Q. 1. Define Accident, Non-Reportable and Reportable Accident.

Ans:- Accident — Accident can be defined as an unplanned, unexpected, unforeseen event that leads injury to human body or no injury or property damage or loss of property or both. Non-Reportable Accident— When a person avails of first-aid after an accident and returns to work immediately or within 48 hrs, it is called as non-reportable accident Reportable Accident:- When a person, after an accident avails of first-aid and returns after 48 hrs, such an accident is called as Reportable Accident. Q. 2. How to extinguish fire? Ans. The fire can be extinguish by following method:Cooling— Decrease temperature o fire. Starvation— Remove burning material. Smothering— Keep oxygen away. Q. 3. What are the class of fire and their extinguish medium? Ans. The class of fire and extinguish medium are given below:-

Q. 4. What are the common causes of fire in Engineering Industry? Ans. The common causes of fire in Engineering Industry are given below: 1. Smoking. 2. Heating devices e.g. electric heaters, soldering irons, etc... 3. Electrical installations. 4. Welding & cutting operations. 5. Spray painting. 6. Industrial ovens & dryers. 7. Improper storage of flammable material. 8. Poor machinery maintenance. 9. Poor house-keeping. Q. 5. What is the procedure for Reporting the Accident? Ans. The procedure for Accident Reporting are given below:-

Q. 6. What is the effect of current value on human being? Ans. The effect of current value on human being are given below:

Q. 7. What are the reason for electric shock? Ans. Reason for electric shock are given below: 1. Victim touches bare live conductor. 2. Victim touches poorly insulated conductor. 3. Open or short circuit due to equipment failure. 4. Static electricity. 5. Lightning.

Q. 8. What are the causes of electrical fires? Ans. The causes of electrical fires are given below: 1. Sub-standard material and equipment used. 2. Electrical equipment not as per required regulations and standards. 3. Over loading of equipment. 4. No preventive maintenance. 5. Insulation failure. 6. Improper earthing. 7, Static electricity not controlled. Q. 9. Define safety inspection and write the daily checklist? Ans. Safety inspection is an activity, which each and every employee must carry out in his area of working. He should never turn a blind eye to the unsafe acts and conditions surrounding him, which would prove very costly one day or the other. The daily check lists for safety inspection are given below: 1. Guarding of all moving parts. 2. Fire fighting equipment. 3.Personal protective equipment. 4.Gas cylinders. 5.Emergency eye-wash and shower. 6.First aid boxes. 7.Fire alarm system 8.Electrical fittings. 9.Aisles and passages. 10.Machinery. 11.Hand / Electrical / Pneumatic tools, etc... 12.Labeling & Storage of chemicals. 13.Ventilator and window glass panes. 14.Forklifts and trolleys. 15.Structure and ladders. 16.Cranes and lifting tackles. 17.Pressure vessels. 18. Containers for disposal. 19. Display of safety posters for awareness. Q. 10. What is the mean of safety pledge? Ans. On this day; I solemnly affirm that I will rededicate myself to the cause of safety, health and protection of environment and will do my best to observe rules, regulations, and procedures and develop attitude and habits to ensure prevention of all types of accidents. I fully realize that accidents are a drain on the national economy and lead to injuries disablements, deaths, damages to health and property, general degradation of environment and social suffering. I will do everything possible for the prevention of accidents in the interest of self, my family, my community and the nation at large.

Q. 11. Safety in industry today is largely a number of complying with government regulation. Justify. Ans. One of motivation factor for management’s effort directed at accident prevention with strict legislations, the government’s announced policies in favors of vulnerable section of community and the tardeunion involvement, the industrial management find it easier to aired by safety laws rather than to face legal and other consequences of doing so. The safety function in industry today is not confined to preventing accident at work only. It also includes: 1. Control of occupational health program. 2. Creating work condition which are safe. 3. Controlling human factors responsible for accidents. 4. Creating climate conducive to working. 5. Design of machines and work situation to suit the capairlities and limitation of man both physically and mentally.

