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. . El3t Bo ttom Boats Boat Desians 1. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No.

117 Edited by: Arne Fredrik Haug Published by: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Via delle Terme di Caracalla 00100 Rome Italy Paper copies are $ 6.00. Available from: Distribution and Sales Section Food and Agriculture Organization Via delle Terme di Caracalla 00100 Rome, Italy , Reproduced by permission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Reproduction of this microfiche documekit in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document.

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FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANlZiiTlON ROME, 1975

OF THE UNITED NATIONS

FAO Fimherh 'hahni Papor10.117 R~wieioa 1 (Mmtributloa nmtrkrtod)

FIlV/Tl17(Rer.j) Fltbt Bott#.Boatm

FISEIlR3BoA'l'~IUlVS: 1
FLAT BCTTCU BCATS

Arm Fredrik Iiaug

Fibbing V~mrols andFhgineqring Brauoh Fimhe~ Indumtriem Dfvimion

KKIDAND AURICULWRBOR~~ZSITIO?? OF,,.l!BB IJRWFB .~APIoNS ',~R&~, iwgMw,~~4

The paperoontaiar a rrlaotion of derignr of flatbottom boatoImitable for fimhing rsldl tranmport work in l&or, rivorrund protrotsd ooamtal waterm. Tha paperad the dorignr were praparod to prwide detailrd'trohnicel infoxmation to boatbuilderm aad Fiohery Offioorm in interemtrd memberoountriem. Firmtpublimhed in 1972,thim 1974 revimed edition by J.F. morn oontrilom the tunabar10derignr, updated in aooordanoowith acperionom gathered during oonotrwtion and operation of someof the boatmpromohad, notably AFR-1, IV&I, IV&k& PDT-l,WY-d and XV&7.

Distribution: FAO Dedi6nf of Fiaheriem FAO,lZegioncl'Fiiher~ Offiorrm FAO Fiihe~i,em Mel& Rojeoto 3alaoted Boatbuilders d IIletrsl Arahiteota

Bibliographio Entr;lrt
'Raw, boat6
A.F. (Co+)

(1974

FAO IGh.Tech.Pap., (117 1 Rev.lr4.6 pe khing boatdeeigner 1. Flatbottom Navaler@uasrix3g - fii&i~ tit deeignr. Teahnical~ihfoixMion.' F&it~'bottdm boat& hlildingb n&eriele,h&la. Fj.at b@torq '&uwe.;~tra&rport boat. Operatgxw,. Inlhnd and ooasfal fimheriss.

FIIV/Tl17(Rw,l)

iii

CONTFNTS

!%!!!
1 I#

INTRODUCTION BUILDINGPROCEDURE SELECTIONOF TIMJJER SELECTIONOF FASTENINGS TABLE1 DRAHINGS AFR-1 IVC-4 HLW-6 IVC-6 WC-5 PDY-1 SOM-1 NC-7 4.90
m Flat Flat

1' 2 3 3 4

2. 3. 4.

Bottom Boat Bottom Canoe Bottom Bdat Bottom Boat


Bottom Canoe

7 11 15 23 27 31 35 39

5.10 m 5.40

m Flat Flat

5.94 q
6.80

m Flat

8.23 m Flat Bottom Boat 8.43 m TransportBoat 11.25 m TraneportBoat

FllV/IP117(Rev.?) 1. 1N!rR0IYucr1m TRE PURPOSE OF THIS FUBIZCATICIET is to present some basic designs of boats that are simple to oonstruot,for use-in small-scale, non-industrial fisheries. All the designs ehown here are of the flat bottom type; that is: the bottom is flat when seen in the transversedireotion,while lengthwisethere is a slight ourvaturs. In the majority of the presentdesigns, the shape is simplified to the extent that the sides are built up with parallelplanks and the rocker of the bottom is determinedsimply by the curvature and the flare of the side planks, so no buildingjigis necessary.

1 '_

..

