The Circle and the Tragic Chorus Author(s): J. F. Davidson Source: Greece & Rome, Second Series, Vol. 33, No.

1 (Apr., 1986), pp. 38-46 Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Classical Association Stable URL: . Accessed: 14/04/2011 07:51
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but tentatively explores the broader question of how the chorus may have been arranged in the orchestra in certain circumstances. This viewpoint. but attempts to work out details of choreography or movements in the orchestra are hazardous. F. DAVIDSON I It is a well-known and often lamented fact that we know very little about the actual staging of plays in the theatre of Dionysus in the Fifth Century B. Clouds 1352 and Frogs 896) which perhaps suggest mimed or danced accompaniment to the words of the actors. 1.4 Clear evidence is also lacking about what the chorus did when they were not performing their songs. XXXIII. is sought in the texts of the plays themselves which remain by far our most extensive and ? Oxford University Press 1986 .2 much that would enhance our knowledge of a fifth-century production remains a mystery. Majority opinion seems to find a statuesque or unobtrusive chorus5 more appealing than an actively mimetic chorus6 possibly distracting attention from the main action. The evidence. We possess the texts of the songs they sang but we know virtually nothing definite about the dancing3 or music which accompanied these songs.C.' Even though we can derive considerable comfort from Oliver Taplin's dictum that 'the Greek tragedians signalled all their significant stage directions in the words'." is necessarily based in the end on preconceived ideas about the Greek theatre's aesthetic principles. This paper is concerned with one minor aspect of the chorus' role during epeisodia. One of the most intriguing aspects of the question concerns the tragic chorus. Opinion is divided on the point and depends largely on the value placed on the scholia (on Aristophanes. April 1986 THE CIRCLE AND THE TRAGIC CHORUS By J. formance. It does not address itself to the activity versus inactivity debate.Greece & Rome. such as it is. however. which normally accounts for the greater part of the performance time. while perhaps finding support in the generally accepted unreliability of scholia7 allied with the demonstrable fifth-century trend towards a declining contact between 'stage' and orchestra. Vase paintings provide some possible clues about the general appearance of the chorus. No. Vol. or may be mere inference based on fifth-century texts. What snippets of information we do have date from later centuries and may reflect contemporary conditions of per-.

HerculesFurens761 the chorus respond to the silence after Lycus' death screamswith rps Xopos 7rparrt4p9a. 'rTVpaVVE acLLLAAav.THE CIRCLE AND THE TRAGIC CHORUS 39 reliable. by others. if it is the case that impious deeds are honoured. It is by no means an unreasonable assumption that in the original performance the actual dancing of the chorus which T bEL1E XopEVEw. 896 they ask.. or whatever. II It is reasonableto assume that all choral songs were accompaniedby dance.we find an invitationto join in the dance to ensnareOrestes:d61ye KaGXopdv A welcometurn of •ow•LEv. At Euripides. however.. invite Pan to appearand lead them in dance: vav yap 4Lo" L•EA EL (701). The messenger'saccount of Pentheus' death evokes a similar response at Bacchae1153:dvaXopEvaw!Ev of flKXLov. the double function of any chorus as firstly a group of elders./ o' a'Adv./ EVOL/U POaKXlaV/IE7TLUTPEPWV There are also more oblique referencesby the chorus themselves to the dance which is accompanyingtheir song. 0 KLuOsT oap7L aval-apaUUEL. if at times extremelyfrustrating. more often. 864-5: &AA' 48av Ep Xopw?.9In a varietyof contexts.source of information. the chorus are drawing attention to their own dancing which they are in the process of performing. however. and secondly as a chorus qua chorus performing in the orchestra of the theatre of Dionysus. for example. At HerculesFurens 673-5 and 685-6 the Theban elders sing that despite their old age they will still celebrate Heracles' victories and serve the Muses: o' TadvaopLaL-•g XdpL-ras/ -ra~sMo'aatav . as does news of the murder Sophocles' Ajax the chorus of Salaminiansailors. In other passages. This example in particular draws attention also to . In Aegisthusat Electra r7TdEL8E/KaAAiVLKov avyKaraLEL-/ yvs aL' 'X KaTa7TrraotLEV/ O. In all of the above-mentioned passages and others like them. specific referenceis made by the chorus themselves (or by the chorus leader as spokesperson)to their own dancing. both comedyand tragedy.lo acts as a spur for choral events or the delivery of good news often dance.12 dancing which no doubt reflected the mood of the song being sung. T. celebratingtheir leader'sapparentchangeof mood. OVirW Moiaas~ 8a-rUTav avUvyrav11 At Sophocles. furies. Similarly at Trachiniae 216XopEvaaL 20 the chorus respond joyfully to the news of Heracles' imminent arrival: 0 6o80t Tas dElpol' ' '7TwUop/aL/To7 EpLas 99PEVds. Thus at Aeschylus. Eumenides 307. sailors. the chorus refer to dancing which is happening or which has already happened13 in off-stage contexts performed either by themselves or.The main point will be approached by way of a brief investigationof choral dance in general and a more specific study of the idea of circular formation.

