content mastery for the Kenyan situation and indeed INSET curriculum does not arise.

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The Malawi situation is rather different. About 86% of secondary sector in CDSS where most teachers are T2 teachers with only O-level and primary teaching certificates. The INSET curriculum in Malawi can be made more relevant to the needs of both the teachers and pupil if and only if the aspect of content mastery is incorporated into it.

INSET System Construction Under INSET system construction, SMASSE-Malawi has adopted the key teacher strategy (cascade model, but one direct cascade in the pilot phase) where selected teachers are trained and are expected to pass on the knowledge and skills to others at cluster level. The initial experience of SMASSE-Kenya following this model (more than two cascade) proved ineffective. There was distortion of knowledge and dilutions. To minimise these negative side effects, SMASSE-Kenya has adopted the 2-Tier cascade system in which national trainers train district trainers that in turn directly train classroom teachers at district level.

The 2-Tier cascade system has the following advantages:

Accrual of the conceptualisation of practices of the teachers;

Increased collegial reflection of teaching practices emanating from increased teacher –teacher

interaction; Building capacity in personnel;

Building physical facilities at district level INSET training/resources centres.

The INSET executing body at district level is the district planning committee which does so entirely on its own which includes funding the INSET. However, national INSET team provides the technical support. At district level, SMASSE-Kenya activities are funded locally from contributions from fees paid by pupils in secondary school. The District Education Officers (DEOs), head teachers, at district level have been know to lose their jobs for not appropriating to SMASSE-Kenya these funds and if and when such funds have not been accounted for. Such a mechanism is a strong foundation towards making the INSET sustainable. The harmonious relationship among the district INSET stakeholders has earned the name SMASSE-TRIANGLE:

Administration (DEO, Coordinator)

the name SMASSE-TRIANGLE: Administration (DEO, Coordinator) Sponsors (Heads Association, Parents, Providers) Technical

Sponsors (Heads Association, Parents, Providers)

Technical Team (INSET National Team)

SMASSE TRIANGLE

The Kenyan government has made a deliberate decision to isolate mathematics and science education and give it prominence in their secondary school curriculum because of recognition of the role these subjects play in national development in today’s world of advancement in science and technology. Hence, such policies as getting a small portion of the fees to support science and maths education are appreciated. The government could not charge extra fees towards SMASSE activities

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because parents already have difficulties to pay school fees. This was possible for the government was convinced by the practitioners that this mode was going to allow the powerful tool of INSET provision to produce the desired results in science and maths education in schools. It must also be said here that all trainees to these INSET at both national and district level are not paid any allowances and it is not expected of trainers to do so. National trainers too do not get any facilitation fees (allowances) because it is within the design matrix that this is their job already paid for by their own salaries. However, their salaries have been hiked up a bit to take their new responsibility into account. District INSET trainers are actually practicing classroom teachers, who must do this job of training over and above that of normal classroom teacher. It is for this reason that the trainers are given some facilitation allowance only during training and only for the hours of training.

New Trends in Teaching Approaches Examining new trends in teaching approaches, and methods in science and maths education, it was understood that the ASEI/PDSI approach draws on the advantages from a couple of the approaches that

put pupils at the centre of teaching and learning activities with the teacher as a resource person actively facilitating the learning process. Use of bridging activities, and small-scale experiments that link up with the concepts; and improvisation where possible characterise the ASEI/PDSI approach. In this approach, it is absolutely essential that the teacher adequately plans lessons and writes up these lesson plans. These lesson plans then facilitate the PDSI strategy where either the teacher of the lesson or team of teachers evaluate the taught lesson against the lesson plan and improve on it. The question of writing lesson plans is resented all over despite the proven worthiness of having it. Perhaps the reason for this is the undue focus on exam-oriented teaching, where teachers openly challenge that they produce distinctions at national examinations even without writing a lesson plan. This attitude begs the question: Why do we teach mathematics and science?

In Malawian context, there is no deliberate Government policy that secondary school teachers

should not write lesson plans. Indeed one can ever pass his or her diploma or degree in education

without one since it is a primary requirement during mandatory teaching practice. During school-based supervision of lesson delivery and indeed supervision at divisional level, no

supervisor ever insists on seeing a written lesson plan: nor would one be reprimanded for not having one.

A written lesson plan must be ASEI/PDSI based lessons. It is therefore imperative for

SMASSE-Malawi to be very clear on what it expects of its maths and science teachers with respect to written lesson plans. Actualisation of an ASEI/PDSI based lesson without a written lesson plan is very difficult if not at all impossible. In fact, it defeats the very essence of PDSI, which is considered the vehicle ASEI compliant state. Similarly, in the event that it insists on written lesson plans, it must be cognisant of the immense challenge that the teachers will face in the initial stages before they have internalised the value and essence of written lesson plans in their professional lives.

*Week 2 During the second week, the participants broke into their subject groups namely Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry and Biology to focus on the issues that affect the subjects in greater detail. Each subject group had two country representatives except for Uganda, which had one each for Mathematics, Chemistry and Malawi which had one representative for Mathematics and Chemistry respectively.

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Where the activities demanded that each country discuss the issues and present a country situation report, Malawi had quite some problem and what there were more of Malawian counterparts in the subject group was required. Drawing on the country baseline surveys and experiential knowledge, plus discussions from the Kenya INSET several issues that affect Chemistry education were highlighted. These included the followings:

Teachers’ inability to interpret the syllabus correctly resulting in teachers’ failure to relate the curriculum objectives with the appropriate level of content; Poor content mastery emanating from college background. For Malawi, this is attributed also to basic lower academic qualification of teachers since most are T2 teachers; Inadequacy of teaching and learning resources in the form of reference material/apparatus/chemicals due to poor prioritisation by school management where more focus is on capital formation rather than on a academic programmes.

Students highlighted the following issues among many:

Tackling the attitude problem through exposing participants to the INSET with opportunities to engage in discussions where problems encountered in their topics are highlighted and solutions developed by colleagues shared; Provision of hands-on activities where a variety of experiments alternative to the conventional ones requiring safety measures are given; Exposure to improvisation techniques where participants are encouraged to be innovative and reduce overspending on chemicals by carrying out small-scale experiments and using improvised equipment and apparatus.

