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defense & diplomacy
10 Ideas for Defense and Diplomacy
Summer 2009 National Director Hilary Doe Chair of the Editorial Board Gracye Cheng Director of Center for Defense and Diplomacy Reese Neader Senior Fellows Ayesha Siddiqui Charsaree Clay National Editorial Board Clayton Ferrara Frank Lin Fay Pappas Melanie Wright Yunwen Zhang The Roosevelt Institute Campus Network A division of the Roosevelt Institute 2100 M St NW Suite 610 Washington, DC 20037
Copyright 2009 by the Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute. All rights reserved. The opinions and statements expressed herein are the sole view of the authors and do not reflect the views of the national organization, its chapters, or affiliates.
This series was made possible by the generosity of Mr. Stephan Loewentheil.
Table of Contents
Safe Water for Floating Communities: A Market-Based Approach John Cheng, Corinna Li, Julia Buzon, Jennifer Downing, Olga Musayev, Pooja Shethji, and Daniel Siegel Pipeline to Safety: Resettling Iraqi Refugees Matt Alhonte
Extend US Commitments to Nuclear Non-Proliferation & Disarmament
Sam Klug From Poppies to Red Gold: An Alternative Approach to Eradication Sonali Pillay Protecting Community Food Security through Impact Studies Laurel Averett, Rainbo Hultman, Jesalyn Keziah, Sara Mishamandani, and Lauren Peterson Reinvigorating Public Diplomacy Programs in Pakistan Vrutika Mody A New Resolve: US-Pakistan Strategy v. the Taliban Talha Alvie and Justin Shrader US-Sino Military Cooperation in Africa Bradford White Investing in Diplomacy: An Association of US Middle Eastern Studies Nazir Harb Empowering Kenya’s Youth: A Reconciliation Conference Sigrid von Wendel and Mansur Tokmouline Bonus Excerpt: Accountability in PEPFAR Matthew Eldridge
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
p Letter from the Editor
arlier this year, the Roosevelt Institute Campus Network adopted Think Impact, a model that re-emphasized our organization’s founding goals of looking to young people for ideas and action, twin forces necessary in the pursuit of change. The ideas you will read about in this year’s first 10 Ideas series are the result of the admirable creativity, hard work, and scholarship of Roosevelters. These publications—on Defense and Diplomacy, Economic Development, Education, Energy & the Environment, Equal Justice, and Health—are also a testament to these authors’ engagement with the world. In environments that can be insular, Roosevelters show a willingness to look outwards, to think critically about problems on a local, state, and national level. But, to this end, these publications should only serve as a starting point of a greater process. Roosevelters must be willing to act in the communities where these ideas can most effect positive change. For concepts that you find inspiring, we hope that you are motivated to leverage them for the benefit of your own campus, city or state, and that you seek out channels and movements through which to bring these ideas to fruition. And, in instances where you disagree, we hope that you are challenged to see how you might improve on or adapt an idea. Gracye Cheng Chair of the National Editorial Board
Strategist’s Note P
A progressive vision of U.S. national security stresses the use of ‘smart power’
that addresses the linkages between security and development. Smart power implements a calculated balance between public diplomacy, sustainable development, multilateral engagement, and rapid military response. Roosevelt students across the country have been engaged in a host of projects that reflect these ideals. Yale is engaged in directing a youth conference in Kenya that promotes conflict transformation as well as working to assist “floating communities” in Southeast Asia. Schools like MIT and Denison University are working with local immigrant populations to encourage dialogue and integration. We are establishing new chapters that seek to expand our knowledge base and access to international resources: places like the School for International Training and the United States Air Force Academy. During the spring semester we co-hosted a speaking series with the prestigious National Security Network, sending high profile representatives to burgeoning progressive centers like the Universities of Virginia, Georgia, North Carolina, and Michigan. And the student pieces highlighted in this journal reflect a nuanced approach to sustained engagement in overseas contingency operations. The Defense & Diplomacy Policy Center will continue striving to convey the vision of progressive security by sponsoring events, publishing student research, providing informational resources, and connecting passionate students with career opportunities. It is not easy to work in the field of international relations as a student. Perhaps more than any other policy area, there seems to be a strong feeling of dislocation between foreign policy research and formulation. But what is often lost by the American public in debates over geopolitics and international affairs is that we practice international relations every day. From consumer choices, such as fair trade and divestment, to community outreach through interfaith dialogue, peacemaking, and conflict resolution, it is important to remember that we practice our beliefs on a daily basis. If you believe in strengthening the virtue of your nation or providing a hand in building hope for global prosperity, the power of transformation is in your hands. And we are here to help you. Reese Neader Lead Strategist for Defense and Diplomacy
Safe Water for Floating Communities: a Market-Based Approach
John Cheng, Corinna Li, Julia Buzan, Jennifer Downing, Olga Musayev, Pooja Shethji, Daniel Siegel, Yale University As a component of its River of Life project, Lien Aid, a Singaporean NGO, has constructed a water treatment plant that seeks to improve access to, and stimulate the demand of, safe drinking water in rural Cambodia by employing a sustainable, market-based model. The Chnouk Trou Commune of Kampong Chhnang Province, Cambodia is located on the Tonlé Sap, a lake supporting a population of 3 million. Lake water is by far the primary water source in this community, and inhabitants rely on visual clarity as an indicator of quality. Furthermore, private plants provide water of unproven quality at high prices, while public plants provide unsafe water at low prices. Analysis Chnouk Trou Commune Overall, the project relies on a de• Project target population: 8677 mand-based strategy for increasing • High racial heterogeneity, with large minorwater usage. Different product and ity Vietnamese and Cham communities. pricing options are offered to entice • High infant mortality rate and short life exconsumers. There is price discrimipectancy. nation based on purchase volume • 30-50% of the residents buy water at least (there is a bulk discount) as well as occasionally, but the highly polluted lake season (to accommodate the comremains the primary source of water. munity’s income fluctuation between • Over 90% of villagers surveyed expressed the wet and dry seasons). A delivery willingness to purchase treated water. option based on subscription contracts is also offered. The mean target price of water is $0.10-0.15 USD per 20 L. Particular focus is put on a multi-prong social marketing strategy, utilizing name branding, peer education and the incorporation of water and sanitation knowledge into school curriculum, and diffuse advertising – posters, radio programs, and public showcases led by a celebrity ambassador. Importantly, ethnic minorities are engaged in their own language and within their own cultural context. Furthermore, the project employs a unique ownership, management and operational structure. To maximize marketing effect and prevent mutual cannibalization, all water plants in the community are consolidated under a single nonprofit management board. The primary stakeholders in the project are the NGO, local government, management board, local business consultants, and plant employees. The NGO provides initial market research and capital expenditure on plant, ensures transparency of management, and offers technical assistance when necessary. The local government aids NGO in market research and the selection of the management board drawn from local entrepreneurs. The volunteer management board supervises day-to-day operations of all water plants in community. Local business consultants provide feedback and modification of marketing techniques based on local conditions on a voluntary basis. Finally, a commis-
sion system based on deliveries, incentivizes engagement and microentrepreneurship among plant employees. At the regional and international levels, the project provides a model for improving international security through addressing interethnic tension. By providing clean water to all residents and explicitly employing a diverse, ethno-inclusive approach, existing tension among the three ethnic groups, particularly between the Khmer and the Vietnamese, a legacy of military conflict between Cambodia and Vietnam, will be reduced. Next Steps Going forward, important • Though the majority of the community can afford measures will be undertaksafe drinking water, its low prevalence is due to the en at the local and internafact that existing water providers are poorly mantional level. At the local aged and their product quality is either unsafe or level, there will be continuunproven. Second, inhabitants perceive safe water ous modification of maras a luxury rather than as a need. keting techniques based • Central points of organizational strategy: on local conditions. The • Multilateral engagement: ensures incentivization effectiveness of the collecof all affected groups. tive management model • Transparency: price clarity and organizational acwill also be assessed. For countability as priorities. the purposes of both com• Entrepreneurship: effort made to use plant opmunity welfare and project erations as means of bolstering entrepreneurial replicability, the long-term mindset and capacity of community. financial sustainability of the water plants must be demonstrated. As a solution to the possible capital shortage, a mechanism to allow interested parties to invest in the plants will be developed. Finally, provided the previous measures prove successful, an attainable middle-term goal is the replication of this management and marketing model in other floating communities in Cambodia and around the world.