Q. 12. Describe the various safety measures and their contribution in augment plant productivity? Ans. The term measure means the provision devices, equipment or other modes which ensure safety. Safety measures can classified as 1. Safety measure for design of factory premise (a) Adequate layout (h) Emergency exist (c) First aid d (d) arrangements II. Safety measure against machine accident (a) Provision of interlock guard (h) Enclose dangerous parts with suitable casing (c) Dangerous parts should be out of reach during operation III. Safety measures against fire (a) Fire fighting equipments (h) Proper storage of explosives. (c) Adequate exists. V. Safety measures against electric hazardsI (a) Warning signals. (h) Underground Cables (c) Sifety fuse should be there Industrial safety is conducive to improve productivity. It affects productivity as (a) If a worker is mentally ensured that he is working is safe working Condit. His morale will be high and he will work with more concentration and thus productivity’ will increase. (b) Safe working environment helps in motivating employees to perform their job in efficient manner. (c) Safe workplace environment leads to reduction of accident and hence reduction in direct and indirect cost of accident. (d) Safe working environment helps in reducing absenteeism which will in turn

lead to increase productivity. Q. 13. Describe major industrial accident occurred in India and mention rule and guidelines flouted with regard to safety. Ans. Major industrial accident in India: Bhopal Gas Tragedy on night of 23 December,_1984 Rules and Guidelines flouted with regard to safety Indian Government has made following legislation to ensure safety (i) Indian Boiler Act, 1923 (ii) Mines Act, 1952 (iii) Petroleum Act, 1934 (iv) Bihar Rule Bhopal gas disaster occurred due to release of poisonous chemical Methyl Isocyanate from tank of pesticide factory. The leak was first detected by worker about 11:30 pm when their eyes began to tear and burn. In that time, a large amount about 40 tons of methyl isocynate, poured out of tank for nearly two hours and escaped into air spreading within eight kilometers downwind, over city The Bhopal disaster was result of combination of legal, technological, organizational and human error. The immediate cause of chemical reaction was seepage of water in MIC storage tank. The result of this reaction were exacerbated by the failure of containment and safety measures and by complete absence of community information and emergency procedures. The long term effects were made worse by absence of system to care for and compensate the victims. (v). Factory Act,1948 Q. 14. Briefly explain occupational health hazards and the safety procedures to be adopted in industries. Ans. Workers get certain disease or disorder as a result of nature of their work, they are called occupational diseases. The common occupational health problems encountered in industry are: 1. Diseases of lungs and respiratory tract : When person breathe in, particles suspended in air enter the nose, but not all of them reach the lungs. Some of smaller particles succeed in passing through nose to lungs. Dust can also come from organic chemical. These dust lead to many serious diseases. Shortness of breath, dry cough, weakness and reduction in lung capacity are disease caused by dust. 2. Occupational dermatitis : Dermatitis second most commonly reported occupational disease. Occupational contact dermatitis is a local inflammation of skin. Symptoms of inflammation are itching, pain, redness, swelling on skin. 3. Occupational cancer : Cancer is word given to abnormal changes in tissue growth i.e. basic changes in genetic structure of cell. It occurs more commonly in those parts of body, which have rapidly dividing tissue like skin, blood, lungs etc. 4. Work related muoculo skeleted disorder : Work related musculo skeletal disorder are a group of painhil disorder of muscles, tendons and nerves, WMSO affect the hand, wrists, elbows, neck and shoulders. Work using legs can lead to WMSD of the legs, hips, ankles and feet. Some back problems also results from repetitive activities. 5. Mental Disorder: Mental health of workers depend on many factors :* Status of mental health while joining.