Participants were adequately inducted through improvisation; not so much on to how to generate ideas of what can be improvised, but rather experiencing generation of improvised apparatus and seeing it work. The improvised work was also evaluated for its sustainability as an effective bridge. The role of ASEI/PDSI in Chemistry lessons was overemphasised, especially on the two aspects

of:

-

Linking up the activity to the concept, which is called bridging, where results of the activities facilitate the explanation of theories and concepts. Teachers should desist from involving learners in activities that do not have any link with the theories and concepts to be learnt;

-

Teacher’s self-evaluation of a lesson and student evaluation of a lesson. It was a key to the ASEI/PDSI approach that the teacher provides and allows for evaluation of the lesson by oneself or colleagues and also by the students. Several ways of carrying out such evaluations were explored.

That one’s lessons being evaluated by others is not a pleasant experience initially. Often one tends to be critical and defensive. However, lesson evaluation is not teacher evaluation though there is a thin divide between the two. When properly conducted and with time, this exercise becomes very rewarding and teachers begin to look forward to it. In fact, experience has shown that in such cases, teachers actually deliberately invite their colleagues into their lessons to help them evaluate the lessons so they can improve the subsequent lesson deliveries. In the Malawian context, Head of Departments and Head teachers have been given the mandate to do this on a regular basis. There are problems associated with this arrangement, but it is one that must be encouraged.

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What is not practiced is the use of students to evaluate lessons. Teachers actually get offended when students evaluate their lessons. Teachers question if at all the students are able to evaluate lessons. Arguing that they do not have the competence to do so. However, students are strategically placed to make very useful evaluation of a lesson.

The role of assessment The role of assessment in enhancing teaching and learning in chemistry was also explored. To achieve this there was a need for a clear identification of the expected learning outcomes and stating them in measurable terms. Yet teachers rarely reflect on such as they teach. To increase validity and reliability of test items, the use of table of specifications becomes imperative. In the Malawian context, very few teachers ever develop their own test items using such a table of specifications. Often test items are sub-standard or at best merely adaptations of MANEB (Malawi National Examination Board) test items. In fact, the skill to make proper test items using the specification table is a rare skill among secondary school teachers.

Aspects of laboratory management, safety and techniques Several aspects of Laboratory Management, safety and techniques were examined. Selected examples of experiments perceived difficult and dangerous were highlighted and alternatives discussed. It was agreed that the absence of qualified Laboratory assistants in some schools made this exposition even more important for most teachers in our countries.

Teaching manuals The rationale for the development of teaching and learning manuals for chemistry to supplement the school textbooks was that such appropriate materials developed to meet classroom needs, facilitate the full utilisation of teachers’ capabilities and help teachers to accomplish more and better results. Teaching manuals are not a common feature in our schools but teachers’ guides where they exist would compensate for their absence. Development of the same in Malawi would go along way in helping the teaching of Physical Science since we do not have a complete textbook for the new syllabus. Physical Science for Malawi book 1 & 2 are good substitutes for such a textbook. The rest of the week was devoted to the development of ASEI/PDSI lesson plans in readiness for the actualisation in the third week. These lesson were developed individually but were critiqued as a group.

*Week 3 Hands-on experiences The third week was spent on actually experiencing ASEI/PDSI in Kenyan schools. Participants were given an opportunity to teach the lessons they developed in third week. These lessons were critiqued and the participants re-taught the improved lessons. The second lessons were greatly improved lessons, in fact, it was all joy on the part of the participants and students as these lessons were taught.

Important lessons learnt during this time included the following:

The teacher must be open-minded and accept suggestions that colleagues give based on the progress of the lesson, bearing in mind that it is not the teacher being critiqued but the lesson; There is a lot of value in evaluating the lesson because even though the best lesson may have been planned, there is always room for improvement.

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*Week 4 Development of Country based INSET systems and INSET design matrix. The fourth week was devoted to participants developing country based INSET systems drawing on the experience from their countries and the training. This exercise was consolidated by a presentation on INSET design matrix.

<Evaluation and Closing> Finally, the participants evaluated the one-month training. All aspects of the training were evaluated. The training was officially closed by the Vice Chancellor of Jomo Kenyatta University, the ceremony being graced by the Ambassador of the Philippines to Kenya, and the second secretary in the office of the high commission of Mozambique to Kenya and the JICA country representative Kenya.

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III. Presentation 2 - Experience of Secondary Teacher Training in Zambia –

1. SMASTE-ZAMBIA

1) Background of SMASTE (Strengthening of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education) SMASTE-Zambia is a movement which was formed to explore the way of promoting teachers’ professional development in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. Concerned parties in Mathematics Science and Technology Education have initiated this after realising the serious decline of teaching and learning of these subjects in classes at Secondary/High school level in Zambia. The idea of SMASTE (Zambia) Movement was conceptualised during the regional conference on Maths and Science Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya from 19 th to 22 nd February 2001 (The 1 st SMASSE-ECSA Regional Conference). Arising from this conference was the formation of an interim committee with the responsibility of setting up SMASTE-ZAMBIA. The Interim Committee comprises in INSET (In-Service Education and Training) unit of TED (Teacher Education Development) and INSET providers in the Ministry of Education, Zambia Association of Mathematics Education (ZAME) and Zambia Association of Science Education (ZASE), Zambia Association for Technology Education (ZATE), Secretariats (JETS) and Lecturers from teacher Education Department of Mathematics and Science, University of Zambia (UNZA) and Nkrumah Secondary Teachers College.

2) Vision Statement Quality teaching fro enhanced learning in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education.

3) Mission Statement To strengthen the teaching and learning of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education through teachers’ driven Continuing Professional Development (CPD), research and exchange of information nationally and internationally in collaboration with Mathematics, Science and Technology related professionals, administrators and other interested stakeholders at all levels. SMASTE-Zambia is jointly funded by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Ministry of Education, Zambia.

