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Plant Review 1. What 5 things do the structure of plants enable them to do? 1. Obtain Water 2. Nutrients 3.

Make Food 4. Grow 5. Reproduce 2. Nearly all plants are? Autotrophs 3. What are Autotrophs? organisms that make their own food 4. All plants are Multicellular eukaryotes with cell walls. 5. What are plants? Multicellular eukaryotes 6. Eukaryotes cells that contain nuclei 7. Land plants must have ways to do these 5 things? 1. Obtain Water and Nutrients from surroundings, 2. Retain Water 3. transport materials in their bodies 4. support their bodies(skeleton) 5. Reproduce - make new plants. 8. Scientists informally group plants into what 2 types? Vascular and nonvascular Plants Vascular plant that has tubes and transports material Nonvascular plants that transport water and other substances directly from the ground into their cells. 9. Plants have complex life cycles that include what 2 stages?

Sporophyte stage and gametophyte stage Sporophyte stage plant life cycle stage that begins when an egg is fertilized by a sperm gametophyte stage The plant produces two kinds of sex cells and egg cells Spore A reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating Cuticle Waxy, protective layer that covers the stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants. Helps prevent water loss. Vascular tissue Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body. Zygote cell formed by the union of the sperm and the ovum Sporophyte The stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces spore aka seeds. Rhizoid fine hairlike structure that acts like a root Frond a large leaf, esp. of a fern, palm, etc., the leaf of a fern

Fern A __________ is a type of vascular plant that produces spores instead of seeds. spore cells in seedless plants that grow into new organisms Plants without seeds Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts - low growing plants that live in moist areas so can absorb H20 and other nutrients. What is the chemical formula for water? H20 Rhizoid a rootlike structure in nonvascular plants, such as mosses or liverworts, that holds the plants in place and aids in absorption Seed plants have 2 main things? 1. Vascular Tissue and 2. Pollen and seeds to reproduce. In seed plants, they can begin to develop into a new plant if? If a seed lands in an area where conditions are favorable. Phloem vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis

xylem vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant pollen A fine dust that contains the sperm of seed-producing plants seed a mature fertilized plant ovule consisting of an embryo and its food source and having a protective coat or testa, a small hard fruit embryo the young plant that develops from the zygote

cotyledon A "seed leaf" which develops as a part of the seed. It provides nutrients to the developing seedling and eventually becomes the first leaf of the plant. Some species have one ( ) , others two. germination series of events that results in the growth of a plant from a seed Roots do what 3 things? 1. Anchor a plant 2. Absorb Water and Minerals 3. Sometimes stores food The Plants Stem does what 2 main things? 1. Carries substances between the plants roots and leaves. 2. Also provides support for the plant and holds up the leaves so they are exposed to the sun. sunflowers!!!!

A leaf's structure is adapted for capturing the Designed to capture the sun's energy and carrying out photosynthesis. Root Cap a structure that covers the tip of a root, protecting the root from injury Cambium formative one-cell-thick layer of tissue between xylem and phloem in most vascular plants that is responsible for secondary growth Transpiration Process by which plants that release water into the atmosphere from small pores on their leaves known as stomata Xylem Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant. Phloem vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis in some plants. FOOD All Gymnosperms produce Naked seeds

What type of leaves do gymnosperms have needle-like or scalelike leaves. Gymnosperms plants with cones, woody plants that produce seeds, but their seeds are not enclosed in fruits, vascular plants with no flowers or fruit; produce seeds in cones Gymnosperms Have deep-growing roots! Gymnosperm reproduction reproduce by cones, pollen carried by wind to fertilize a female cone, seeds mature in female cone, mature seeds fly off All Angiosperms produce Flowers and Fruits Angiosperm reproduction involves flowers & fruits, Pollen falls on a stigma then it swims down the style toward the ovary. the sperm makes a pollen tube in the ovary. the sperm fertilizes an ovule in the ovary. the ovules grow into the seeds as the ovary swells and becomes a fruit. a fruit falls of the plant and an animal eats it the pollen falls or is moved onto the stigma by an insect or animal 2 major types of Angiosperm Monocots (one) and Dicots Monocot has one cotyledon, parallel veins, flower parts in multiples of 3

Dicot angiosperm with two cotyledons inside its seed, flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5, and vascular bundles in RINGS Rhizoid in fungi, a rootlike hypha that penetrates the surface of an object; in mosses, a long, thin cell that anchors the moss to the ground and absorbs water and minerals from the surrounding soil The leaves of ferns are called? leaf of a fern that grows from the rhizome? Frond The process by which a seed sprouts is called? Germination What part of the flower is the male part? Stamen (Stay Men) The female part of the flower is called the Pistil and sounds nothing like female. The root-like Rhizoids of a moss plant are structures that serve to? anchor nonvascular plants to the ground (mosses and liverworts)

Water from the soil can reach the highest branches of a tall tree because the tree has? Vascular Tissue tissue, water and nutrients through the plant body in higher plants conducts transfers

On a hot day, a plant can dry out due to Transpiration, the process by which? Process by which plants that release water into the atmosphere from small pores on their leaves known as stomata Plant Organs stems, roots, leaves, and flowers All the leaves, all the roots, or all the stems make a Plant organ system. Root System Anchors plant Absorbs and transports minerals and water Stores food (increases surface area) Tissues groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow the organ to function. Plant Cells - cell wall - chloroplast - central vacuole - photosynthesis photosynthesis the process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food

Plant adaptations thick bark ex: redwood, Douglas fur, epicormic sprouting: latent buds on truck open up after a fire on truck and branches, ex: pitch pine, coastal redwood, live oak, and eucalyptus trees, lignotubers: swelling btn the shoot and root have buds and reserve food. The soil protects this area from fire heat ex: Chamise, Trembling Aspen, Paper Birch, scarification: heat stimulates certain seeds to germinate, following fire ex: jack pine, loblolly pine, serotinous cones: jack pines and lodgepole pine have cones that remain viable for 25-75 years. The fire melts the resin that holds the cones shut. Cones that need fire to release seeds can hold them for 25-30 years.