Social factors within group. Adjustment between man and job. Human need and differences between expectation and satisfaction level. Q 15. Discuss the importance of safety in the industry. Ans. The importance of safety was realized because of following: (a) Every year millions of industrial accidents occur which result in deathor temporary or permanent disablement. For example:- industrial accident occurred in l3hopal i.e. “Bhopal gas tragedy” which leads to death of hundreds of peoples. (h) Latest estimation of industrial accident cost the country at least 285 million each year. Which one is big loss to the Indian economy? This economics loss only. (c) There is the human cast in terms of emotional sufferings to the partners, children, family and workmates of those killed at work. Q. 16. What are various safety measures in an industry. Ans. To provide safety to an industry. There are some steps which should followed by All peoples working in an industry. These are the following:Safety Policies :Management should make some safety polices to avoid accidents which should be followed by people working in a plant. Safety polices includes: (i) Safety committee (ii) Regular inspection (iii) Maintenances of plant. (iv) Preventive clothing (v) By preventing physiological and physical harassment to workers. (a) Safety committee: - Safety policy should include one of the major step i.e. safety committee. This committee would include 5-6 members who individual having supervisors and workers. The work of this committee is that they would regular make some rules and regulations for the safety, some programs to aware the workers about safety. They should alular the peoples about marks or signs like Fire extinguisher, No open flame, caution high voltage, caution (wear hard hat), etc. (b) Regular Inspection:- when safety committee established then Regular Inspection of machinery, or whole plant is one of the major part of the safety. For e.g. Inspection of electric wires, motors, inspection of machines, inspection of Electronic circuits, inspection of peoples who did not follow the safety rules and because of them accidents occur. (c) Maintain ace of plant:- Now of you find any fault during inspection then do not ignore it and go for a maintenance of plant or machinery. Plant should be maintained. In manner such that it may provide safety and security to the workers at all costs. Obstructions should be removed from the path of workers where they are working or walking or moving etc. In the beginning, the act included the employers of those industries, who draw more than Rest. 3600 per annum. MAIN FEATURE OF THE ACT The amount of the compensation depends upon the result of injury.

All the accidents are to be brought to the notice of commissioner and the employer shall deposit the amount of compensation with him with in 30 days. The worker or his dependent can claim compensation if he had injured by an accident at the time of working period; provided he was not uder the influence of drink or drugs. EMPLOYER’S LIABILITY FOR COMPENSATION Employer is liable to compensation if Injury has been caused by accident; During the course of the employment; The injury disable a workman for less three days; The injury is caused owing to the willful disobedience of the by the workman; The injury is caused owing to the wilful removal of any safety guard by the workman. DISTERBUTION OF COMPENSATION * An employer of course can give advance to any depend on account of compensation not exceeding Rs.100. (d) Preventive clothing:- The workers should be provided with protective:clothing such as hand gloves, masks, helmets, safety feetulear. If workers would not wear proper clothing then it would be a dangerous to them which will lead to an injury to the workers. We should avoid wearing silky cloths. (e) By preventing physiological and physical harassment to workers:- accidents occurs maximum due to mentally tension of workers which leads from the harassment of workers by management or by supervisors so by avoiding physiological and physical harassment we can avoid 80% of accidents. Q. 17. Explain briefly work men's compensation act? Ans. THE WORK MEN'S COMPENSATION ACT, 1923 HISTORY The Work men's Compensation Act came into force in 1924. Before this act, it was a costly process for a worker who got injured in the course of jobs to get. proper compensation from the worker. The compensation, after deducting this advertise, may allot ‘the entire amount of the compensation to any independent. APPOINTMENT OF COMMISSIONER Safety contests Safety committees Regular check up of machine and other equipments. Attached operating manual/ chart for safety point of view. Improve working condition / environment of the work place. Avoid excess / overloading of the worker. 7. Proper dress code should be implemented at work station. The state government may, be notification in his Official Gazette appoint any person to be commission for work men's compensation for such areas as may be specified in his notification. Every commissioner is deemed to be a public servant within the meaning of the Indian Penal Code. _____________________________________________ Q. 18. How dose the plant design affect safety?