4) Goals

2)

To develop and promote teachers’ continued professionalism (CPD);

3)

To publicise to and sensitise the public about SMASTE and subject association;

4)

To establish strong administrative support structures;

5)

To establish financial support structures and revenue base.

5) Objective 1) To promote learner centred methods of teaching and context based approaches in teaching Science and Mathematics;

2) To enhance professional interaction and exchange of ideas amongst Mathematics, Science and Technology educators in and outside the country;

3)

To develop teaching and learning materials for mathematics, science and technology;

4)

To establish training courses for teachers of Science and Mathematics;

5) To build capacity within subject association by developing and strengthening collaborative

links.

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2. ZASE (Zambia Association for Science Education)

1) Background of ZASE

Science teachers formed the Zambia Association for Science Education (ZASE) in 1968. This is a professional teachers association arising from the fact that when a person finishes college s/he still needs in-service training for effective teaching. However, its membership is open to any interested parties in promoting quality Science. The Ministry of Education recognizes the activities of the association and it falls under the TED and Inspectorate Department. Since then, the association has been active in improving the teaching and learning of science in Zambia. In line with its constitution, the association has an executive, which is elected by paid up members every two years and has a honorary president (Professor J.N. Zulu). Membership is drawn from all over the country. The Provincial Senior Inspector of Science and provincial INSET providers help the provincial ZASE executive, while the District Inspector of Schools help district committees.

2) Aims and Objectives The aims of the association are among other things to:

- Promote co-operation among science educators in Zambia in order to raise the standard of science education in Zambia;

- Provide a forum for discussion by science educators on matters of common interest;

- Popularise science;

- Co-operate and affiliate other associations and bodies with similar interest.

The objectives being to:

- Encourage exchange of ideas among educators through meetings, workshops, conferences, Junior Engineers, Technicians and Scientist (JETS) exhibitions and similar activities;

- Publish Science Journals and Newsletters;

- Interact with all parties concerned with science and technology education within and outside the country or region;

- Liase with Ministry of Education, Curriculum Development Centre (CDC), Universities, ZAME, ZAGEDA and such other bodies concerning science and technology education.

3) Current Activities

ZASE

has

been

restructuring its

activities

so

that

it

can

march

it

activities

with

current

developments in science and technology. Some of the activities we have been involved in being:

- Production of Newsletter and Broacher;

- Establishment of an office secretariat at National Science Centre;

- Collaborating with ZAME, JETS, UNZA, MOE, TRC’s, College and JICA/JOCV in the production of a SMASTE-Zambia programme;

- Affiliating with regional and international associations like Commonwealth of Learning, SAARMSTE, AFCLIST, CASTME and we are in the process of affiliating to Association for Science Education in UK;

- Strengthening partnership with JOCV in the production of past exam papers and exam council has just approved copyright permit;

- Holding teaching demonstration with some JOCV volunteers;

- Production of Teaching/Learning materials.

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4) Future Plan

- Having a well organised ZASE at District and Zone Level;

- Constitutional review;

- Development of strategic plan;

- Promote and strengthen school based action research;

- Strengthen and broaden resource mobilization;

- Production of quality science journals and newsletter;

- Popularisation of ZASE in order to make members see the benefits of belonging to ZASE;

- Organise institutionalised effective teaching demonstrations;

- Networking the secretariat with other association within and outside the region;

- Common mock examinations for the whole country in affiliate school;

- Being part of the development and launching and effective SMASTE-Zambia programme;

- Working with other voluntary organisation such as JOCV, VVOB, FEMSA etc. in the development of teaching and learning materials.

3. JETS (Junior Engineers, Technicians and Scientists)

1) Background of JETS The JETS, established in 1968, is a national educational organisation which coordinates the out-of-class co- and extra-curricular science and technology activities of the youth in Zambia. It is a countrywide network. JETS is jointly funded by the Government through the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training and the National Science and Technology Council. JETS provides modest grants to the eleven regional to carry out activities on issues of Science and Technology Education in Zambia. The grant is disseminated to the Regional Education Organising Committees through the Provincial Education Officer (P.E.O.) for each Province. The JETS Secretariat is based at the School of Engineering of the University of Zambia. It is managed by a Secretary and a deputy Secretary, both assigned by the Inspectorate of the Ministry of Education Headquarters. The Secretariat has an administrative Secretary as well. The Patron of JETS is the Serving Republican President.

2) JETS Vision Popularised Science and Mathematics in Schools and Colleges as well as among out of school youth through high quality projects in the form of prototype models, Olympiads and researched paper presentations on topics relevant to National Development. To ensure the production and display of innovative and high quality scientific and mathematical projects that provides solutions to local problems.

3) JETS Goal To promote and popularise science and mathematics education among all the youths.

4) JETS Objectives

- To broaden teachers’ knowledge about science and mathematics projects;

- To acquaint pupils in initiating and developing projects in science and mathematics;

- To constitute, through the National Science and Technology council, a refinement and quality control committee for upgrading projects;

- To improve the awareness of JETS Activities among stakeholders (pupils in particular and the public in general);

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- To mobilise adequate revenue for JETS activities;

- To develop a JETS complex to host all JETS activities;

- To initiate and enhance collaborative partnerships with relevant stakeholders;

- To motivate professional volunteers to participate effectively in JETS activities;

- To monitor, evaluate and review JETS activities.

5) JETS Activities To achieve its objectives and mission, JETS undertakes several activities including:

- Creation of JETS clubs in schools;

- Organisation of school, district, regional and national Science Fairs, Science Olympiads and Quizzes;

- Conducting sensitisation workshops for stakeholders;

- Dissemination of scientific and technical information through the “JETS of Zambia” Newsletter Publications;

- Providing technical and academic assistance to student projects.

6) Management Structure The JETS Management Structure is composed of:

- A National Executive Committee (NEC) of fifteen recognised experts in the Science and Technology field representatives of the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training, the University of Zambia and the Forum for African Women Educationalists in Zambia. The NEC is responsible for policy decisions, approval of work programmes and recruitment for JETS Secretariat personnel and supervision.