The most important long-term aspect of the business model is that it provides a sustainable and replicable solution to the water problem in other developing areas. Sources
“Hygiene Promotion.” IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. 3 Feb. 2009 <http://www.irc.nl/page/7903>. Kar, Kamal, and Robert Chambers. “Handbook on Community-led Total Sanitation” Community-led Total Sanitation. 2008. Institute of Develop ment Studies. 16 Feb. 2009 <http://www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/sites/communityledtotalsanitation.org/files/cltshandbook.pdf>. Lockwood, Harold. “Scaling Up Community Management of Rural Water Supply.” IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre Thematic Over view Paper (2004). 24 Mar. 2009 <http://www.irc.nl/redir/content/download/9525/141513/file/ScalingUp_CM.pdf> . Millar, Micheline. “Clean Water for Tonle Sap’s Poor.” ADF Making an Impact -- Cambodia. Asian Development Bank. 17 Feb. 2009 < <http://www. adb.org/Documents/Periodicals/Impact/CAM/200802.asp>. “Rural Water and Sanitation Supply.” Water and Sanitation Program. 16 Feb. 2009 <http://www.wsp.org/index.cfm?page=page_disp&pid=1570>. “Southeast Asia.” Global Water Partnership. 16 Feb. 2009 < http://www.gwpforum.org/servlet/PSP?iNodeID=132>. “Tapping into the Private Sector?” WaterAid International briefing note No.7 (2005). 13 Dec. 2008 <http://www.wateraid.org/documents/plugin_documents/private_sector_briefing_note_final_7new.pdf>. “Tapping the Market -- Private Sector Engagement in Rural Water Supply in the Mekong Region. (Water and Sanitation Program field notes).” Water and Sanitation Program East Asia and the Pacific (2004). 20 Mar. 2009 < http://www.wsp.org/publications/eap_Mekong.pdf>. “Tapping the Rural Water Market in Cambodia.” Id21 Rural Development communicating development research. 21 Feb. 2009 <http://www.id21. orgrural/r4ds1g1.html>. “The Right to Water.” WaterAid International. 15 Dec. 2008 <http://www.wateraid.org/international/what_we_do/policy_and_research/the_right_to_ water/default.asp>.
Pipeline to Safety: Resettling Iraqi Refugees
Matt Alhonte, City University of New York The federal government should create a pipeline program that helps direct Iraqi refugees resettled under the Special Immigrant Visa (SIV) program into language instruction jobs. Many Iraqis who helped U.S. forces found themselves targets of insurgents. Last year, America opened its doors to its overseas allies. However, the transition has been difficult for many of them, particularly when it comes to employment. Even highly educated Iraqis have a hard time in the U.S. labor market, as most American employers do not recognize Iraqi credentials. At the same time, the U.S. government faces a critical shortage of Arabic speakers, both in operational capacities and as language instructors. These problems appear tailor-made to solve one another. The shortage of Arabic translators in Key Facts government is a critical national secu• Six hundred Iraqis who worked US forces rity issue. However, the sensitivity of or subcontractors have been resettled these positions means that the mansince the SIV program began in 2008, agement at the respective agencies with provisions for 5000 more to be isare reluctant to recruit recent immisued every year until 2012. grants, even ones who have worked • Student interest is also massive, with enwith U.S. forces in the past. Whether rollment in Arabic courses in universities these concerns are grounded or not, increasing by more than 125% between the tension is likely to still exist. In 2002 and 2006 according to the Modern addition, the best long-term strategy Language Institute. to insure our diplomatic, intelligence and military apparatuses are wellstocked with Arabic-speakers is to systematize their training. This would be best accomplished by an investment in connecting the people who want to learn Arabic with those who want to teach it, as well as some training on formal language instruction. This would involve relatively little spending on the government’s part. Enrollment in Arabic courses in universities has increased by more than 125% between 2002 and 2006. The bottleneck is with personnel, not funds. There is no shortage of students willing to pay for Arabic instruction. There are simply not enough qualified instructors to teach all of the interested students. Arabic was not commonly taught outside of large universities until very recently. Programs have been expanded, and many universities started teaching Arabic when they had not before. The post-9/11 surge in demand has overwhelmed both, resulting in overcrowded classes, students unable to register, or more commonly both. The number of instructors is also unlikely to increase on its own soon. While Arabic has become a popular language to learn, few students take it long enough to become instructors themselves, when compared to other foreign language programs.
While the jobs themselves will be provided by the educational market itself, the state could facilitate this with teaching training that addresses the particular needs of the Iraqi refugees. Simply speaking a language does not qualify one to teach it. However, it is certainly easier to train a native Arabic-speaker to be a decent language instructor than to train an existing instructor fluent Arabic. Idea Origin This idea was suggested by an Iraqi refugee who I met last fall. He was employed as part of a high school maintenance staff, though he was the head engineer of a water treatment plant in Iraq. He expressed interest in training U.S. soldiers to speak Arabic. He suggested that many Iraqis refugees were having similar issues finding employment, and that they would likely enjoy the opportunity to be language instructors. Stakeholders The federal government would be the best body to handle this, presumably either through the State Department’s Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration, or the Department of Education. It is, however, very easy to imagine individual Talking Points agencies which have their own educational facilities tapping the pool of • Native speakers are the bottleneck preIraqis to meet their own translation venting the Arabic language market from instruction needs ahead of the larger reaching equilibrium. government effort. For example, the Department of Defense’s Defense Language Institute, or the State Department’s Foreign Service Institute, which train current soldiers and diplomats respectively, would both benefit from adopting this policy on their own terms. Next Steps The next step would be cataloguing which institutes need additional Arabic instructors the most, using metrics such as overcrowded classrooms and over-tally requests. Priority would be given to institutions that have the funding readily available but desperately require instructors, as well as institutions with well-established programs for bringing their foreign language students into government work such as Monterey Institute of International Studies. Afterwards, a curriculum should be drawn up, addressing the specific needs of Iraqi immigrants. Then, bureaucratic channels should be established that inform current and future Iraqi refugees about language instruction opportunities.
1. Huang, Carol. “Why the Pool of Arabic Speakers is Still a Puddle.” May 17, 2007.http://www.csmonitor. com/2007/0517/p13s01-legn.html (accessed April 10th 2009). 2. Redden, Elizabeth. “Hype vs. Reality in Arabic Enrollment Boom” November 29, 2007 .http://www.inside highered.com/news/2007/11/29/arabic (accessed April 10th 2009). 3. Sebti, Bassam. “Iraqi Dreams Lost in America” February 28, 2008.http://www.thelistproject.org/ blog/2008/02/iraqi-dreams-lost-in-america.html (accessed April 10th 2009). 4. Masis, Julie. “Jobs in mind, students look for classes in Arabic.” May 6, 2007.http://www.boston.com/news/ education/higher/articles/2007/05/06/jobs_in_mind_students_look_for_classes_in_arabic/ (accessed 4/30/09).