Ans. As per safety point of view the plant design can facilitate the equipment, raw material, tool, machines and workers etc. are given a proper place. A good plant design or layout having some important overall safet’ and increase the productivity are1. Material handling is efficiency controlled. 2. Raw material more fast from one worker to another. 3. Plant maintenance is simpler and utilization of cubic space as per safety point. 4. To increase the productivity quality and reduced capital cost. 5. To minimize the unevent accidents. 6. Work condition are safer, well ventilated and improved. 7. Better utilization of the available machinery, tool and equipment etc. Q. 19. How the employer participate in safety? Ans. employers participating in safety is an important role to devolving the new argument in safety at work place. It can improve the internal system regarding safety of worker. Because the employers know better than any one else. Where hazard exit. So that safety is a matter of direct interest to the employers and the most affective strategies for getting employees to commit to the safety program is to involve them. The employer’s participation means to encourage the worker to participate in safety function to improve the finished work and self satisfaction. There are various types of activity in which the employees can participate and achieve the safety goal: Safety habits * Safety campaigns Q. 20. What have you previously done to avoid a similar accident? Ans. The important points are written bellow to avoid the similar accident: 1. To engaged the skilled person on said machine! work place. 2. Periodic training to the staff. Q. 21. Describe principles of motion economy and their importance towards safety at work. Ans. 1. Use of Human Body * The two hands should begin end their motion at the same time. * The two hands should not be idle at the same time except during rest periods. * Motions of the arms should be made in opposite and symmetrical directions and should be made simultaneously. * Hand motions should be confined to the lowest classification with which it is possible to perform the work satisfactorily. * Momentum should be employed to assist the worker whenever possible, and it should be reduced to a minimum if it must be overcome by muscular effort. * Smooth continuous motions of the hands are preferable to zigzag motions or straight-line motions involving sudden and sharp changes in direction. * Ballistic movements are faster, easier, and more accurate than restricted (fixation) or “controlled” movements. * Rhythm assists smooth and automatic performance. Arrange the work to permit an easy and natural rhythm.

2. Arrangement of the Work Piece * There should be a definite and fixed place for all tools and materials. * Tools, materials, and controls should be located close in and directly in front of the operator. Gravity feed bins and containers should be used whenever possible.. Drop delivers should be used whenever possible. Materials and tools should be located to permit the best sequence of motions. Provide for adequate visual perception. Good illumination is the first requirement. * Arrange the height of the workplace and chair for alternate sitting and standing, when possible. * Provide a chair of the type and height to permit good posture. 3. Design of Tools and Equipment * Relieve hands of work that can be done more advantageously by a jig, fixture, or a foot-operated device. Combine tools whenever possible. Pre-position tools and materials. Where each finger performs some specific movement, such as typewriting, the load should be distributed in accordance with the inherent capacities of the fingers. Handles (i.e. cranks and large screwdrivers) should permit as much of the surface of the hand to come in contact with the handle as possible, especially when considerable force is necessary. For light assembly, a screwdriver handle should be smaller at the bottom. Levers, crossbars, and hand wheels should be located in such positions that the operator can manipulate them with the least change in body position and with the greatest mechanical advantages. 4. Body Segment Classes Use motions with the lowest feasible class.

Q. 22. Why machine guarding is necessary in industry? Ans. All machines have rotating and reciprocating parts which are necessary to protect them to avoid unevent mechanical hazards during operation or maintenance. So that each machine must be securely guarded to prevent the rotating as well as reciprocating dangerous parts. Be sure that all machine guards are place and fitted correctly before operation of the machine. Machine guarding should be simple as far as possible and can be broadly classified as:* It should be totally enclosed type. * It must be interlocking devices. * It should have provision for adjustment. * The material for guarding / casing may be of railings, expanded metal or woven wire etc.

Q. 23. Explain the minimum wages act, 1948? Ans. Objects: To prevent exploitation of the workers, this act aims at fixing minimum wages which they must get.