- A Secretariat headed by the National Coordinator in charge of the day to day execution and management of JETS programmes and activities. The Secretariat is comprised of a JETS Secretary, assisted by a deputy secretary and served by an administrative secretary.

- A Steering Committee responsible for mounting the Annual National Fairs. The Steering Committee is composed of chairperson of the following sub committees: Adjudication, Accommodation, Catering, disciplinary, Prizes, Olympiads and Publicity.

- The Regional focal points in each of the eleven participating regions. These are Science or Mathematics teachers appointed by the district focal persons to coordinate JETS activities in their respective regions.

7) JETS Membership Any person with interest in the fields of Mathematics, Science, Engineering or Technology Education may be admitted as a member of JETS. Membership to JETS is extended to individuals and institutions under the following categories: Honorary Fellow, Fellow, Corporate Institutions, Corporate Associations, Corporate Companies, Member, Associate and Student.

8) Future Plans

- To strengthen school clubs by providing materials and support literature in school libraries;

- To focus on generating interest in science careers among girls;

- To provide industrial visits and attachments for teachers and pupils;

- To lobby line Ministries to include JETS objectives in their policy documents;

- To produce academic literature for sale;

- To closely monitor, evaluate and review all JETS activities;

- To collaborate with other associations with similar objectives;

- To effectively participate in international science Olympiads and fairs.

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

9) JETS Fairs School Fairs: Schools organise their own JETS Fairs for club members. Winners of the school fairs enter the district fair. Funds are provided by the club and school.

District Fairs: Districts organise their own JETS Fairs for schools in the district. Winners of the district fairs enter Regional Fair. Funds are provided by levying schools for affiliation.

Regional Fairs: Regions organise their own JETS Fairs for the districts in the region. Winners of the Regional fairs enter the National Fair. Funds are provided by Ministry of Education through the National Executive Committee. There are 11 regions covering all the provinces of Zambia.

National Fair: The National Fair is held every year during the August school holiday. Funds are provided by the Ministry of Education as an annual grant to JETS.

10) JETS Regions There are eleven JETS regions. These are Central (6 districts), Copperbelt North (5), Copperbelt South (5), Eastern (8), Luapula (7), Lusaka (4), Northern (12), North-Western (7), Southern “A” (6), Southern “B” (5) and Western (7).

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

IV. Presentation 3 – Counterpart Training in Japan –

1. Practice of Science Education in Secondary Schools/Mr. T.J. Sanudi

Vision Statement Malawi can achieve its

developing a society that is technologically advanced

goal of institutionalising and regularising INSET activities toward

Goal and Objective The course was designed by Hiroshima University in Japan to provide practical skills on science experiments and observation to personnel involved in science education. The course provided training programmes in Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, Physics and Science Education.

Goal and Objective Understand the system and teaching methodology of science education in Japan; Acquire experimental and observation skills in science subjects; Develop low cost teaching and learning materials for science and their practical application; Design a teaching plan.

Course Activities Lectures; Science experiments; Study tour; School visits; Individual training.

Achievements Understand Japanese system of education; Acquired experimental and observation skills in the teaching of science; Develop a positive spirit of developing low cost materials for teaching science; Designed a lesson plan in line with the knowledge obtained from the training; Japanese education curriculum was based on short term goals and was revised frequently; In Japan, South Africa and Kenya, teachers are highly motivated; In Japan and Kenya, teacher-promotion is based on teachers’ classroom performance and in-service; Education system in Japan is highly decentralised.

Available Options Institutionalisation of SMASSE Malawi; Make curricula with short term goals; Promote teachers based on classroom work; Scrutinise new practices before adoption; Share teachers’ initiatives.

Recommendation Motivate teachers; Establish a system to monitor, organise INSET.

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

2. IT for School Teachers and Staffs/Mrs. Kamala

Course Objectives

1)

To understand the basics of computer hardware, software and the internet;

2)

To utilise personal computer and the internet;

3)

To utilise information and communication technology in primary and secondary school education.

Curriculum

1)

2) Computer literacy: operation of personal computer, database software usage, presentation using computer, making multimedia teaching materials, internet usage (making homepage); 3) Advanced information technology: multimedia processing, soft-computing, signal processing, control systems;

Basics of information technology (IT): basics of hardware, software and network;

4)

Real application of IT: small group exercise on IT at each laboratory;

5)

Observation tour: visiting schools, universities and IT Projects related to education;

6) General orientation: introduction of Japanese politics, administration and economy, the land and

people of Japan, Japanese language, education and culture, and general information about Okinawa.

3. Local Education Seminar for Sub-Saharan African Countries/Mrs. Chikondano C. Mussa

The general objective of the seminar was to give participants who are in charge of local education administration in Sub-Saharan African countries opportunity to understand the Japanese system of education administration with Sapporo city education board as a case study. This is on the lectures, school visits, discussions, and other activities that were organised by JICA as part and parcel of this course. The report makes a comparative analysis of some selected aspects of the Japanese education system with those of Malawi, it highlights lessons learnt, aspects Malawi can adapt and apply to the education system. Our exposure to Japanese education system has been special and valuable because it has enabled us to have a deeper understanding of the concept of a decentralised system of education administration. We have appreciated the role of the constitution; the education act, regulations and statutes play for make such a system succeed. Malawi will use the knowledge and experiences gained in this very important seminar to improve the set up of local education administration system, which the government is trying to put in place. Although implementation of some aspects of the Japanese system will be very difficult to undertake in our country due to reasons beyond our government’s and our people’s control, we are convinced and are persuaded to conclude that the Japanese local education system administration stands out so highly world over and is one of the best systems worthy emulating.

Course outline

- Lectures

- Study tours

- School visits

- Practical

- Discussions

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

Course Content The course mainly focused on system administration and management with issues ranging from:

local education administration structure and set up, financing such a system in Japan, human resource development and management, curriculum implementation and management, textbook policy, teacher pre-service and in-service training, special needs education, social education, school lunch, lifelong learning, school health, school safety, among others. From these lectures and discussions we learnt that in Japan, the administration of the education is the responsibility of local authorities and these include the prefecture boards of education which are responsible for the running of universities and high schools while municipal/city boards are for kindergartens and elementary schools. This set up is seminar to that of Malawi that has education divisions similar in operation to the Japanese prefecture, and also has districts, which operates more ore less like Japanese city boards of education. However, in Malawi the kindergarten is not under the Ministry of Education but under Ministry of Gender and Women affairs. From these lectures, visits, and discussions Malawi learnt a lot and this report brings the learning areas to the attention of high authorities of the Malawi government for consideration, action and possibly also for implementation.