Extend U.S. Commitments to Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament
Sam Klug, Columbia University The US should commit itself to strengthening nuclear nonproliferation treaties by pressuring other nuclear weapons states to sign these treaties and by reducing the US’s own arsenal. The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968, the only multilateral nuclear treaty signed by the U.S., established the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which monitors the nuclear activities of each signatory state, and expresses the twin goals of global disarmament and non-proliferation. The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), signed in 1991, calls for verification of all U.S. and Russian nuclear sites. The Moscow Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions of 2002 requires the U.S. and Russia to reduce their nuclear stockpiles to between 1,700 and 2,200 weapons by the end of 2012. The ratification of these treaties demonstrates that U.S. policymakers consider nuclear arms control to be critical to national interests. The positive reception of recent overtures by the current U.S. administration to Russia regarding the extension of START I, which expires on December 5, 2009, imKey Facts plies that further non-proliferation • The NPT recognizes five nuclear weapons efforts are politically feasible. states (U.S., UK, France, China, and Russia) and makes a distinction between the rights The cost of this proposal to the of these states and those of all other states. U.S. is minimal. With mechanisms • India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Israel are in place and resources devoted the “unrecognized” nuclear weapons states, to dismantling our nuclear weapas they have all successfully created nuclear ons, furthering this policy would programs outside the NPT. only project the cost of our cur• The U.S. and Russia both currently have rent policy (a minute proportion of between 3,000 and 3,500 operationally dethe Defense Department’s budget) ployed strategic nuclear warheads; no other into the future. In the long term, country has more than 350. this proposal would reduce the • China is the only one of the five recognized annual cost of maintaining such a nuclear weapons states still building nuclear large nuclear arsenal and keeping weapons. so many weapons on high alert. Security benefits of further disarmament to the United States lie in the strength such a policy would give to the NPT and its mission of disarmament and non-proliferation. By renewing their commitment to Article VI of the NPT (outlining the goal of disarmament), the five nuclear-weapon states would demonstrate the importance of full compliance and expose states, such as Iran, that are not in compliance with Articles II and III, which govern non-proliferation. Any action taken against a rogue state after some form of disarmament by the five recognized nuclear-weapon states would benefit from broader international support, and thus could have more wide-reaching effects than the narrow sanctions on individuals currently levied against Iran.
Recommendations • The U.S. should attempt to turn both of its bilateral treaties with Russia into multilateral treaties that include all recognized nuclear-weapon states. • The U.S. must include the unrecognized nuclear-weapon states in START I and the Moscow Treaty, making disclosure of their nuclear programs a pre-requisite for joining negotiations. • Working with Russia to extend the Moscow Treaty beyond 2012, the U.S. should set a short-term target of reducing arsenals to 1,000 weapons by 2016. • A long-term agreement with Russia that sets a goal of reducing stockpiles to no more than 500 weapons should constitute the U.S.’s final goal. • The United States should seek to include all other nuclear-weapon states in a new provision of the Moscow Treaty that, outside of the NPT, calls for countries not to expand their arsenals under any circumstances.
• Increased confidence in Israel’s accounting for of its nuclear weapons would reduce temptation for other Middle Eastern countries, all of whom act under the assumption that Israel possesses nuclear weapons, to seek their own nuclear arsenals. • Because current nuclear threats to the U.S. most likely come from rogue states or terrorist groups, a large stockpile of nuclear weapons is no longer a strategic deterrent. • Even at the height of the Cold War, “it was widely agreed that 400-500 weapons on target would assuredly destroy the Soviet Union’s vast economic and military potential.”
Next Steps Regular monitoring by the IAEA to verify that all countries that have signed these treaties are living up to their commitments would be necessary. Regular meetings among all nuclear weapons states to reaffirm their commitments to these treaties and to discuss the potential for further cutbacks would help to validate the principles of non-proliferation and disarmament internationally.
“The Logic of Zero.” U.S. Department of State, “Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty.” 31 July 1991. Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics. <http://www.dod.mil/acq/acic/treaties/start1/text.htm#top>. U.S. Department of State, “Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty.” 24 May 2002. Federation of American Scientists. <http://www.fas.org/nuke/ control/sort/index.html>. U.S. Department of State, “Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.” 1 July 1968. U.S. Department of State. <http://www.state.gov/www/ global/arms/treaties/npt1.html>. Shultz, George P., William J. Perry, Henry A. Kissinger, and Sam Nunn. “Toward a Nuclear-Free World.” The Wall Street Journal Online. 15 Jan 2008 <http://online.wsj.com/public/article_print/SB120036422673589947.html>. “U.S. Nuclear Stockpile.” Office of the Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Nuclear Matters. <http://www.acq.osd.mil/ncbdp/nm/ nuclearstockpile.html>. Laalder, Ivo, and Jan Lodal. “The Logic of Zero.” Foreign Affairs. November/December 2008 <http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/64608/ivodaalder-and-jan-lodal/the-logic-of-zero>. “Just How Low Can You Go?” The Economist Online. 27 Mar 2008 <http://www.economist.com/world/international/displaystory.cfm?story_ id=10926586>. “Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), 1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran.” International Atomic Energy Agency. 15 Sep 2008 <http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/ report/2008/iran_iaea_gov-2008-59_081119.htm>.
From Poppies to Red Gold: An Alternative Approach to Eradication
Sonali Pillay, Columbia University Substituting saffron for poppies should be pursued as part of a US strategy to reduce the Afghanistan drug trade, reduce funding for insurgents and the Taliban, and stabilize the region. According to Richard Holbrooke, the $800 million the U.S. spends per year on counternarcotics is “wasteful and ineffective.” In 2005 the Afghan Eradication Force (AEF) was created with the help of United States Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) and the U.S. State Department. These eradicators have been ambushed by Taliban forces and targeted by suicide bombers. Furthermore, eradication does not address the reasons why poppy growing has become so widespread: farmers depend upon poppies because they are a high-value, low-risk crop with established trade routes. Farmers are also indebted to predatory moneylenders who claim a percentKey Facts age of their next harvest; • Afghanistan produces 93% of the world’s opiates. thus they cannot surrender • The opium trade provides Taliban and insurgent their crop without defaultgroups between $100 million and $400 million per ing on loans. year. When the western Afghanistan Agricultural Administration introduced saffron in a pilot program, a 40-hectare plot yielded 320 kilograms of saffron, and farmers filed hundreds of applications for saffron corms. • The UN and NATO believe insurgents get roughly 60% of their annual income from drugs. • The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime has said that the Taliban made about £50 million from opium in 2007. • Opium poppies and saffron yield $5,200 and up to $8,000 per hectare respectively. • 80% of personnel at the Ministry of Interior benefit from the drug trade and 100,000 members of the Afghan government benefit directly from drug trade, whether it be from transportation fees, bribes or profits.
As one of the most expensive spices in the world, saffron has been nicknamed “red gold.” Saffron has a farmgate value of up to $8,000, making it perhaps the only crop that competes with the poppy, which yields $5, 200 per hectare. Saffron is a high-profit, low-risk crop suitable to climatic conditions in Western Afghanistan, which borders Iran; Iran has a long history of growing the best saffron in the world. In fact, saffron harvests in the Herat province, bordering Iran, have set the international record for most productive yield. To make this crop substitution feasible, donor nations must provide funding for corms (saffron seeds) to farmers in order to avoid artificial price inflation, packaging supplies for distribution, storage facilities so that farmers can avoid price fluctuations in any given year, machinery with which farmers can conduct International Organization for Standard-
ization (ISO) testing to ensure their product’s viability on the international market, and basic, secure transportation to markets. These services and inputs should be provided to capitalist cooperatives that allow farmers to have access to goods that would otherwise be too expensive for them to access. The capitalist cooperatives should be provided with an endowment with which than can create microfinance schemes tailored to Islamic banking. In addition, organizations such as the International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA) should train Afghans on proper farming techniques for saffron in order to produce a successful, profitable crop. Next Steps As the Obama • Saffron is a high-profit, low-risk crop based on the crocus Administration reflower, the highest quality of which is produced in Iran and views U.S. policy Afghanistan. It is perhaps the only viable crop that competes toward Afghaniwith the poppy for economic returns. stan and Pakistan, • Afghan saffron can replace embargoed Iranian saffron in it should directly Western markets. address failed at• To circumvent government corruption, aid to farmers should tempts to restrict be provided through private, capitalist cooperatives operA fg h a n i s t a n’s ated on a financially sustainable basis. drug trade and • Cooperatives should concentrate on maximizing economies corresponding of scale, providing inputs, stockpiling facilities, ISO standard income for the quality testing, securing access to markets, and providing Taliban and other secondary microfinance. insurgent groups. Congress should be engaged in this initiative to ensure that this strategic change is fully implemented and sufficiently funded. The DEA should work with ICARDA to ensure that saffron farming cooperatives are properly established and secure, with all the necessary inputs and adequate funding in order to run their own microfinancing schemes. Donor agencies can also provide expertise on microfinance and management skills to the cooperative managers.