) or an incident in the past like the sacrifice of Iphigenia (Aesch. and particularity would be destroyed' does not seem lethal. and we are left perhaps with the idea as a distinct possibility within sensible limits.their removal in time and space. I.A. From time to time. Examples in this category include Euripides. rightly points out that many of the allusions in choral songs are too fleeting to be acted out and some could well be grotesque. 228ff. At Bacchae 862ff. and Trojan Women 542ff. hovers as a shadow over virtually any idea concerned with the staging of Greek drama). 1036ff. they visualize the Eleusinian ritual dances which they believe the presence of Ion would shamefully pollute. In the latter case. There are undoubted difficulties with the idea as a regularly applied principle. Ag. the chorus sing of dancing somewhere else or on a former occasion. in an extended passage. Dale to accept the likelihood that there were exceptions to what she believed to be a normal strophic correspondence in dance movement.16 Taplin's final and major objection that 'the contrast of the songs with the action . 765ff. diction. it has been suggested that it was normal procedure for the tragic chorus to 'act out' or 'mime' the subject(s) of their song. as it were. and loss of strophic responsion. of course. however. even if we reject the Kernodle theory out of hand it would be perverse in the extreme to argue that. there are occasions when one of the actors may refer to off-stage dancing which is then mirrored. the discrepancy of theme and tone between strophe and antistrophe in some contexts leads even A. Taplin. the chorus evoke the ecstatic dance that they have enjoyed in the past while at Ion 1074ff. imagines the chorus in the course of a song enacting an off-stage event such as Phaedra's self-hanging (Eur. George R. His other objections include lack of corroborative evidence (which.17 In addition. in the subsequent dancing of the chorus. A good example of this is found at the end of the Bacchae prologue. where they visualize the celebrations in Troy when the wooden horse was brought within the walls of the city.s15 while finding it attractive. Returning to dance contexts as such.40 THE CIRCLE AND THE TRAGIC CHORUS accompanied their song brought the other dancing sung about directly before the eyes of the audience. M. loss of the chorus' corporate identity.). Kernodle.14 for example. Hipp. their own dance movements while they sang did not bring this other dancing before the eyes of the audience. in which the chorus sing of the festivities associated with the wedding of Peleus and Thetis. The disguised Dionysus announces . He argues in particular that such enactment by the chorus would have greatly enhanced their exploration in song of symbolic parallels to specific off-stage situations or of the mythical dimension underlying them. however. where.