Important aspects of the act 1. The act lays down for fixation of * A minimum time rate of wages, * Piece rate is minimum, * And overtime rate, for different occupations, classes of work, for adults, children etc. 2. Cost of living allowance shall be computed by competent authority such as labour bureau. 3. Wages shall ordinarily be paid in case. 4. The worker is required to maintain registers and office record in proper manner. 5. Penalties shall be imposed for violating the provisions of the act. Fixation and revision of minimum wages 1. The government shall fix the minimum rates of wages for persons employed. 2. The government shall review at interval not exceeding 5 years, the minimum rates of wages so fixed and revise the minimum rates. 3. For fixing or revising minimum rates of wages, the appropriate government shall, Either appoint committees and sub committees; and * Publish its proposals for the information of person likely to be affected and consider all representation received from those persons. Q. 24. Define fatigue, its considerations and causes and also write about boredom? Ans. Fatigue is a feeling of weariness, tiredness, or lack of energy. Alternative Names Tiredness; Weariness ; Exhaustion; Lethargy Considerations : Fatigue is different from drowsiness. In general, drowsiness is feeling the need to sleep, while fatigue is a lack of energy and motivation. Drowsiness and apathy (a feeling of indifference or not caring about what happens) can be symptoms of fatigue. Fatigue can be a normal and important response to physical exertion, emotional stress, boredom, or lack of sleep. However, it can also be a non-specific sign of a more serious psychological or physical disorder. When fatigue is not relived by enough sleep, good nutrition, or a low-stress environment, it should be evaluated by your doctor. Because fatigue is a common complaint, sometimes a potentially serious cause may be overlooked. The pattern .of fatigue may help your doctor determine its underlying cause. For example, ‘if you wake up in the morning rested but rapidly developed fatigue with activity, you may have an ongoing physical condition like an under active thyroid. On the other hand, if you wake up with a low level of energy and have fatigue that lasts throughout the day, you may be depressed. Common Causes : There are many possible physical and psychological causes of fatigue. Some of the more common are: * An gallery that leads to hay fever or asthma. * Anaemia (including iron deficiency anaemia) Depression or grief. Sleep disorders such as ongoing insomnia, obstructive sleep apnoea, or Narcolepsy. Under active thyroid or overactive thyroid. Use of alcohol or illegal, drugs like cocaine, especially with regular use\ Chronic liver or kidney disease. Congestive heart failure.

Diabetes Addison’s disease. Anorexia or other eating disorders Arthritis, including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Autoimmune diseases such as lupus Cancer Infection, especially one that takes a long time to recover from or treat such as bacterial endocarditis (infection of the heart muscle or valves), parasitic infections, AIDS, tuberculosis, and mononucleosis. Malnutrition Certain medications may also cause drowsiness or fatigue, including antihistamines for allergies, blood pressure medicines, sleeping pills, steroids and diuretics. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a condition that starts with flu-like. symptoms and lasts for 6 months or more. All other possible causes of fatigue are eliminated before this diagnosis is made. Little relieves CFS, including rest. Boredom is a reactive state of emotion that interprets the condition of one’s environment as wearingly dull due to repetitive, non-existent or tedious stimuli. Boredom stems from a lack of interesting things to see, hear, or do (physically or intellectually) when not in the mood of “doing anything” Against boredom even the gods contend in vain. .Many felt there was something not quite right about a man who professed himself so profoundly bore with the subject of sport. Boredom is a vital problem for the moralist, since at least half the sins of mankind are caused by the fear of it. Boredom is, just the reverse side of fascination : both depend on being outside rather than inside a situation, and one leads to the other.

Industrial safety is mainly concerned with minimising or decreasing the unwanted events/accidents in an industry. Industry means any part of the business which is concerned with producing or making goods and safety means freedom from any types of risk Safety is perfectly achieved by making a process chart and good system, etc, that is totally safe. Any method or process which can minimise the unwanted accidents in an industrial concern may be referred to as a process or method of industrial safety. Industrial safety is mainly concerned with decreasing or eliminating hazards in the industries. Hazard is a potential condition i.e. awaiting to be connected into an unwanted accident. Thus industrial