BBC News Online. “Envoy Damns US Afghan Drug Effort.” Published 3/21/09. Viewed 3/24/09. http://news. bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7957237.stm Anderson, Jon Lee. The New Yorker: “The Taliban’s Opium War.” Published July 9, 2007. http://www.newy orker.com/reporting/2007/07/09/070709fa_fact_anderson Anderson, Jon Lee. The New Yorker: “The Taliban’s Opium War.” Published July 9, 2007. http://www.newy orker.com/reporting/2007/07/09/070709fa_fact_anderson Governor Muhammad Ghulab Mangal of Helmand. News Hours with Jim Lehrer. Aired 3/18/09 Goodhand, Jonathan. “Corrupting or Consolidating the Peace? The Drugs Economy and Post-conflict Peace building in Afghanistan.” Brigadier General John Nicholson. News Hour with Jim Lehrer. Aired 3/18/09. The Independent. “The Big Question: Why is Opium Production rising in Afghanistan, and can it be stopped?” Goodhand, Jonathan. “Corrupting or Consolidating the Peace? The Drugs Economy and Post-conflict Peace building in Afghanistan.” Research in Alternative Livelihoods (RALF). Research in Production and Marketing of Saffron as Alternative to Opium Poppy Cultivation ICARDA. Saffron Manual for Afghanistan. T. V. Padma. “Dropping the Poppy Habit.”
Protecting Community Food Security through Impact Studies
Laurel Averett, Rainbo Hultman, Jesalyn Keziah, Sara Mishamandani, Lauren Peterson, University of North Carolina Impact studies executed prior to new construction in Durham, NC should include provisions that address the food security of the affected community as defined by USDA guidelines. After two years of deliberation, the Durham Town Council decided to widen Alston Avenue in order to alleviate traffic in downtown Durham. This construction will result in the elimination of Los Primos, the primary grocery store for most residents in the area. This will reduce competition for the second-closest grocery store in the area, a Food Lion, simultaneously endangering the access to and affordability of nutritious food for many. This situation demonstrates food insecurity escalated by construction, reflecting Key Facts the need to protect Durham’s food supply. • Downtown Durham is losing one of Moreover, it shows a national food securiits two grocery stores, raising its food ty crisis as grocery stores resist opening in insecurity index from 3 to 5. urban areas due to perceptions of crime, • 11.4 % of Durham lives below the poveconomic hardship and lack of transportaerty line. tion. Therefore, closing an urban grocery • 37.9% of single-mother households in store eliminates a valuable economic asset Durham live below the poverty line. that is unlikely to return. In addition, foodpoor areas (i.e. areas that lack adequate access to affordable, nutritious, and culturally appropriate food) have a higher risk of diet-related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Due to its impact on every facet of community life, food security is drawing attention from community activists and local governments in urban areas such as Oakland, Detroit, and Dallas.1,2 However, most approaches focus on enhancing a community’s food security by attracting new businesses, creating urban agriculture initiatives, and expanding food stamp programs. Meanwhile, there are no policies aimed at protecting the food security of a community from construction-related threats such as those that are closing Los Primos in Durham. Studies have shown that urban areas may be underserved by groceries by as much as 25%.1 This vacuum is not readily filled by new businesses due to difficulty implementing the typical supermarket business model in space- restricted inner cities, compounded by perceptions of crime. This not only decreases accessibility to stores, but it drives up prices due to lack of competition. Since the average cost of the USDA’s Thrifty Food Plan (TFP, the most cost-effective way to fulfill nutritional needs) would use 34% of the monthly income of someone living at the poverty line,4, 5 high food prices in urban areas are unsustainable. In Durham, NC, where 11% of residents live at or below the poverty line, community food security is a critical problem.6 Food insecurity has profound effects on all facets of community life. Children affected by nutritional deficiencies can have impaired cognitive development.7 Studies have
found that food security-related poor nutrition can lead to diet-related diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and obesity.8, 9 Indeed, the food-insecure are twice as likely to be obese as the food secure.10 Such health problems can burden inner-city economies through added health care costs and reduced work efficiency. Also, a 2002 study showed that vitamin deficiencies increase violent behavior by as much as 25%, which can exacerbate crime, already a problem in urban areas.11 A study performed last fall by Ramses consulting that developed a heuristic to analyze potential threats to food security concluded that the current food security threat level due to availability and affordability in the neighborhood was a 3 on a 1-5 threat index (with 5 being the least food secure).12 This meant that there existed one or more stores carrying at or above the national average of number of items listed on the TFP. However, the elimination of the Los Primos grocery store would elevate the threat index to a 5, indicating that both affordability and availability of items on the TFP are threatened due to distance to and lack of competition with the remaining local grocer. Our analysis suggests that by performing a food security impact assessment prior to future construction projects, such dramatic increases in food insecurity can be avoided. Next Steps We propose that the Durham county commissioners execute Community Food Security Impact Assessments (CFSIAs) prior to construction and development projects as one aspect of a comprehensive food security initiative. We propose that the Durham city commissioner consider including a food security provision in future impact studies for construction and development projects as one part of a comprehensive food security plan. Considerations of food security would fit well into the previously established environmental justice goal that seeks to limit adverse affects on low-income and minority groups. A CFSIA could be modeled after common environmental impact assessments,13 which are conducted in environmentally-sensitive areas prior to development project approval. Likewise, a CFSIA would be performed prior to development in food securitysensitive areas, and would involve three main steps: 1. Establish baseline food security of the area; 2. Predict impact of development on food security; 3. Make recommendations, including possible mitigating actions. To measure the local food security, the USDA food security assessment toolkit3 should be used. Further, we advise that data on food security be gathered annually and included in models developed for transportation. Sources
1. Pothukuchi K (2005) Attracting Supermarkets to Inner-City Neighborhoods: Economic Development Outside the Box. Economic Development Quarterly 19:232. 2. Pothukuchi K (2004) Community Food Assessment: A First Step in Planning for Community Food Security. J. Plann. Educat. Res. 23:356-377. 3. Cohen B (2002) Community Food Security Assessment toolkit, (Economic Research Service U). 4. Anonymous (2008) Food Security in the United States, (Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion U). 5. Anonymous (2009) USDA Food Plans: The Cost of Food, (Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion U). 6. Anonymous (2006) Income Characteristics, 2000 Census Samples (Durham), (Development OoEaW). 7. Anonymous (2001) Nutrition and Cognitive Development (University of Mississippi), (Institute NFSM). 8. Stamler J (1982) Diet and Coronary Heart Disease. Biometrics 38:95-114. 9. Seligman HK, Bindman AB, Vittinghoff E, Kanaya AM, & Kushel MB (2007) Food Insecurity is Associated with Diabetes Mellitus: Reuslts from the National Health Examination and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of General Internal Medicine 22(7):1018-1023. 10. Adams EJ, Grummer-Strawn L, & Chavez G (2003) Food Insecurity is Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity in California Women. Journal of Nutrition 133:1070-1074. 11. Gesch CB, Hammond SM, Hampson SE, Eves A, & Crowder MJ (2002) Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behavior of young adult prisoners. The British Journal of Psychiatry 181:22-28. 12. Morgan S, Gager P, Johnson D, Wenzel K, & Miller A (2008) A Comprehensive Analysis of Potential Threats to Food Security Using Durham as a Heuristic. (The Univeristy of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill). 13. Anonymous (1997) Guidelines for Conducting Environmental Impact Assessment, (Authority NRC).