What we can do."' as opposed to the fifty strong dithyrambic chorus whose formation was circular. For example. they may justifiably be borne in mind as supportive data when we consider hints of circular formation in certain tragic songs. the chorus leader invites the chorus to form a circle for a dance: oppKa J ro aL'v y' ~KUK'oV . the number of choreutae was fewer. if the evidence has any validity at all. evidence for tragic practice where. let us turn to the notion of KVKAOS.THE CIRCLE AND THE TRAGIC CHORUS 41 that he is going off to Mount Cithaeron to join in the dances of his female followers.c. however. . the chorus of devotees who have followed him from Asia perform their entry song. at Aristophanes. However. work out the actual dance steps or even the general movements of the chorus in these cases. 3. III With this principle in mind. One compromise suggestion has been that the rectangular formation applied specifically to the marching entry or exit of a chorus. with reference to 2 and 3 at least is to establish a principle that the movements and disposition of the chorus in any given song could reflect dancing imagined as taking place beyond the sphere of the actual stage action.20 it is difficult to accept that. and it is reasonable to assume that their own dancing in a sense brings before the audience the rhythms and movements which are to be imagined as simultaneously taking place on Mount Cithaeron. Thesmophoriazusae953ff. though they would obviously have been appropriate to the mood of the context in terms of fifth-century B. Greek aesthetic perception. in any case. We cannot with confidence. 2. of course. the tragic chorus was straitjacketed into rectangular formation throughout every song in every tragedy for the entire duration of the fifth century. Such passages XEL/KO Koa are not. we have isolated three specific types of dance context: 1. The chorus refer to their own dancing while they execute it.19But given the circular shape of the orchestra. It is clear from the texts themselves that round dances were used in appropriate places in comedy. The chorus execute dancing which mirrors off-stage dancing previously referred to by one of the dramatispersonae. Ferri24for overstating the . To recapitulate. Late sources state that the chorus of Greek Tragedy was arranged in ranks and files. Immediately upon his departure.21 but Siegfried Melchinger22 demonstrates the absurdity of the rigid application even of this idea. The chorus refer to off-stage dancing while in their own dancing evoking at least in general terms that other dancing. of course. Pickard-Cambridge23rightly criticizes S..

Sienkewicz26suggests that the impact of Aeschylus. the words of Iphigenia's monody at I. If they were already in circular formation. there are hints of circularity in many of the choral songs of tragedy. Such allusions are brief and we are not suggesting that a chorus would hurriedly form a circle for one or two lines. then it would be unrealistic to suppose that it was an isolated example even for the relatively small number of extant tragedies. it is only natural to assume that their own dancing in the orchestra would reflect that other dancing. Helen 1301ff.25 Quite apart from these specific dances. such lines would be greatly enhanced. T. 129-31). Other possibly relevant passages in this context include Euripides. that any magical or invocational dance. (where reference is made to Delian ritual dance). however. 1143ff. especially an invocation of Apollo. must have been cyclic. the feeling that the binding dance at Eumenides 307ff. And if it was. Trach.42 THE CIRCLE AND THE TRAGIC CHORUS case for this.A. 1036ff. (especially 1312-4) in which the chorus sing the story of Demeter and Kore. As it is. (in which the chorus recall dances in which they participated in happier days) and Hercules Furens 687ff. r• (Soph. 1475ff. 117-9) where the chorus are describing the investment of Thebes by the Argive army. KopaL EXdOvaav N-qpEwCUs /cLov/ ITEVT4jKOVTa LEAapWov P(ovd-/ I•S KEAE•hUOL L aLaULv aL9XaVCOV KKAp/ AodyXaLS "TrrTrvAov acrdTOa (Soph. in which the evocation of the marriage of Peleus and Thetis is climaxed by a reference to KVKA La the dancing Nereids: rrapa U AEvKoqpa7' Vdta0ov/ ELALUaadoEvaL (1054-7). where the chorus refer to dancing elsewhere. also strongly suggest that the accompanying choral dance was in circular formation. Pickard-Cambridge27 sternly points out that the cyclic dance perhaps referred to is in any case not the dance in which the chorus itself is engaged. On the other hand. I. If the dancing to which reference is made happens to be cyclic. However. It is dangerous to assume. T.A. and in particular the already mentioned I. As a . then surely the chances are that the chorus' own dancing would be cyclic rather than something else. IV It is often the fate of the chorus to be largely ignored by the actors except where their co-operation in some issue is required. The same i~7 T OLov a KaL may be said of passageslike&AA' Xapa/ rTaUL KvKAOVaLV. was circular is hard to resist. With regard to more extended passages like Euripides. J. for example. or UrS9 8' p 1p-/ KTOV au7pOSEaS Ant. Agamemnon997 7EAEUPd'po0 t8vaLSg KVKA OLEVOV K'ap may have been reinforced by appropriatechoreography. we have suggested with regard to dance in general that.