Learning Areas – Comparative Analysis of the cases of Japan and Malawi – Teacher qualification, teacher pre-service and in-service training programmes Teacher pre-service training in Japan is for 4 years and entrants for these courses end up with either 1 st or 2 nd degree. In some isolated cases, diploma teachers are employed in kindergartens. INSET is for 1) newly employees, 2) 5 years’ employees, 3) 10 years’ employees and principals, 4) 15 years’ employees and vice principals, 5) 20 years and head of department. INSET programmes in Japan are very strategic, well designed, more focused than in many other world system. The government of Japan ensures that all teachers undergo a proper pre-service and compulsory INSET. Law enacts the INSET in Japan. This deliberate policy enhances teachers’ skills, knowledge and competences and as such high quality designed curriculum delivery is ensured. These INSET are organised at all levels of education structure from ,the Ministry of Education, prefectures, and city boards of education. The central office subsidises heavily on making INSET to take place. It is a requirement that the newly licensed teachers, those that have served for 5, 10, 15 and 20 years should undergo these INSET. Noteworthy is also the fact that the city boards of education deploy reserve teachers to take care of the classroom when regular teachers are out for orientations. School administrators also have to take a compulsory INSET course tailor made for school administrators. On the other hand, Malawi does not have formal kindergarten schools and therefore offers no teacher training coursed for this level. The teacher training courses that are now in place in the country are a reaction to crisis of teacher shortfalls in the system. Malawi has a two-year conventional for the elementary teachers, and 3 to 4 years for the secondary levels. Those who go for the 3-year course get out of college with a teaching professional certificate, and they come out as generalists while those who do 3 to 4-year course get either a degree ore a diploma and they come out as subject specialists. The introduction of free primary education which was in 1994 at the advent of multiparty democracy in Malawi created a strain on human, financial and material resources and this in turn forced the government to put in place teaching courses like MIITEP (Malawi Integrated In-service Teacher Training Education Programme). While Japan has graduate teachers across the system, graduate teachers in Malawi are only deployed in secondary schools. The secondary school sector is so handicapped in terms of human resources forcing education administrators to fish from the primary school pool of teachers, where they are also suffering from acute shortage of human resources. While INSET in Japan is compulsory and success story, Malawi struggles to organise similar INSET due to lack of expertise, material and financial resource as well as due to poor teacher attitude toward such activities. In Malawi most often,

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

administrators of education system train on the job and this in some cases renders the system ineffective at various levels.

Special Education

The Japanese education systems’ efforts on children with special needs equal that of normal children. The system is so inclusive; it does not leave out the less able. The government has gone all the way to provide nurse teachers to carry out bedside teaching to those children who are sick in hospital. Regard is also given to different levels of disabilities in terms of curriculum design, material and infrastructure provision as well as disabled pupil-teacher ratio that is 4:1. Pupils with special needs in Japan go to separate schools. Despite the demerits that such system might have, Japan has resolved to give the special needs students, in their special schools very high quality of education. Malawi, on the other hand, pursues integration for children with special needs in the regular schools with such cases. The teaching and learning materials for special education are very scarce and expensive rendering the delivery of quality education very difficult indeed.

Textbook Policy The Japanese education system provides books for every learner at every level and every year. Books once given to a learner are no more government holdings. The onus of textbook provision in all the schools lies squarely on the publisher and government. The government and the publisher provide books twice within one curriculum cycle, and the shelve life of education books is 4 years. This can not be compared to any African education set up. This therefore, means that curriculum implementation is a success story in Japan. It also means that there is very high quality lesson delivery at classroom level. In many African countries on the other hand, curriculum implementation always flops because of lack of books. Although at face value the textbooks policy looks unachievable by many of us, the world still has to learn volumes from the planning to the implementation phases of a curriculum cycle from the Japanese experience.

Language Policy The key of the great success story of Japan lies in the education system that is in place, and also the medium of instruction that Japanese are using to transfer their knowledge, skills and competences from the various sources to their learners. Many educationists and researchers are engaging in heated debates on whether it is right or not to teach children in a local language. The Japanese case has proved that knowledge can be transferred no matter in what subject area you want it, science, maths and everything can be transmitted in the vernacular. The Japanese have shown the world that language develops according to needs.

Similarities of Malawi and Japan

1)

Ministerial functions and responsibilities are similar (e.g. issuing of policy guidelines);

2)

Cost sharing mechanism at secondary level;

3)

Decentralised set – up of the two systems: Japan has prefectures and city boards of education while

4)

Malawi has divisions and districts; Both systems do not have teacher appraisal system;

5)

Examination hell.

Differences of Malawi and Japan 1) Japanese prefectures city boards of education, have autonomy while as in Malawi decentralisation is yet to take place;

2)

There is no inspection in Japan like in Malawi;

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

3)

Japanese system of education is fully backed by law; Teachers in Japan are unionised – they do not go on strikes.

4)

Lesson Learnt

 

1.

For Malawi as a Nation

 

1)

being ambitious, 2) hard working spirit, 3) seeking for peace

2.

The Education System

1) The autonomous decentralised system (local self governing bodies of education – ministry largely renders advice, and assistance to local bodies of education, issues regulations and standards, and curriculum guidelines);

2)

3) Social education (library law, museum law, law for promotion of youth classes, sports promotion law); 4) Education law – e.g. law concerning national treasury share for encouraging school attendance of pupils having financial difficulties, law for promotion of science, private school law, local autonomy law, local finance law.

School education law and statutes;

Some things are not comparable; the Japanese system of education is a system for all – the sick, the challenged, etc. If a child is sick and is hospitalised they still learn because government has deployed teacher nurses who are always by a sick child’s bed side to teach them.