Reinvigorating Public Diplomacy Programs in Pakistan
Vrutika Mody, Middlebury College The U.S. State Department should invest funds and personnel skills to improve public diplomacy programs in Pakistan, specifically addressed at Pakistan’s middle class. Namely, initiate interaction between low-level Pakistani and U.S. officials and increase American education opportunities for Pakistani youth. Post 9-11, negative civilian opinion towards U.S. behavior has developed due to three reasons : 1) popular belief the U.S. is solely concerned with its own interests in the region, 2) U.S. favorable and asymmetrical relationship with India, underscored by the 2008 U.S.-India Civilian Nuclear Deal, and 3) U.S. government emphasis on Pakistan’s military capabilities, sidelining economic and development assistance. Pakistani newspapers have strongly critized American negligence in killing civilians, “American drones in Pakistan between January 14 2006 and April 8 2009 kill[ed] 14 wanted Key Facts al-Qaeda leaders, perishing • In a June 2005 PEW opinion poll, only 23% of Pak[sic] 687 innocent Pakistan istanis expressed a favorable view of the United civilians. The successful perStates. This was the lowest percentage rating of centage of the U.S. predator any country surveyed. In June 2007, favorable ratstrikes thus comes to not ings declined to 15%. more than six percent.” • Public diplomacy programs account for 4% of State Department’s budget. The US spends equal The precarious security situamounts as Britain and France, despite being 5 ation in the region discourtimes larger with deeper global involvement. Pubages American foreign direct lic diplomacy officers (2,500 in 1991) have been reinvestment. However, induced by half. 49% of the U.S. Embassy’s Informacreased face-time between tion Resource Center (IRCs) on American culture American and Pakistani local and policies is not open to the public or is open by officials and students outside appointment only. the realm of government is critical. Encouraging cooperative ventures will educate Pakistanis of U.S. policy and result in candid conversation about policy improvements. Economic cooperation will counter Pakistani resentment of US FDI and development programs in neighboring India. Next Steps U.S. state and local representatives should offer city/town planning guidance to Pakistani officials: • Civically-engaged Americans on city councils and school boards cooperate with Pakistani city officials on issues of local governance (i.e. sewage systems, public safety, primary education, environment protection). Local U.S. officials will recognize particular infrastructure, cultural and economic needs of Pakistan encouraging domestic led reform instead of enforcing ‘Americanization.’ • Invite Pakistani delegations to observe successful small U.S. towns and cities.
Direct interactions will provide Pakistan with state-building knowledge. Interactions will also create opportunities for state-to-Pakistan trade and educational ventures. The State Department’s Civilian Response Corps offers a blueprint in which volunteer diplomats, public health officials, engineers, and economists are deployed in a crisis zone within 48-72 hours. However, the goals of a Pakistan-oriented civilian corps should include multiple interactions over time and incentives offered to Americans (i.e. trade opportunities). U.S. policy should emphasize educational exchanges between U.S. and Pakistani students: • Relaxing Bush adminstration’s strict quotas on foreign students from Islamic countries. • U.S. embassy in Pakistan should provide financial support for small batches of local Pakistani students to attend certified American schools (i.e. Karachi American School, Lahore American School). • The embassy should also strenghten the ‘American Studies’ department in local Pakistani universities. Incentives to choose this major could include internship opportunities with U.S. businesses. These policies will provide Pakistani youth with oppor• Pakistani Muslims responded to polls by agreeing tunities to learn about U.S. “the interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq were not politics, history, society, and about democracy. [Instead], they were about reculture in an academic setmoving certain threats to the United States.” ting. Pakistanis from a young • Increasing rates of anti-American sentiment in Pakiage will have a stake in imstan challenge the effectiveness of U.S military and proving U.S.-Pakistan relaeconomic policy in the region. The US will need to tions. The practical benefits continue aggressive strikes to attack al-Qaeda and for them will include higher the Taliban in Pakistan’s lawless tribal areas. Howeducation opportunities and ever, these tactics will be futile if America’s presricher career prospects. The ence itself is rejected by the Pakistani population, State Department’s Youth especially the country’s nascent middle class. Exchange and Study (YES) program provides 300 slots for Muslim youth to spend one year in American high schools. However, because funding has been redirected to other programs, contact with youth is often lost and students are not provided with tangible skills or job opportunities for use after graduation.
Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives. Hearing: Global Polling Data on Opinion of American Policies, Values and People. 110th Congress, 1st session. Mar. 14 2007. http://mountainrunner.us/files/sfrc/Time_to_Get_Back_in_the_Game_LIVE.pdf Hussain, Touqir. “U.S Pakistan-Engagement Special Report. The War on Terrorism and Beyond” U.S Institute for Peace. August 2005. USC Center of Public Diplomacy, Allerton Mir, Amir. “60 drone hits kill 14 al-Qaeda men, 687 civilians.” The International News. 10 Apr. 2009. http://thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=21440 Kerry, John F. “US Public Diplomacy – Time to Get Back in the Game.” Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. Feb. 13, 2009.
A New Resolve: US – Pakistan Strategy v. the Taliban
Talha Alvie and Justin Shrader, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill As Taliban influence spreads in Pakistan, the United States must refocus its efforts toward a joint endeavor, providing the Pakistani military with adequate means to combat the militancy and promoting socio-economic development in the country’s troubled northwestern regions. After the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, many Taliban fled to Pakistan’s autonomous Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and continued to carry out attacks on NATO forces. Much of the aid Pakistan received to stop the attacks was diverted to other projects, such as boosting the military on the Indian border. Meanwhile, the Taliban were able to spread to neighboring areas, and by April 2009, had reached districts just 100 km away from the capital Islamabad. The U.S. must push for Pakistan to take military action in the Swat Valley and must give the Pakistani military the weapons, equipment, and logistical support appropriate for such action. Instead of providing loosely monitored money as it has in the past, the United States should supply up-to-date hardware to increase the effectiveness of the Pakistan military and minimize civilian casualties. The Pakistan Frontier Corps, a critical element in anti-militancy efforts, suffers from a lack of communication systems, modern equipment, and training. All of these can be provided by the U.S., without the concern for misuse that arises with money.
• Pakistan has received $6 billion in military aid since 2001 to combat terrorism, much of which has been misspent. • Pakistan receives only $75 million per year in development aid. • The Taliban have invaded districts surrounding their stronghold in the Swat valley, despite a deal with the federal government implementing Sharia (Islamic) law in Swat in exchange for peace. • The government, though hesitant to respond, has launched a military operation in the Buner and Lower Dir districts.
The U.S. military should also increase intelligence-sharing with Pakistan, an endeavor made easier with new pro-U.S. commanders in Pakistani intelligence agency. U.S. drones can be used to relay information about Taliban activity to Pakistani commanders on the ground. Unilateral drone strikes by the U.S. strain relations but, if necessary, they should be coordinated with Pakistani commanders to maximize their effectiveness. Extremism in Pakistan must be viewed through a socio-economic lens. Pakistan’s northwest remains largely underdeveloped and would benefit from basic infrastructure such as schools, hospitals, and running water. Extremist ideologies spread easily among despondent and marginalized populations, and the U.S. should begin to invest more in these areas to help increase economic opportunities. Special emphasis must be placed
on training and equipping civilian law enforcement agencies so that security can become self-sustaining. Analysis • Military action against the Taliban stronghold in Swat will further reduce the capabilities of the Taliban. • A more supportive approach by the U.S. will increase the capacity of the Pakistani military to combat extremism. • Providing appropriate weapons, equipment, and information instead of money will prevent misuse of military aid. • A coordinated effort will also serve as a trust building exercise between the two countries. • Most of the Taliban’s recruits have been poor, jobless young men. Combining an economic aspect to the solution will harm support for the Taliban and isolate them from the rest of the population.
• The United States should urge Pakistan to take military action in the Swat Valley. • The U.S. Must support Pakistan’s operations by providing the tools needed to combat militancy. • The U.S. must also refocus its efforts in the region as whole and increase economic investment and development to stem the spread of extremist ideologies.
Next Steps Military action must be taken in Swat as soon as possible. In the meantime, however, the U.S. military should better coordinate with its Pakistani counterparts on drone attacks and through intelligence-sharing in order to reduce further damage to intergovernmental relations and to maintain support in Pakistan.