THE E OF CONSJ!RUCTION of flat bottom boats, because of the simple, straight-lined "fp" frames and the uncomplicated planking, is consideredto be their min~advantages, realizing also '&at this normallymakes them the least expensiveof all planked wooden boats. THE WALLOW DRAUGHT! is an importantfeature for many purposes like navigationon shallowrivers and lakes or in swamp areas or close to the shore. For beach landing operations,it means that the boat can be kept afloat until it actually touches the beach, and because of its flat bottom it rests firmly on the ground after hauling up. GOOD TRANSVERSESTABILITYwhen comparedwith round bilge or V-bottom boats with the same weight and overallbeam is another advantageof flat bottom boats. This means that they give a stable working platform for fishing operations. BIG FLOOR SPACE INSIDE THE BOAT is a valuableasset for oertain fishing operations like gillnetting or pot fishing where a workingposition standingnear the side is normal; this is another easily possible,favourablefeature of the flat bottom boat configuration. THE ADAPMBILITY FOR SERIES PRODUCXON is high, utilib!ngsimple moulds and templates; series productionis possiblewith a small labour foroe. In one country in Africa, the eystem of kit productionin.a central place with good aooess to suitable timber, ard assemblyin the differentfishing villages,has been introduced with great success. EXPERIENCED BOATBUILDFRSare not necessaryfor the construction of flat bottom boats since the ambunt of difficultboatbuildingwork is reduced to a minimum, Knowledgeof general carpentryis required,supplemented with a few weekstraining in this particular type of construction. STABDARDSIZES OF TIRBER can be used throughoutin the majority of the designs presented. The requisitetimbers oan be obtained directlyfrom the timber store or sai mill without timber spiling or other difficultadjustmentsof the edges being required. Since,standard sizes are different in differentoountri'es and strengthand stiffnessarenot the same for all boatbuilding timbers,the specifications given should be taken more as guidelinesthan as striot instructions. THE RAIN DISADVARTAGES of flat bottom boats are their general tendency to slamming in requiringspeed reduction,and the tendencyto sidewaves9 resulting in discomfort,arxl drift in wind and waveal due to lack of a deep keel. These featuresrestrict the area of uee for these boats to protectedwaters, inland waterwaysand some lakes. Spray and water since there are no bilges where this that enter the boat can also be quite uncomfortable, water can be collectedand easily bailed or pumped out. THE BOAT DESIGNS presentedhere are suitablewhere low cost, or ease of construction, are all importantfactors and where a somewhatreduced seaworthiness or seakindliness can be accepted,or where extreme shallow draft requirements arean over-ridiugconsideration.

2
2.

FIIV/T117(RiV.i\ BUIZSINGPROCEDURES

THE! SIMPLESTVERSIONS of flat bottom boats have croes-laid bottom planke nailed directlyto the sidee, and the lower side planka on each side are increasedin thickness to take the nail6 without eplitting. The frames are mainly neceesary to hold out the beaauee the main transversestrengkhcornea from the aroas-laid sides during construotion, bottom planks. The bottom planks have to be held togetherby longitudinal bottom stiffeners, and the side planks by vertical side stiffeners(intermediate eide frames). A slight bending of the bottom planks when crossingwaves can be toleratedas long as it does not affect watertightness. Except for MLW-6, which is built over a jig, when one or eeveralboate only are to be built the construction procedureis as follows: Seleot timber and fasteningsaccordingto specifications on drawings '. (see Chapters 3 and 4 regardingselection of timber and fasten&e).
2,

Make templatesfor frame6 and transom.


stem

3. Prefabricateframes, transom and 4.

oompletewith bevels.

Join lower side planks to obtain the required length using butt blocks on the inside. Mark positionof all main frames and intermediate frames.

5. Assemble the lower side planks, frames, stem and transom on the boat ground or on a flat floor. When this is done the shape of ,th+ ie given.
6.

Fasten side stiffenersto lower side planke and complete side planking. Turn the boat over, check the bevel on the lower side planks for a perfect fit with the bottom planks. Start plankingthe bottom from the stern, working toward the stem. Apply a strand of cotton and bitumastic compound in the joint between the sidea and the bottom. If the bottom planking is made of a timber that swells and shrinks considerablyit is necessary to leave a gap, the thickness of a hacksaw blade between the planks. Never fit the bottom planks tight if they are made of pine or similartimber since the bottom planks will buckle as they swell. With most stable tropicalhardwoods, however, the bottom planks can be fitted tight on the inside with a small outgaugefor caulking the outside. Apply wood preservativeon all surfaces. A strand of cotton is driven into the seams with a proper caulking iron and not J screwdriver, chisel or putty knife. The seam ic finally renderedwatertightby fillingthe joint with bitumastiocompound. Painting the outside of the bottom with bitumaeticpaint is the beet and cheapestway. The sides can be painted hut applicationof wood preservationwill give a better and cheaper protectionto the timber against rot.