Euripides' Supplices. the use of KV'KAoand related words is only natural in a context of encirclement and in fact occurs frequently in passages similar to the Sophoclean ones from Homer onwards. the movement of Calchas in relation to the other Greek leaders is described: 4K yap avvE'pov Kat 7vpavVLKOvKVKAOV/ KdAxasg Peraarda (749-50) with the same opportunity for tableau mirror effect. Thus we find rEpt'8' avTov dy-qyEpad' Jaaomotpaurot/ KVKAda' (Homer. At Sophocles. mother of Theseus.THE CIRCLE AND THE TRAGIC CHORUS 43 him: consequence. CogS 0pKags. marooned hero about the Greeks' initial reception of him at Troy: KaL 6 The same equivalent EV KVKApu (A' J7Tig q 4'7 iEKOv-ra Evx3• in these examples as also in of the aupa7s•/ chorus suggests itselfa7a-ET'. encircled by the chorus of suppliant Argive mothers. begins with Aethra. the chorus are nrafrTrAlqrav.211&'Atov 2) of the Greeks around the wounded Menelaus. there are many obvious objections to the idea. their very arrangement in circular or partially circular formation could serve as a tableau to mirror the reported off-stage situation29 even though the precise relationship between individual and group would probably not be reproduced. that circularity in an off-stage context sung about by the chorus may well have been mirrored by the actual formation of the chorus in the orchestra. or JTnorE ~wL . E (102-3). 'KoKA. there is a recurrent context which may provide a parallel for this during epeisodia. 373 (Radt) which appears to come from a messenger speech relatingAeneas'actionsat the sackof Troy: KvKAWK 8 Taav OL V a'rTv V KVKA/ . At Trachiniae 194-5 an old man tells Deianeira and the chorus that Lichas has arrived with news of Heracles' triumph but has been unable to reach the house because the Malian people are thronging L round him with questions: KvKA) SV MqAtEv'l yadp KPLVEL aTS AEhC9/ a(v'v to his the tells At 356-7 Philoctetes story Neoptolemus 7rapaalads. however. This is made clear by Aethra's remark to Theseus when he arrives: LKEULOLSE 8 a1V KAo80L9/ ppovpovUal ( 7TKVOv L. This direct reference by an actor to the basically circular formation of the chorus is unique in tragedy.28 We have argued with regard to choral songs. As it happens. however. 4. there are few indications from the 'stage' as to the disposition of the chorus in the orchestra. Ajax 723-4 a messenger relates to the chorus how the Greeks crowded around Teucer on his return to camp and abused obviously not behaving in a threatening way to the messenger. Secondly.30 Shortly afterwards. no connection between the (iv) KVKA9) formula and the chorus can be proved. in the same messenger scene.laO8dV7r~ 9 Though ppEUrUT-quav. formation Fr. II. KETW• Of course. For a start.

There is more promising material in Euripides. There is no doubt. A slightly different context is example of all.Cyr. however. At Andromache 1136-7 the messenger announces to Peleus and the chorus the E' v rEpLaUa&v/ cornering of Neoptolemus by the Delphians: d0s v• KVKAW Ka7ELXOV. however. 7Tarav the encirclement of a camp.KSEpfEPLaA'dV7ES 8 provided by Orestes 444 as the 'hero' outlines his predicament to Menelaus: '6EKd•CaLEVI 7rrpOLUL later describesthe Greek fleet's attack:KvKAW dELVOV (418). 1. formula is often used in the Fourthly. this would not be in any way surprising. In recounting Heracles' purification ritual before the onset of his madness. Formidable though these objections may be. similar expressions are found in tragedy in places where a reference to the chorus is clearly inappropriate. the messenger uses the circle formula in a context not appropriate for the chorus: KKA J8 '87' KavoUv/EL"AK7o0 before this. Relevant passages are not confined to Sophocles. the (iv) KV'KAW 7TpEPLdAAEL sense of 'round about' or 'all around' with applicability to vaguer it virtually any grouping arrangement. most intriguing . is clear that there are any number of other types of scenes related in messenger speeches in particular which cannot be mirrored in such a grouping of chorus visa-vis actors. they do not necessarily invalidate the idea altogether.5. Numerous examples from other authors include TrEpLaurivrEsaVro KKA EUqrlKdV7rt•0 o (Hdt. At I. Bacchae 463 where Pentheus tells Dionysus that he has heard of Mount Tmolus 89~ Z dpEwsv Tar KU'KAp. 4. occurs at HerculesFurens 925-7.aYWUL their quarry. TeLptUTaaaL KVKA/ ro 7d'pTov AdEa9E. 331 a herdsman tells Iphigenia and the chorus how his comrades finally got the better of Orestes and Pylades: KVKA. therefore. He A'9'avros KvKKA70O• (UTpa707oTEovKPVTrTEVELV KE'AEVUE (Xen. that the Sophoclean examples could have been used without any secondary reference to the chorus whatsoever. Thirdly. 