safety management is that branch of management which is concerned with reducing, eliminating or controlling hazards from industries. Q. 25. Explain briefly the industrial safety with (a) Plant Design (b) Equipment Design (c) Work environment. Ans. (a) The industrial safety with plant Design-+Plant Design or layout is a process or method by which the location of machinery, tools and equipment are so arranged that the high quality output of goods or products can be achieved with the lowest possible cost of production or manufacturing. A proper plant layout aims to minimise the tot1 operating costs with systematic arrangement of equipments. A plant layout should be designed in such a manner that it may provide the security and safe work to each worker at any costs. It may provide better working conditions and decreases the movement of each worker as well as of raw material. A good plant layout having main aim is to reduce the unevent accidents in an industry. A proper plant layout may provide us higher operating efficiency with greater percentage of safety provisions in the plant. There are some factors that provides a good plant layout are as follows. (i) Raw material storage (ii) Movement of Raw material (iii) Material handling equipment/process (iv) Labour standard. The proper plant layout requires systematic engineering techniques like process flow charts and operation charts etc. Now a days the computer aided techniques and mathematical techniques are more useful for plant design/layout. (b) Industrial safety as per Equipment Design Industrial safety as per equipment, tools and accesories design may reduce or eliminate the unevent accident in any industry. Safety provisions as per factories act, 1948. May follows the act in order to ensure safety of each worker as per equipment design is as follows. (1) Fencing of Machinery—In the industry each and every machinery which is dangerous, hazardous must be securely fenced or cased by safeguards to provide industrial safety. (2) Safety precautions against dangerous gases, fumes and dust are necessary in each factory to prevent exposure from these and flame proof construction should be permitted to be used in such space. (3) For industrial safety as per equipment design the each worker has been provided proper training to work on any dangerous and hazardous machine. (4) Fire fighting equipments must be provided in each and every factory and proper training must be imparted to the workers to use such equipments. (5) In the plant, the lifting and hoisting equipment shall be o.f good mechanical construction and made of sound and good quality material and they must be kept and maintained properly and serviced time to time. (6) Equipment should be designed by keeping in mind for safety of human being, building, and machinery, surrounding and atmospheric environment and safety legislation. (c) industrial safety as per work environment :- To improve or build up the percentage of industrial safety as per work environment the following important considerations are required.

(i) Plant loyout (ii) Proper ventilation of plant and working space (iii) Proper illumination on each working place (iv) Proper colour schemes and safety colour code. (v) Proper noise control at working place. (vi) Good environmental control and air-conditioning as per standard and m/c requirement. In industrial safety as per work environment the housekeeping and maintenance are also important factors. Good housekeeping is the most important factor in preventing injury and accidents. Everything should be properly placed, well designed, easy to clean and free from hazards and disorder to made the workplace safe and heathier. Q. 26. Define Industrial accidents? Ans. An unwanted event which can’t be planned/anticipated in advance may be termed as an accident. An Industrial accident may be defined as an event, deterimental to the health of man, suddenly occuring and originating from external sources andwhich is associated with the performance of a paid job, accompained by an injury, followed by disability or even death. An accident may happen to any employee under certain circumstances. Q. 27. Explain types of Industrial accident and their causes? Ans. Types of industrial accidents are written below :(1) Near accident i.e. an accident with no damage or injury. (2) Trivial (3) minor (4) Serious (5) Fatal (death) Causes of Accidents:An accident is an unplanned incident and for each such incident there is usually a specific cause or causes if one could but discover them. Accident may be caused due to 1. Technical causes i.e. unsafe conditions

(2) Human causes i.e. unsafe acts — Personal factors. Technical Causes :- Unsafe conditions reflect deficiencies in plant, equipment, tools, material handling system, and general work environment etc. (a) Mechanical causes or factors (1) Unsafe mechanical design/construction (2) Hazardous arrangement (over loading etc.)