United States Government Accountability Office. “Combating Terrorism: Increased Oversight and Account ability Needed over Pakistan Reimbursement Claims for Coalition Funds.” June 2008. Johnson, Thomas; Mason, Chris. “No Sign until the Burst of Fire,” International Security, Vol. 32, No. 4, p. 41-47. Khan, M. Ilyas. “Doubts Remain as Sharia Bill Signed,” BBC. April 15, 2009. “Pakistan Launches Taleban Strikes,” BBC. April 28, 2009. “US Aid ‘Diverted’ in Pakistan.” BBC. December 27, 2007. Paracha, Abdul Sami. “Buner Falls into the Hands of Swat Taliban,” Dawn (Pakistan). April 22, 2009. Oxford Analytica: Global Strategic Analysis. “PAKISTAN: Corps is Ill-Equipped for ‘War on Terror’.” December 11, 2007. Perlez, Jane. “Pakistani Military Names Spy Agency Chief,” The New York Times. September 30, 2008. Johnson, Thomas; Mason, Chris. “No Sign until the Burst of Fire,” International Security, Vol. 32, No. 4, p. 41-47. Abbas, Hassan. “From FATA to the NWFP: The Taliban Spread their Grip in Pakistan,” CTC Sentinel. Vol. 1, Issue 10. September 2008.
U.S.-Sino Military Cooperation in Africa
Bradford Waldie, United States Air Force Academy The U.S. and China both have vital interests in the stability and development of African nations; training of African Peacekeeping forces provides an ideal overlapping interest for the simultaneous improvement of African States as well as U.S.-Sino relations. Now is the time for cooperation. For the U.S., China and Africa, a mutually beneficial opportunity for collaboration exists in the potential for military cooperation on the African continent. All parties involved have security, economic, and political interests tied to African stability and have declared their willingness to pursue security as a prerequisite to attaining that desired stability. Through combining the strengths of America’s military experience with China’s growth and development competence, the burden of undertaking substantial security development becomes more manageable Key Facts for all involved. Joint operations • In October 2007, the U.S. established the in states such as Rwanda and Linew U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) with beria, and dialogue through mula focus on sustaining African security; since tinational regional organizations that time China has deployed over 1,400 milisuch as the Economic Community tary, police and observers as peacekeepers of West African States (ECOWin Africa. AS) can provide a platform for • The U.S. and China have both committed the development of professional, Navy vessels to fight pirates in the waters off well equipped African militaries the Horn of Africa. with the ability to support peace• In the past decade the percentage of Official keeping roles and stabilize central Development Assistance funds controlled governments. Cooperative develby the Pentagon has increased from 3.5% to opment would aid the ability of 22%, while the amount of Chinese foreign aid African states to increase peacedevoted to activities in Africa rose to 44%. keeping operations and improve the relationship between the U.S. and Chinese militaries. Recent events in Liberia have shown the value of establishing security as a fundamental component of stability. In 2003, at the end of the Second Liberian Civil War, the U.S., UN, regional African Coalitions intervened in Liberia, and committed themselves towards modernizing the Liberian Army as a tool to develop a strong central government. While the U.S. worked with the military, U.N. forces trained Liberian police, providing an example of how international actors can collaborate to improve security. Analysis The monetary investment required to train and equip African military forces would be substantial, but with pledges from both the U.S. and China to increase aid to Africa, finding the funding is feasible. Liberia serves as an example for the potential price tag on mili-
tary training. The U.S. contributed $162 million bilaterally and $179 million through UNMIL in 2008 to that nation’s rebuilding efforts. The current U.S. administration plans to double foreign assistance to Africa from $25 billion in 2008 to $50 billion by 2012. Additionally, China’s current assistance funding to Africa is estimated at a modest $1-2 billion per year, but Beijing has vowed earlier this year to increase aid to African Nations. The U.S. State Department should engage the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs in bilateral talks to ensure that sufficient funds are allocated by both nations to support African military training missions, and equipment purchases. Added security will usher in increased wiliness by private companies to make substantial investments in Africa, bringing the financial capital needed to promote long term growth.
• Despite a lack of China’s transparency in many African initiatives, Beijing has openly stated its support for cooperating and training African military forces. • Engaging the Chinese military as partners in efforts to train African forces adds much needed manpower and resources to U.S. efforts. • Many African nations, such as Liberia, present more options for improving U.S.-China cooperation than hot button issues that negotiate the parameters of Chinese sovereignty such as North Korea or Taiwan.
Next Steps Coordinating training missions and funding within the U.S. government as well as with Beijing will prove to be the greatest challenge to implementing this policy. The first step would be to work through U.S. established State Department organizations such as the International Military Education and Training (IMET) Program and the Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) Program in identifying Chinese counterparts to work with in planning out training operations that would lead to the increased capability of African nations.
Bacon, Ken. “Huffington Post Reshaping the U.S. Military Policy in Africa.” http://www.refugeesinternational. org/press-room/oped/huffington-post-reshaping-us-military-policy-africa. China View. “Chinese president vows to increase aid to Africa.” http://news.xinhuanet.com/eng lish/2009-02/13/content_10810653.htm. “China’s African Policy.” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ eng/zxxx/t230615.htm. Dietzman, Roy. Interview by author. USAFA, CO, April, 13, 2009. Lapierre, Daniel. “Liberia’s President Johnson-Sirleaf, U.S. General Ward Attend Historic Activation of Liberian Military Unit.” United States African Command. http://www.africom.mil/ getArticle.asp?art=2011. Lum, Thomas et al. “China’s Foreign Aid Activities in Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia.” Congressional Research Service. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R40361.pdf Swan, James and Thomas J Christensen. “China’s Involvement in Africa.” http://foreign.senate.gov/testimo ny/2008/SwanTestimony080604a.pdf. “The Obama-Biden Plan.” http://origin.barackobama.com/issues/foreign_policy/#onafrica. Vause, John. “Reports: China Sending Ships to Fight Pirates in Africa.” Cable News Network. http://www.cnn. com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/12/17/china.pirates/index.html
Investing In Diplomacy:
Nazir Harb, Princeton University
An Association of US Middle Eastern Studies
Investing in diplomacy means investing in language training. The establishment of a National Association of U.S. Middle Eastern Studies would facilitate enhanced Middle Eastern language training and area expertise, and would demonstrate the U.S.’s commitment to approaching the region in a culturally appropriate manner.
The NSA—in charge of Signals Intelligence—is overwhelmed with information that needs to be sifted through by speakers of Arabic, Farsi, Dari, Pashto, Kurdish, and others. The bar has been raised from the Cold War standard of a minimum of level 2 fluency (out of 5, where 5 is believed to be attainable only by native speakers) to 4 and 5 by most agencies and departments under the Bush administration. However, there is a significant discrepancy between what is now required and what is being done to cultivate such levels of proficiency among Americans. There is only one government-backed title VI Language Resource Center in the entire country focused on Middle Eastern languages, which has only been around since 2002. In the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis and amidst Cold War tensions, President Kennedy, in 1961, enacted the Alliance for Progress, a program that allotted funds to address illiteracy and poor education, as well as promote and aid economic integration, growth of the market economy, technical training, and Peace Corps programs. Post 9/11, we have yet to see developments that even begin to approximate these efforts. While current international education funds exceed those of the 1960s in number, 1960s funds surpass current appropriations by far in real dollar value.
• Arabic language education is up 25% in colleges and universities since 9/11—reflecting the difference between 3500 and 4200 students. • Since 9/11, less than 40 U.S. undergraduate degrees in Arabic language on average are granted per year. • The U.S. State Department has 54 employees who demonstrate some level of skill in Arabic—eight are willing to participate in media debates or discussions in Arabic on Arab television or radio.
Analysis The U.S. government, in accordance with Title VI of the Higher Education Act of 1958, needs to establish a National Association of U.S. Middle Eastern Studies Programs (NAUMESP). This federally and internationally funded NAUMESP will: 1) represent the serious domestic and foreign policy reforms required to improve the U.S. image abroad, 2) enhance cross-cultural understanding, 3) create more and higher-quality critical language specialists, 4) provide a training institute for U.S. educators seeking to create Middle Eastern and Islamic studies programs at their schools, and 5) serve as a consultative body that advises the State Department upon request.
This initiative requires a tentative annual budget of $63 million from Congress. NAUMESP will work with partner nations of the Middle East to build matching exchange programs for U.S. students to study abroad in the Middle East. Funds will be provided by the U.S. federal government and matched by the government of the host nation.