Hypothesis of Transferability We cannot transfer everything Japan is doing into our education system, however, there are things

which I would propose to be considered for transfer into the Malawi system of education and these:

1)

Autonomy of local boards and encouragement, it is also a source of creativity;

2)

The laws of education which aim at quality improvement should also be considered;

3)

Unionisation of teachers – where teachers do not concern themselves with political issues;

4)

Community integration;

5)

Develop a cohesion between the Ministry of Education and Health;

6)

Teacher payments – improved salaries;

7)

Textbook policy, and more especially the pupil:book ratio which in Japan stands at 1:1

Policy Implications For Malawi to transfer, adopt or adapt some aspects from Japanese system, there are some policy implications, e.g.

1)

We need to train a lot of teachers for us to be able to lower our pupil:teacher ratio which now stands

2)

at 60:1 We have to build a lot of infrastructure.

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

V. Plan for the Next SMASSE INSET MALAWI

1. Listing of Remaining Issues/Challenges and Activities

Having identified achievements and challenges in the morning session, participants could have reviewed SMASSE activities in the past one and half years. In the afternoon session, the plan for the next was discussed. First of all, all participants were welcomed to present any ideas through brain streaming to list remaining issues/challenges and necessary activities to solve them. Then, key players or responsible agency to deal with each activity were identified.

Table below is the summary of the discussion.

Remaining Issues/Challenges

Necessary Activities/Items to be covered

Responsible Agency

1

Allowance for Trainees

Divisional Education Offices should put necessary cost on Budget planning

MoEST(SEED)

The government/ministry should diverse planned budget that ensure to carry out INSET

MoEST

2

Institutionalisation of SMASSE INSET MALAWI

Having a secretariat

MoEST/DCE/

Having a national identity

MoEST

Having established full time staff for INSET

MoEST/DCE/SEED

 

DCE submits proposal on INSET establishment to MoEST through DTED

DCE

SEED to provide staff to SMASSE Malawi on administrative improvement

MoEST(SEED)

Enacted by parliament (enactment of in-service training education)

MoEST

3

Cost-sharing and

Accommodation

MoEST/DCE/Host

budgeting

institutions

(Secondary

Schools)

Transport

MoEST/ DCE /JICA

Training Materials

JICA

Food

JICA

Communication

DCE/JICA

Allowance

MoEST/DCE/JICA

Human Resources (Facilitator)

MoEST/DCE/JICA

4

Training of National Trainers

More displacement to SMASSE-WECSA

MoEST

5

Monitoring & Evaluation

Institutionalisation of a monitoring and evaluation system

MoEST(SEED)

Develop monitoring instruments

DCE/MoEST/JICA

6

DCE staffing in Faculty of Science

Recruiting and retaining staff in the faculty

MoEST/DCE

7

Developing training manuals

Developing INSET curriculum

DCE/MoEST/JICA

8

Confirming TORs of stakeholders

 

MoEST

9

Conducting Further Baseline Study

 

DCE/MoEST(SEED)

/JICA

10

Creating incentives, motivations for trainees

Linking career development with training (promotion, salary increments, issuing certificate according to times of participation, etc.)

MoEST

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Sensitisation, publication of SMASSE, newsletter, publication by division, circular, e-mail, e-media, etc.

DCE/MoEST/JICA

11

Involvement of relevant stakeholders

Lobbying to MANEB, Teaching Service Commissions, etc.

DCE/MoEST(SEED)

12

Improving attitude toward science and mathematics

 

All stakeholders

13

Scaling up SMASSE activities

 

MoEST/DCE/JICA

14

Developing INSET Curriculum

 

MoEST/ DCE/JICA

15

Developing Plan of Action

 

MoEST/ DCE/JICA

This workshop intended to develop the SMASSE INSET MALAWI Plan for 2004-05, however, due to the active discussion and time constrains, we could not put these future activities on the timeframe. Therefore, we suggested and agreed to make the draft of time schedule for SMASSE INSET MALAWI Action Plan after the workshop, and will propose it to relevant stakeholders before finalising.

2. Proposed Action Plan for SMASSE INSET MALAWI in 2004-06

1) Categorisation of activities for the future Based on the output of the discussion about future activities, we could categorise the list above into three levels: 1) Policy, 2) Policy and Technical, and 3) Technical Level, in approaching to attain our goal that is to establish sustainable INSET system for development of teacher education at secondary sub-sector level. In addition to items listed above, the following activities that are missing in the discussion would be also critical for INSET implementation. Technical Committee;

Steering Committee; Stakeholders’ Meeting/SMASSE Fair; Conducting INSET training.

They could be categorised into three as follows as well.

 

Policy Level

Policy & Technical Level

 

Technical Level

1. Allowance for Trainees

5. Monitoring & Evaluation

4.

National Trainers’ Training

2. Institutionalisation of

10.

Creating

incentives,

7.

Developing Training Manuals

SMASSE INSET MALAWI

motivations for trainees

 

3.

Cost-sharing and budgeting

12. Improving attitude toward science and mathematics

9.

Conducting Further Baseline

 

Study

6.

DCE staffing in Faculty of

15. Developing Plan of Action

14. Developing INSET Curriculum

Science

8.

Confirming TORs of

Stakeholders’ Meeting/SMASSE Fair

Conducting INSET training

stakeholders

11.

Involvement of relevant

Technical Committee

   

stakeholders

 

13.

Scaling up SMASSE

Steering Committee

 

activities

 

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

The Annex 2 is showing proposed action plan for SMASSE INSET MALAWI in 2004-06 based on the necessary activities raised in the discussion and the categorisation presented above.

The duration of the plan is from April 2004 to March 2007 (3 years). The technical assistance from JICA and SMASSE-WECSA in Kenya will be composed of long-term experts in Education Planning

and SMASSE INSET coordinating and short-term subject based experts. There are several challenges that will not be able to solve in the short-term such as cost-sharing, assignment specific personnel who are expected to work on INSET activities alone. Those things will set targets timeframe, and then will be reviewed regularly (around July, August every year) by the discussion of MoEST and JICA in the Steering Committee or the Aid Talk.