(3) Improper machine casing/guarding (4) improper material handling. (5) Leaking acid valve (6) Untested pressure vessels. (7) Protruding nails. (b) Environmental factor causes Environmental factors indicate improper physical and atmospheric surrounding conditions of work which indirectly promote the occurrence of accidents. Environmental factors include. (1) Too low a temperature to cause Shivering. (2) Too high a temp. to cause headache or sweating. (3) Too high a humidity to cause uncomfort, fatique and drowsiness. (4) Defective and improper illumination causing eyestrain, glares, shadows etc. (5) High speed of work because of huge work load. (6) Pressure of dust, fumes and smokes and lack of proper ventilation. (7) Inadequate rest or breaks between the working hours. (8) Noise, bad odour and flash coming from the nearby machinery, equipment or processes. (9) Poor house keeping. (10) More no. of working hours, and over and above them the tendency of the employer to insist for over-time work. Human Causes Unsafe acts by the person concerned are due to his ignorance or carelessness, or day-dreaming etc. It has bear estimated that there are four accidents caused by human causes to every one that is caused by technical causes. Personal factors: (1) Age (2) Health (3) Home environment (4) No. of dependents. (5) Lack of knowledge and skill (6) Improper attitude towards work. (7) Day-dreaming and inattentiveness (8) Fatigue. (9) Emotional. unstability e.g. jealousy, revenge fullness (10) Mental worriness. (11) Non-use of safety devices. (12) Financial position. Q. 28. How to assess the accident costs? Ans. The assessment of accident cost meaning economic aspects (cost) of accident i.e. An accident can be very costly to the injured employee as well as to the employer of the concern. There are definite costs associated with the accident e.g. (1) Direct and measurable cost (2) Indirect costs. Direct costs of an accident :(a) Compensation insurance, including payment, and overhead costs. (b) Uncompensated wage losses of the injured employee.

(c) Cost of medical care and hospitalization. Indirect costs of an accident (a) Costs of damage to equipment, material, and plant. (b) Costs of wages paid for time lost by workers not injured. (c) Costs of wages paid to the injured worker. (d) costs of replacing the injured employee. (e) costs of lowered production by the substitute worker. (f) costs of delays in production due to accident. (g) Costs of safety engineers, supervisors and staff in investigating, recording, and reporting.of accidents and its causes. (h) cost of reduction in efficiency of the injured worker when he joins the concern after getting recovery (i) Lastly the influence of accident on the morale of each employees. Q. 29. How to prevents the industrials accidents, Explain briefly? Ans. Accident prevention is highly essential in an industry in order to (a) Prevent injury to and premature death of employees. (b) Reduce operating and production costs. (c), Have good employer-employee releation. (d) High up the morale of employees. above all, prevention of accidents is a true humanitarian concern, but accident prevention does not occur by itself; these should be consistent implementation of safety measures and safety programmes emphasizing the need for. (1) Safe workplace layout and working conditions. (2) Safe material handling (3) Personal protective devices. (4) Safety activities in the organisation. (1) Safe workplace layout and working condition— Workplace layout— (a) Every employee has enough space to move and operate. to preventing accidents. (h) Passage between working places, tracks and roads etc. must never be obstructed to avoid accidents. (c) for adequate lighting/ventilation etc ; working place heights should not be less than 3 metres. (d) Floor must be of nonskid type and can be easily cleaned. (e) Windows should be standard dimensions to make proper natural day light. (j Safety switches may be, provide& on the machine or very near to workplace. Working conditions :- (a) In enclosed rooms their should be control on air-temp. purity, vel. and humidity to have comfortable conditions. (b) Proper ventilation is must if the manufacturing processes gives fumes, smoke and dust etc. (c) There should be sufficient illumination whether natural or artificial. (d) To reduce the machine noise, mount the machine properly to damp down the vibrations. (e) Use silencers to minimize the hissing sound that are dangerous at the workplace. (2) Safe Material Handling— Depending upon the condition of material use a proper material handling equipment to:

(a) minimize the total handling time (b) promote, easier, safe and cleaner handling (c) to eliminate idle time of workers and machines (d) make material movements fast (e) locate and stock materials better and in less space and more safe for each worker main material handling equipments are as follows.