• The Defense Department and the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages published a report stating that foreign languages form “a core academic subject” in national security. • The Bush administration planned on adding 600 Arabic speakers to its staff by 2008—with less than 1% of the nation’s students involved in Arabic language programs, this was impossible. • University of California at Santa Barbara surveys indicate that an average student of Arabic language requires 2200 hours of instruction to reach a “relative” level of fluency, placing Arabic among the most difficult languages in the world in which to achieve proficiency.
Next Steps The NAUMESP will work toward achieving the goals of transformational diplomacy as indicated by the State Department, as it would function in partnership with the Middle East, rather than in a relationship of paternalism. The State Department should immediately begin to implement this plan starting with 100 participants with the intention of fully executing this policy recommendation within 18 months.
The U.S. economic recession in addition to the sharp decrease of support for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, signify that the Obama administration must act swiftly in allaying fears and restoring hope for prosperity and peace. With less than 1% of American students studying Arabic currently and less than 40 Arabic majors awarded per year, significant measures need to be taken. NAUMESP is one of these critical measures.
http://www.eisenhowerinstitute.org/programs/democracy/homelandsecurity/Whitman4report.htm http://www.campus-watch.org/article/id/1493 Ibid Title VI (1958) acknowledges that foreign language training tied closely to matters of defense as well as the quality of our education system. Title VI also allows Congress to appropriate funds to language centers and area studies associated with public research institutions and later was expanded to encompass support for outreach activities and for businesses as well as government-sponsored grant programming, such as the In ternational Education Program Service. IEPS is responsible for programs such as the Institute for Interna tional Public Policy and the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program. It would seem that many of the kinds of needed organizations are present, but a major restructuring is in order if these programs are to prove effective. (http://www.campus-watch.org/article/id/1062, http://www.ed.gov/ about/offices/list/ope/iegps/index.html). http://nmelrc.org/ http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ope/iegps/history.html Ibid This number is based on the amount of money allotted for Russian language studies in the US during the Cold War—it is adjusted for current prices and subject to Congressional review.
Empowering Kenya’s Youth: A Reconciliation Conference
Sigrid von Wendel and Mansur Tokmouline, Yale University The following is an outline of a conference developed jointly by Roosevelt at Yale and our partner NGO in Kenya. The original idea for a reconciliation conference was developed in consultation with Kenyan students at Yale in the Spring of 2008. Violence stemming from post-election ethnic tensions in 2008 in Kenya led to the deaths of 800 people and the displacement of several hundred thousand. By some accounts, Kenyan youth were involved in 90% of the post election fighting. In other words, the Kenyan youth were not just affected by the ethnic violence, they were the ethnic violence. This outbreak of fighting has motivated the Center for Security and Foreign Policy of the Roosevelt Institution at Yale to partner with a Kenyan NGO in Nairobi to create a Reconciliation and Empowerment Conference. The Key Facts Conference aims to reduce • The methods used in this conference are endorsed ethnic tensions and foster by some of the world’s leading experts on conflict a unified Kenyan identity resolution. amongst its teenage par• The initial conference will host a diverse group of ticipants. It will accomplish teenagers from Nairobi Province in Kenya. If the its objective by bringing the first pilot conference is successful, plans will be laid youth together and engagfor a much bigger and truly national conference to ing them in conversations be held one year’s time from the initial date. about issues they are con• 43% of Kenya’s population is under age 14; only 37 fronted with in their daily other countries have a greater proportion of their lives. The conference will population under 14. address issues common to • Approximately 1,200 women were raped by youth all Kenyans, not individual gangs in the post-election violence, and public ethnic groups. Through health officials estimated that “85 percent of males this technique, the particiwho carry out gang rape will ultimately succumb to pants will unite in realizing AIDS.” a common Kenyan identity and begin to address issues that face the nation as a whole. Main Activities and Topics Students break up into small groups and discuss the following topics: Urban Sprawl, Employer Bias, Drug Use, Agriculture/Trade, Youth Empowerment, and the Justice System. Each group is given a specific scenario on one of these topics and will be asked to answer the included questions. Discussions will be lead by a conference facilitator such that they center around resolutions to the issue assigned without delving into tribal identification. In this manner, the Kenyan youth will avoid tribal or ethnic conflicts and unite around a common goal, namely solving the problem posed to them.
One Example: Drug Use John is 19 years old. As a child, he lived on the streets of Nairobi after his parents died and he no longer had family to live with. When he was 11, John began smoking cigarettes and later developed an addiction to drugs. Not fully aware of the consequences of his substance use, John became more and more addicted and started doing deals for local dealers in exchange for drugs until he was arrested by authorities. After his arrest, John was assigned a probation officer with whom he regularly met with to monitor his drug use. John’s state improved greatly; because of his young age, instead of being imprisoned, John was taken out of his troubled neighborhood and lived in a probation hostel in which he learned about the consequences of drug use and how to overcome his young addiction. After a year of rehabilitation, John was reunited with a distant family member located by his probation officer and is now drug-free and working at a local store. While John eventually overcame his drug problem, he was undoubtedly hindered by his early addiction and illegal activities that prevented him from going to school and developing healthy relationships. In addition, there are many young adults and children addicted to drugs who have not been helped in the way that John has been. • How could John’s drug addition have been avoided in the first place? • Who is responsible for John’s drug addition? • What was the most successful part of John’s rehabilitation (i.e. not going to prison, probation officer, probation home, moving out his old neighborhood) ? As we can see in this example, the conference will avoid confronting ethnic and tribal issues head-on. It will concentrate its efforts on giving Kenyan youth an opportunity to agree on something and solve some sort of problem together. More importantly, the focus on drug use as a national issue, not just a personal one, will instill a sense of patriotism in the participants. The ultimate aim is to steer Kenyan youth toward a shared identity and shared goals and away from divisive differences and conflicts. Conclusion and Post Conference Each of the smaller groups will present to the entire conference and share a summary of their discussion and possible resolutions to their assigned issue. Finally, it is crucial that the conference end on a note of unity so that students remember their experiences and go back to their schools with a hopefully new and progressive perspective. The organizers of the conference will also develop post conference activities to encourage continuation of progress made at the conference. Theses activities might involve participants establishing student groups at their schools to continue discussion on various Kenyan issues or participants being paired up with a pen pal from the conference to stay in touch and continue dialogue with. It is our hope that this first batch of students will go back to their communities with a greater sense of Kenyan identity and fewer antagonisms against groups considered “others.” If we can develop those two qualities in the next generation of Kenyans, then this East African country will not ever have to endure ethnic violence of the kind it saw last year. Sources
http://www.kimmediagroup.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=332&Itemid=671 http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/10/10/country_facts/main3352035.shtml http://www.soschildrensvillages.org.uk/charity-news/1-000-new-hiv-infections-blamed-on-kenya-unrest.htm
Accountability in PEPFAR
Matthew Eldridge, Virginia Tech The following is an excerpt of a longer article. To view the content in full, including the author’s final recommendations for PEPFAR systems, please visit rooseveltcampusnetwork.org Independent Criticisms of Current Accountability Mechanisms Much of the existing commentary on PEPFAR accountability comes in the form of criticisms from independent sources either as NGO issued reports or academic papers. While the topics discussed by independent entities regarding PEPFAR and current U.S. government efforts to combat global health issues is extensive, there are only a few notable publications which have addressed the accountable dispersion of funds. Congressional Oversight One of the primary ways in which PEPFAR is ‘held accountable’ is its reports to Congress. As demonstrated by the 2007 report and others before it however, OGAC has provided very limited guarantees that the funding is actually being distributed in an accountable manner. Increased congressional oversight appears a necessary action and several pieces of legislation are currently proposing as much (and are discussed further below) but some caution against overdoing congressional oversight. Some take issue in that for example that “for PEPFAR, achieving its globally-set programmatic targets and its accountability to Congress take precedence over any other feature” threatening accountability to other stakeholders. So while one might be encouraged to view PEPFAR’s congressional oversight as a strength (safeguarding the interests of the taxpayers who fund it) it may also be seen as a negative if PEPFAR becomes too focused on accountability to Congress and ignores accountability to recipients. Transparency in Supply Change Management System (SCMS) The SCMS is a PEPFAR implementing partner and is funded by PEPFAR to “strengthen or establish secure, reliable, cost-effective and sustainable supply chains to meet the care and treatment needs of people living with or affected by HIV and AIDS.” SCMS works closely with clients to “reduce the price of essential medicines” through “[planning] future procurement, pooling orders to buy in bulk, establishing long-term contracts with manufacturers and purchasing generic alternatives whenever possible.” A 2006 statement by the Ecumenical Pharmaceutical Network (EPN) found growing concerns with the operation and management of SCMS – particularly with regard to transparency. The EPN statement even alleged that the “SCMS contract has the potential to undermine, rather than increase, long-run and sustainable local capacity for managing supplies; lacks avenues for civil society participation; and will increase the brain-drain which is debilitating Africa’s health care systems.”