These are demonstrated by the sign of

or the Aid Talk. These are demonstrated by the sign of in the Action Plan. 2)

in the Action Plan.

2) The Proposed QUICK Way Forward

Budgeting INSET activities Between March and June is the season for planning of budget in
Budgeting INSET activities
Between March and June is the season for planning of budget in the next fiscal year. Without an
appropriate planned budget allocation, INSET activities will be ended in just “on the plan”. Key
persons such as the Divisional Education Manager and the Planner in the South East Division, the
Principal and the Deputy Principal of Domasi College of Education and the planner in budgeting
section of the Ministry headquarter should be responsible for dedicated consideration.
Approval of TORs for Technical and Steering Committee
The draft of TORs for technical and steering committee was developed in August 2003. However, the
follow-up meeting has not been set on the schedule yet. Launching these two committees surely leads
this SMASSE initiative to stand at the starting point. Relevant departments, which are expected to play
a leadership role, are recommended to take action for it.
Finalising Action Plan
The Action Plan is still at immature status. The actual activities will start from April or some need to
get started earlier for its preparation. Therefore, this plan should be finalised as soon as possible. This is
also referring to get TORs finalised for launching two committees mentioned above, and in which the
Action Plan would be given an endorsement.
Preparation for the further Baseline Survey
The workshop recommended to conduct the further Baseline Survey, which need to be more dedicated,
detailed, class-room and teacher, student-based than the previous one that was to study overall issues in
science and mathematics teaching at secondary level. The second week of Term 2 of this year was
suggested so that we have to sit down and plan for it immediately.

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

VI. Evaluation of the Workshop

1. Results of Evaluation

At the end of the workshop before closing remarks were given, evaluation for the workshop was conducted by structured questionnaires (See Annex 3). The purpose of this questionnaire is to evaluate this SMASSE INSET MALAWI review workshop in planning and management for further improvement. The questionnaire is composed of two categories: Evaluation of 1) Planning Ability, and 2) Management Ability as follow:

1) Planning

 

Contents of Evaluation

P1

Clearness of Purposes

P2

Appropriateness of Agenda/Plan for Attaining Purposes

P3

Adequateness of Materials

P4

Inclusiveness of Participatory Approach

P5

Appropriateness of Venue

2) Management

 

Contents of Evaluation

M1

Accomplishment of Programme

M2

Time Management

M3

Appropriateness of Presentation Materials and Equipment

M4

Utilisation of Participatory Approach

M5

Effectiveness of Facilitation

M6

Relationship of Facilitators and Participants

M7

Extent of Understanding about SMASSE INSET MALAWI

M8

Extent of Understanding about Future Activity of SMASSE INSET

M9

Extent of Understanding about Lessons Learned through C/P Training in Japan

M10

Extent of Understanding about Application of Counterpart Training in Malawi Scenario

Evaluation score is given in accordance with the level of agreement toward the statement of questionnaire as 0 for Strongly Disagree, 1 for Disagree, 2 for Not Sure, 3 for Agree, and 4 for Strongly Agree. The higher score it is given, the more positive evaluation it is for each aspect of evaluation.

             

No. of

Score=>

0

1

2

3

4

n/a

Response

P1

 

2

1

13

17

 

33

P2

 

1

4

14

14

 

33

P3

 

2

3

13

14

1

33

P4

1

3

5

12

8

4

33

P5

1

5

3

10

13

1

33

M1

 

3

7

12

8

3

33

M2

2

9

6

6

8

2

33

M3

 

1

8

13

9

2

33

M4

2

6

3

16

5

1

33

M5

 

1

9

14

8

1

33

M6

 

2

9

8

13

1

33

M7

   

2

10

20

1

33

M8

1

2

7

10

10

3

33

M9

   

3

12

17

1

33

M10

   

7

14

11

1

33

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

The table above is demonstrating the absolute number of each contents of evaluation. The score that is highlighted is the mode of distribution. The figure below is showing the mean of each evaluation. Indicators or ranges to assess the attainment of each evaluation are as in the box.

3.5 ≤ M ≤ 4.0: Attained, P1 3.3636 2.5 ≤ M ≤ 3.5: Attaining, P2
3.5
≤ M ≤ 4.0: Attained,
P1
3.3636
2.5
≤ M ≤ 3.5: Attaining,
P2
3.2424
0.0
≤ M ≤ 2.5: Needs Effort
P3
3.2188
2.7931
P4
P5
2.9063
M
1
2.8333
M
2
2.2903
M
3
2.9677
M
4
2.5000
M
5
2.9063
M
6
3.0000
M
7
3.5625
M
8
2.8667
M
9
3.4375
M 10
3.1250
2.0000
2.2000
2.4000
2.6000
2.8000
3.0000
3.2000
3.4000
3.6000
3.8000
4.0000

Having had the result and criteria mentioned above, the overall evaluation could be summarised as follows. 1) Planning

   

Contents of Evaluation

 

Evaluation

P1

Clearness of Purposes

 

Attaining

P2

Appropriateness of Agenda/Plan for Attaining Purposes

 

Attaining

P3

Adequateness of Materials

 

Attaining

P4

Inclusiveness of Participatory Approach

 

Attaining

P5

Appropriateness of Venue

 

Attaining

2) Management

 
   

Contents of Evaluation

 

Evaluation

M1

Accomplishment of Programme

 

Attaining

M2

Time Management

 

Need Effort

M3

Appropriateness of Presentation Materials and Equipment

 

Attaining

M4

Utilisation of Participatory Approach

 

On the border of Attaining and Needs Effort

M5

Effectiveness of Facilitation

 

Attaining

M6

Relationship of Facilitators and Participants

 

Attaining

M7

Extent of Understanding about SMASSE INSET MALAWI

Attained

M8

Extent

of

Understanding

about

Future

Activity

of

SMASSE

Attaining

INSET

M9

Extent of Understanding about Lessons Learned through C/P Training in Japan

Attaining

M10

Extent of Understanding about Application of Counterpart Training in Malawi Scenario

Attaining

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

The table below is the summary of comments and suggestions as they are in original writing.