Q. 30. Define industrial hazards, types with causes and identification techniques?

Ans. Hazards means are unsafe conditions or processes that can cause illness, injury or damage to equipment or construction or you can simply say that hazard is a potential condition awaiting to be converted into an unwanted accidents. The main types of industrial hazards are as follows (a) Mechanical hazards (b) Electrical hazards (c) Fire hazards (d) Constructional hazards (e) Chemical hazards (a) Mechanical hazards can be mainly stem from any of the, following causes. 1. Failure of components of mechanical system due to faulty design or assembly, or material and delay of maintenance. 2. Inadequate safeguards on the machine or equipment. 3. Negligence in the use of personal protection equipments. 4. Inadvertence and complacency on the part of workers at the points of operation, (b) Electrical Hazards :To avoid from industrial electrical hazards. The following instruction should be followed by carefully. 1. Under normal circumstances the rate of current flow in amperes of the order of 2OmA to 25mA can cause electrical shock. A fatal shock can be caused by 50 mA of current. For this type of electrical supply a better method would be to use. (MCB5) — miniature circuit breakers,

These circuit breakers can cut off the supply immediately i.e. within friction of second in case of current exceeds or short circuit or leakages, etc. 2. Proper earthing or grounding should be done for all electric connections whether it is a system earthing or equipment earthing. 3. All electrical apparatus in industries must be enclosed inside flame proof boxes or enclosures. 4. Provision of lighting conductors are must to protect the workers as well as electrical installations and plant etc. 5. Use of rubber gloves and rubber mats should be specially recommended for workers working with live wires, high voltage installation and where bare conductors carry current of high amper age. (c) Fire Hazards :- Some of the common terms used in the context of fire hazards are as follows (1) Fire escapes—It means external stairs are meant for being used by the occupants in case of fire, for their safe evacuation. (ii) Fire Towers—Fire towers are safe escape routes for multi-storey ed buildings in which there is access from the various floors through corridors, passages etc. (iii) Travel Distance — It is the distance which the worker/occupant has to cover during a fire to arrive at an exit. (iv) Floor Area Ratio (FAR) — It is defined as follows.

(d) Constructional Hazards :- Safety in construction encompasses all the safely aspects and measures related to all onsfructiona1 activities. On the ground, above the ground and underground. Safety aspects need due consdration viz. (a) Prior to construction (b) During construction (c) After construction The following precautions may be adopted to minimize the constructional hazards— 1. Follows safety rules and norms 2. Structural design must be entrusted to qualified and experienced structural engineers. 3. For regular repair and maintenance under the qualified and exprienced engineers. 4. material of construction must be tested under standard laboratories. (e) Chemical Hazards (a) storage (b) Handling For safety point of view in chemical industries the care should be taken in :(c) manufacture (opeations and processes) (d) Use ofhèmicals Must be strict surveillance on the part of each worker i.e. mangers, supervisors and workmen.

Q. 31. How to investigate the industrial accident, their reporting and how to analyse? Ans. Investigation :- Investigation in case of any accident is play an important role in a safety program in any industry. The main purpose of investigation is to find out the various causes and circumstances that contributed both directly and indirectly to the accident with a view of taking necessary action to prevent their reoccurence in future. It is free from the punishment motive. Otherwise it may do more harm than the good. Investigation have to be taken up as early as possible to collect all information regarding safety acts, work erivironments personal activities of workers etc which are difficult to get later. The main officer in an investigation is a shop superviosr. He is the only man/worker who knows more about the accident and having full information about machines, equipments and working environment condition. The main information data about accident can be collected by investigation team is a as follows. (a) The Injury (Foreign body, cut, fracture, Burns, etc.) (b) Part of body (Head, eyes, shoulder, arm, leg etc.) (c) Source of injury (mechanical, electrical, chemical etc). (d) How the accident took place (Poor house keeping etc.) (e) The unsafe conditions/acts (unsafe loading difting; authority etc.) (t) Steps for safety to prevent similar accidents in future. (g) Accident approximate costs (direct and indirect) Reporting of Industrial Accident—The main purpose of the report to assist the industry to minimize or eliminate the accident. All the accidents need not to be reported only those accidents are recorded that are required to be• reported under the law. For an effective safety program the

accident records should be accurately made and compiled periodically and analysed and finally noticed to the concerned departments/supervisors to plan the corrective steps. These records are very useful for the safety point of views The necessary records are to be kept separately in the department and maintained are as under

1. ACCIDENT, INVESTIGATION REPORT ANALYSIS

These types of report perform needed to case of ç(a) Death (b) Major Injury (c) Over Seven-Day injury

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