When specifically addressing transparency and accountability concerns, the EPN statement noted that SCMS suffers from the “lack of involvement of key stakeholders in target countries” and the “lack of transparency in sharing any clear strategy…that there are international plans for establishing long-term capacity and sustainability at the local level.” In short, the EPN and the Center for Health and Gender Equity which issued a supporting statement were concerned with the lack of transparency and accountability resulting from the closed nature of the decision-making system adopted by SCMS. Streamlining Accountability The phrase “streamlining” or creating “uniform” policies with regards to anything related to international development funding must be viewed cautiously as on-the-ground circumstances often differ so widely that applying the same cookie-cutter strategy everywhere can prove disastrous. Yet, on the other hand, there are benefits to creating some clear standards in terms of accountability because mismanagement of funds has negative effects universally and using a variety of guidelines or mechanisms for accountability creates disunity, confusion, and allows the system to break down. Other programs have subscribed to the belief of adopting uniform or at least similar accountability expectations: “Funding provided to community groups in Uganda by the Global Fund…did not have similar accountability requirements, and Global Fund grants were suspended in 2005 due to concerns that the money had been misused.” As PEPFAR accountability requirements are unclear, it is impossible to comment as to whether they are currently streamlined or at least similar or if instead they vary widely between projects. Collecting and Publicly Disclosing Data Transparency is essential to monitor how well PEPFAR adheres to accountability mechanisms. Unfortunately, OGAC has repeatedly failed to make information regarding funding decisions public. Furthermore, OGAC has even failed to publicly establish the guidelines used when making those funding decisions. One report drew a sharp contrast between the transparency of PEPFAR and that of the Global Fund: “accountability requires publicly disclosing collected data and working with governments to strengthen national monitoring and evaluation systems” to this goal, “PEPFAR has the most comprehensive financial data capture system but does not publicly share most data” rendering independent outside evaluation difficult. On the other hand “the Global Fund publicly discloses the largest share of its financial data” and as a result it gains high marks on its financial transparency. Financial accountability is clearly an area where public disclosure of data is lacking for PEPFAR. However, OGAC is very open when it comes to releasing figures relating to substantive accountability in terms of clinics opened, medicine distributed, new individuals placed on drug-treatment programs, etc. Yet some outside sources are even criticizing this data as being unclear and misleading. Take for example the claim that in 2006 PEPFAR reached 822,000 individuals with treatment. These individuals are broken down into two categories: upstream and downstream treatment support. The first category – “upstream systems-strengthening” – “includes those supported through contributions to national, regional, and local activities such as training, labora29
tory support, monitoring and evaluation, logistics and distribution systems, protocol and curriculum development.” On the other hand “downstream site-specific” support “refers to…instances where [PEPFAR] is providing all or part of the necessary components for quality services at the point at which services are delivered.” The 293,700 people listed as receiving upstream support are receiving “no more than systems-strengthening support from the United States.” Even among the 528,300 people receiving downstream support, it is not clear how many are receiving “all” and how many are receiving “part” of their treatment support from PEPFAR. It is possible given this ambiguity that the vast majority are receiving only 10% of their funding needs for treatment from PEPFAR. While the figures may likely show that PEPFAR is playing a significantly larger role, the PEPFAR report gives no evidence to back up this assertion and observers are left to make their own conclusions. Some critics have argued that “since the goal of treating 2 million people in the 15 focus countries by 2008 was designed to significantly increase access to treatment, PEPFAR should be responsible for the full costs of treatment for 2 million people.” Furthermore, the PEPFAR report gives no explanation as to the process which was used to generate these figures. The methodology used to arrive at these figures is a complete mystery and throws into question their very validity. While it is a stretch to claim that these figures are intentionally misleading and used merely to allay congressional concerns and guarantee more support and funding, these discrepancies and vagueness’ do certainly demonstrate a poor grasp of substantive accountability. Better documentation and representation of these figures – broken down into specific categories for instance – might generate more confidence in them. Current Congressional Legislation The sheer size of PEPFAR’s funding allocations and the vague and poorly defined accountability mechanisms currently in place have encouraged legislators to propose two identical bills aimed at improving transparency and accountability in PEPFAR. The two pieces of legislation – one in the House and the other in the Senate – outline a method to improve accountability within PEFAR so that it is held congressionally and publicly accountable in a transparent manner. The senate bill S. 2584 was proposed by Sen. Clinton of New York on January 31, 2008 and was read twice before being referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. Similarly the corresponding house bill, H.R. 5485, was proposed by Rep. Miller of North Carolina on February 25, 2008 and was also referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. The Act, labeled the PEPFAR Accountability and Transparency Act, seeks to amend the Global AIDS Act which created PEPFAR by adding on to the end certain measures designed to promote accountability and transparency within PEPFAR. The Act authorizes the Global AIDS Coordinator to use funds provided by the Global AIDS Act to: (1) Improve the coverage, efficiency, effectiveness, quality, and accessibility of services provided under this Act; (2) Establish the cost-effectiveness of program models;
(3) Assess the population-level impact of programs implemented, including the impact of programs on women, children, and other at-risk or vulnerable populations; (4) Ensure the transparency and accountability of services provided under this Act; (5) Disseminate and promote the utilization of evaluation findings, lessons, and best practices in the implementation of the programs receiving financial assistance under this Act; (6) Encourage and evaluate innovative service models and strategies to optimize the delivery of care, treatment, and prevention programs financed by the United States Government; and (7) Strengthen ongoing program monitoring and enhance program quality through routine program evaluations, such as midterm and final program evaluations. The Act sets a deadline of 90 days after its enactment for the Coordinator to submit a report detailing the funds used for “monitoring, operations research, and impact evaluation research during the 5-year period ending on September 30, 2008.” This report will be followed by another which the Global AIDS Coordinator should submit no later than 1 year after the Act’s enactment which will detail his plans for using funds regarding the aforementioned areas of monitoring, operations research, and impact evaluation research for the next 5 years. Additionally, the Act provides a long list of possible research priorities for the Coordinator to investigate such as “ensuring a safe blood supply” and “promoting the most effective models for scaling up care and treatment access.” S. 2584 and H.R. 5485 request that the Coordinator consult with other government agencies including NIH, USAID, and the CDC while drafting this 5 year strategic plan. Important for transparency, the Act also would require that OGAC holds “a public meeting at which the public may present its views on the current needs and gaps in program monitoring, operations re eventually pub search, and impact evaluation research” followed by a period where OGAC collects and lishes public comments. Following the completion of the strategic plan it will be presented for comment to Congress as well as to the public through a meeting and through publication online. This legislation currently being considered within the Committees on Foreign Relations is a positive step because it introduces needed accountability mechanisms into the Global AIDS Act which should have been included to begin with. In her introduction of the bill on the floor of the Senate, Sen. Clinton said that she was presenting a bill “that will increase our ability to research and identify the most effective interventions in combating global AIDS.” She also suggested that as Congress had demonstrated commitment to PEPFAR by reauthorizing and increasing its funding, Congress should likewise “maximize [its] investment in programs that have been found effective in preventing infections and delivering care to as many people as possible.” To read the full analysis and final recommendations for this piece, please visit rooseveltcampusnetwork.org 31
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