43) of hunters surroundinga rEptL KKAOv (Od. the family audience: xopds • K5KAWyap ELALUaadpEta The rrayXdAKoL9 o7TAOLs. and 7r•ppLt v-juov the encirclementof Psyttaleia: 4t qL 83/ KVKAOVVTO (457-8).32 Bacchae 1106-7 contains a report to the chorus of Bacchae of Agave's orders to the Theban Bacchae to surround Pentheus' tree: 'AE6''Ayav' 7-Q'PE.44 THE CIRCLE AND THE TRAGIC CHORUS .5)of XELP v p6dayav'. ' fULOV. 792) of the circle which hunters draw round boarand These examples are not especially appropriate although the idea of 'hemming in' could be reproduced in a general way by having the chorus 'crowding round' the messenger.4.31 Fifthly. For this we need look no further than Euripides. In Aeschylus' Persians the messenger relates Xerxes' orders for the disposition of certainPersianships: WAAgasE KvKAC VqjaOV 7TEpL' (368). and if there happened to be further examples from Sophoclean prologues. T. Immediately •• messenger has described the however.

Attempts to clarify fifth-century staging have concentratedon obvious targets such as words for 'house' or 'palace' used in tragedy and their possible connection with the stage building in the theatre.THE CIRCLE AND THE TRAGIC CHORUS 45 reference OV7rar.g. In that case. 2. Greek Tragedyin Action.. xi of the approach Antique 5. p.2nd ed. the argumentitself is circular. Taplin. 1978). Festivalsof Athens(Oxford. and the chorus would no doubt be flatteredby the epithet used! V Let us repeat that we are not in any way arguing that whenever the word KUKAoSwas used in a Greek tragedy (even in cases where it refers. given the shape of the orchestra. CQ 23 (1973). See alsoP. the use of the KiKAoS formula might be a happy coincidence.and even if the idea could actually be proved.1962). L. Anindirect EL. it is a reasonableguess. In the final analysis. It may well be. his GreekTragedy 175. passim.A.2]). in Action(London. Taplin. 143-53.pTEMEypa r'. 21-22. or it might representa deliberateexploitationof the conventionby the dramatists. that further investigationalong the lines taken here may reveal that tragic texts contain even more hidden stage directionsthan have hitherto been realized. to phenomenasuch as the eyes or the sun or the cycle of the seasons) that the chorus rushed to form a circle in the orchestra!We are simply suggesting that if the chorus happened to be arrangedin a basically circularformationthen an extra visual dimensionwould be availableto enhancecertaindescriptivesequences in particular which themselvesmaycontainthe very hint of the circular formationadopted. Arnott. 12-13 states bluntly. After all.1965). 19654). as it often does. For informativediscussionsof Greek dance. PCPhS 23 (1977). 254-74. 246ff. Hermes112 (1984). see Lillian B.C. Of course. Prudhommeau. See e. B. Cf. the sensible criticismby T.F. The GreekChorus (London. 129. 'Between their songs the choruswill have stood (or knelt or sat) as still and inconspicuous as possible:their role was to dance and sing.See Mary R. p. Lefkowitz. J. that circular formation of the onlooking chorus in epeisodia was at least a not infrequentoccurrence. it would hardly revolutionizeour appreciationof Greek drama. Fitton. 1970). pp. It may even be that many or all of the few generallyaccepted'facts' recordedby later writers about the fifth-century tragic theatre may stem ultimately from sources such as Aristophanes. 1968 [from now on cited as P. Lawler. W. 4. not to be a naturalisticstage may be not so much the particular suggestion as the general approachwhich proves important. Pickard-Cambridge. NOTES 1. The Dance of the The Dramatic AncientGreek Theatre(Iowa City. W. Webster.' This (admittedlygeneralizing) formula . 0. takenby G. 3. pp. La DanseGrecque (Paris. in fact.(7TKEL TEKv/ KaAhhA'oppgo~ here to the chorus listening in the orchestrawould be most apt.pp.Greek ScenicConventions (Oxford.