Comments/Suggestions on Planning of the Meeting

Comments/Suggestions

on

Management

of

the

Meeting

<Encouraging Response as a Lesson for the next>

<Encouraging Response as a Lesson for the next>

 

Purpose 2: source report on training did not express what actually was learnt and how it can be

On issues to be done- no action sheet was drawn and date has, however, the workshop was nice and well prepared, effort was really put on the operation;

 

helpful to a Malawian scenario;

Time was not enough;

Venue was noisy sometimes for students make noises;

Punctuality should be observed by all concerned, time is a very important resource;

Planning was fine, except for starting late;

Satisfactory, but is room for improvement, especially in the sector of time management;

Time is too long to digest everything;

The venue was not appropriate because there were disturbances from outside;

Time management, too many issues left hanging, e.g. development of action plan;

Very educative, the meeting could have been done in two days;

The Japanese experiences what these mean to SMASSE-Malawi;

Presentation limiting themselves to question and answer without exhaustive discussion.

Needed a little more putting for discussion;

 

Meeting well managed, and it shows a good stand for way forward;

Too much content learnt;

<Positive Response>

 

No system to absorb and apply what has been learnt;

The meeting plan was very good.

SMASSE Malawi as a project vs. integration into the mainstream MoEST system.

 

<Positive Response>

Thank you for all your work! Well done!

 

Through I have attended the meeting for the first time, it is touching proper direction towards the teaching of mathematics and science by involving neighbouring countries;

Well managed.

2. Problem Analysis

1) Planning of the Workshop

Problem Analysis 1

Fact

All five aspects gained “attaining”, however, P4: Inclusiveness of participatory approach, and P5: Appropriateness of venue should be carefully considered in the future for their relative lower scores;

Problem Factor

On the process of planning, not much consideration was given to participatory approach, so that “one-way presentation” occupied programme; There was no alternative on the selection of venue in terms of the capacity of size to accommodate expected number of participants.

Possible Solution

To include the concept of “Participatory approach” from the planning stage any kind of types of workshop is planned; To ensure surrounding atmosphere in both morning and afternoon before fixing venue. If there is no alternative, necessary undertakings should be considered on the day of meeting

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

Problem Analysis 2

Fact

The plan for time schedule seemed to be too tight to cover all programmes; Combination of two main purposes: 1) reviewing SMASSE INSET activities, and 2) sharing experiences and knowledge through counterpart training made some of participants confused to associate with main messages of this workshop.

Problem Factor

Too much content, especially two big purposes, was planned in the one-day workshop.

Possible Solution

To focus on one big purpose for one-day workshop.

Problem Analysis 3

Fact

The plan for time schedule seemed to be too tight to cover all programmes

Problem Factor

Too much content, especially two big purposes, was planned in the one-day workshop.

Possible Solution

To focus on one big purpose for one-day workshop.

2) Management of the Workshop

Problem Analysis 1

 

Fact

Time management is critical issue to consider for each of core trainer/organiser of the workshop

Opening was delayed for an hour;

Some of the session over consumed time allocation;

Some of participants are lacking a sense of punctuality;

Problem Factor

Rapport between facilitators/organisers and support staffs (in this case, a driver) was not good enough to deliver participants from Zomba to Domasi to start the workshop on time; A few of core trainers were really engaged in and conscious of time management, and made maximum efforts to deal with it; Participants have embedded this problem – lack of sense of time consciousness – on their own.

Possible Solution

To have a dedicated and careful pre-meeting between core members and support staffs is necessary on the preparation stage; Each of core trainers/organisers should have a sense of ownership and responsibility on facilitating the meeting/workshop of INSET; Before starting meeting/workshop, strong appeal being punctual to participants is recommended.

Problem Analysis 2

 
 

Fact

“Action Plan for SMASSE INSET MALAWI in 2004-06” was not finalised in terms of the failure of putting all listed proposed activities on time table.

Problem Factor

Time was not enough; Too much time was consumed for brain storming.

Possible Solution

To take more time for developing action plan or similar activity in the next;

REPORT ON SMASSE INSET MALAWI REVIEW WORKSHOP

To have more careful pre-meeting among facilitators on this kind of session for the better

To have more careful pre-meeting among facilitators on this kind of session for the better handling of diverse opinions coming up from participants.

Problem Analysis 3

Fact

Lack of system to apply lessons learned through counterpart training into Malawian context.

Problem Factor

No follow-up system; No obligation for counterpart trainees to do something that relates to course contents and their job after they come back to their own places; Large gap in education system and situation between Japan and Malawi, so that it is difficult to apply it into Malawian situation; This workshop could not provide any concrete and feasible suggestions for participants to apply it to their own work.

Possible Solution

Regular follow-up or monitoring system should be conducted by MoEST and JICA; Obligation should be deposited on the process of selection; the head of trainees’ belonging institutions should allocate appropriate job responsibility that enable them to maximise their experience and knowledge gained through counterpart training; Contents of each counterpart training should be reviewed and at the same time, need to consider the validity of each course in terms of applicability into local context; To take more time for participants to discuss and list up possible action through counterpart training.

3. Achievement Evaluation on Expected Outputs

The table below is to evaluate how much this workshop could achieve in terms of its expected outputs.

SMASSE INSET MALAWI

Level of

Remarks

Achievement

 

Abstraction of achievements, lesson learned and

   

1

remaining challenges of SMASSE INSET Malawi activities in 2002/03

See II. 1. 3) of this report

 

Understanding of achievements, lesson learned through

 

See evaluation “M7” above

2

Trial INSET which was conducted in September 2003 for the future implementation of INSET

     

Failed to finalise in the

3

Development of Action Plan for 2004/05

×

workshop. The proposal was done after. See Annex 2.

Counterpart Training

 
 

Sharing experience and knowledge learned through

 

See evaluation “M9”, “M10” above

1

counterpart training programme in Kenya and Japan with other colleagues

 

Listing up recommendation to apply these into each daily

 

Failed to have complete

2

work to strengthen effectiveness, redness and relevance in education system of Malawi

×

list of recommendation.