pp. 11.46 THE CIRCLE AND THE TRAGIC CHORUS does not sound quite right. also inclines to this view.2.. vvadopov/ 1raTrepa Amphitryon. H. and Lawler. 5.2.. 1968). 8. and if there was a 'stage'. cit. Cf. Eranos 78 (1980).C. 133-42 (in particular 135-6). The Stagecraft of Aeschylus (Oxford. p.F. P. 31. 29-48 (in particular. 29. for a chorus such as that of Sophocles' Philoctetes. 1974).F. 16. p. Lawler. CJ 53 (1957-8). p.g. p. The Lyric Metres of Greek Drama2 (Cambridge. The Lyric Metres of Greek Drama. for the disposal of the theory that 'stasimon' meant a choral song not accompanied by dancing. 983 Orestes is addressing his attendants. 1. 15. D. 2. also envisages considerable freedom for the choreographer within the course of any given tragedy. 24. T. Greek Theatre Practice (Westport and London. Contact and Discontinuity (Berkeley and Los Angeles. M. 213. grudgingly accepts this as a possibility. Tragedy and Comedy (Oxford. 6. Iff.. p. 19. See Webster. Pindar's use at I. 22. p. The Greek Tragic Theatre (London. p. 1979). T. p. 11. 28. op.. Kamerbeek (Amsterdam. See e. Soph.F. Dithyramb. cit. 17. 21. whether this was raised or still at orchestra level. B. ad loc. p. MacDowell. The dithyrambic chorus was in fact called KUKAL0oXopdo. op. 1090ff. Bond. 1962). p. e. Advocates of this view include Lawler. • . Cf.g. ofxope•wv which they anticipate will happen. 239 n. C. of course. Baldry. which is one of the reasons for messenger speeches in the first place. 34). however. 239ff. 10. 112. e. see PickardCambridge. pp. An altar in the centre of the orchestra would make a natural focal point around which to dance. G. Pindar's evocation of the Muses' choral performance for the sons of Aeacus at N. 9. Collected Papers (ed. See P. Cambridge. rejects the idea out of hand. Miscellanea Tragica in HonoremJ. Walton. Webster and E. is sceptical about the 'evidence' of the scholia.1088-9whereit is reported by the messenger Delphians kept forming: Els e2avaere/~r K/KAOUVS7 XwPEt Aaos'oLK7Jrwp EOU. 27. C. pp. 30. though the chorus may also respond appropriately. See Dale.22ff. Or sometimes even dancing 14. 1980).. P. At Aesch. Mastronarde. 64-67. cit. One application of this word in the context may be to the chorus' dancing position.F.F. Cf. pp. op. 2.2. 12. 'Why Messenger-Speeches?'. pp. pp. See Lawler. M. J. and J. 7. op.g. 26. 213-4.. Cf. M. 20. 18. See e. op. Das Theater der Tragodie(Munich.F. 252. 1. 239 n.g. J. Cf. 1976).. 23. Wasps 432 (oL 6a Cf. i'iv 525-8 (TrEKv'pOW TrpO KparaSg 4keaTErqLeva/ OXAwr$ " dv p.C. act crowd-scenes realistically.2. and the children vis-a-vis the chorus. it may even designate 'all over'. Bremer. p. For that matter. alsoAndr. KUKAW KEV7TEiEKKaL rTw•gaAp•Lw how littlegroupsof suspicious 32.2.2.C. cit. Dioniso 3 (1931-33). 1969). 34-40. Dale. Circular formation is also strongly implied in contexts such as Eur. Iff. pp. pp.For discussion. The chorus cannot. cit. Choeph. O. A. Much depends on whether the messenger was actually in the orchestra or on a 'stage'.C. 28. 2nd ed.C. Quotations from ancient authors are from the relevant OCT unless otherwise noted. 25. P. P. nor does it take into account the important role of the coryphaeus. 20 n. ad loc. p. 2. 26. P. pp. 1977).8. as is usually assumed anyway for dithyramb. 1971). 1-7. albeit somewhat cautiously. 54-56. 69-70. Turner. 13.C. TOvS 8aKTUAOVS). 252. 239 n.F. 32-34. as perhaps at Aristoph. H. pp. L. 336-45.v rCv V4EKP•WV roA•poLaL ~WrLvaWv/ in which Heracles describes the suppliant position taken rE aKpdov7a) by Megara.

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