7.

9.

10.

When sariee productionof 10 or more boats 4s envisaged,building upside down over a procedure jig is the quickest and most economicalmethod. In this caee the construction follows that shown for boat MLW-6. Slight differencesin proceduremay be necessary to inoorporatefixed frames which are indicatedin some designsand these shouldbe prepared and fitted to the jig with the moulds and permanentlyfastenedto the hull before it ie removed from the jig.

PIIV/T117~Rsv. 1) 3.

SEXJXX?ION OF TIMBER

timber are: THE MAIN QUALITIESsought in a boatbuilding (a) Rot resistance- Rot is the main enemy of wooden boats operating in tropical fresh waterandthe timber should be selectedwith this in mind. The types of timber with high naturalresistanceto rot are normallyknown by the boatbuilders in the area but ForestryDepartmentswill also be able to give precise information regardingdurabilityof various local timbers. High resistanceto rot can also be achievedby pressurelimpregnationof timbers, The local Forestry Departmentcan give advice on which speciesof timber would be suitable. Besides being easily treatedby pressure-impregnation it must be relativelystable, with good strengthqualitiesand not split easily when nailed or screwed. (h) Stability- A timber that is not stable will shrink excessivelywhen it dries out and thereby open up the seams with resultingleaks. On the other hand, if the same timber is dry when the boat is being built the bottom planks will swell excessively after being put into water causingGreat strain on the fasteningsand making the planks buckle with consequentleaks along the chine. The tangentialshrinkageshould preferably be below 4 percent when dried from green to 15 percent humidity. The best hardwoodshave a tangentialshrinkage of only 2 peroent - a boat built of such timber will, therefore,have less problemswith le&kagedue to swellingand shrinkage. (c) Good strenCthqualities- The weight of the timber will give an indication of the strength. The heavier the timber is the strongerit will be. A heavy timber will, therefore,permit a slightreduction in plankingthicknesscompared with a lighter timber. (d) Take nails and screws without splitting- The problem of splittingwhen nailingthe planks can partly be solvedby preboring holes for the nails. Holes for screws must always be prebored.
4.

SELECTION05 FABTENINGS

(4 (b) (4 (4

All nails, screws and bolts shouldbe hot-dippedgalvanized. Copper nails or brass screws are expensiveand their use is not warranted for boats operatingin fresh water. Bolts should be of carriage ty,ps with cupped head and a square nut. A galvanizedwasher should be placed under the nut. , The type of galvanizednails to be uTed is often determinedby winat is available. Round nails or square nails are both acceptablebut'the diameter should not be less than l/7 of the plank thicknessand the length at least 2:'le times the plank thickness. For example, for 20 mm planking nails should have a minimumdiameter of 3 mm and a minimum length of 50 mm. If the timber has a tendency to snlit, a hole slightlysmzller than the nail diameter shouldbe drilled before nailing. If the nail is to be clenched,the nail should be tapped over at the end and, with a dolly against the nailherui, tapped down so that the point enters the iiood and hammered hard down to draw up tight. The point shouldbe clenchedacross the grain, not along the grain since this often leads to splitting.

(4

Tablo It MAIN PAE!TICWA.W


I , II

I-

Boat No .

Overall Length

c; ( DaDpth lFf$?,. FKI


;ft
1.14 m

Cost Building Approx. in Africa time with skilled 1972


Carpenters
I

in

U.S.$
s 110

--PAm-1

4.90 m

16 rvc-4

1, ;;404m./
I I I I

2.4

1 ;g 3 1f;t;;; (
t 1--------t-

4-5

hp

No 1 2
No

men in

ft
0.40 1 ft

5 days

I
I
1 I 1 I

5.10 m ,I7 ft

m
&in

2.3

170

kg

Paddles

4-5

hp

~ 2

men in

i3100

3 ft

9 in

375

lb

or oars

5 daJrs
2 men in 12 days

ML&6

5.40 m 17 ft 9 in

No

8 200

IVC-6

5.94 m 19 ft 6 in
6.80 m 22 ft 4 in

16f;a9; I,
1.19

1. ;15;;inj

6.5

;I h+'

j 6-10 hp

No

2 Fen in 12 da;ys

$ 200

Ivc-5

0.43 m

3.5

210

kg Paddles
lb
or

4-5

No

3ftllin

lft5ir!

462

oars

2.men in 7 days 4 men in 10 days

I; 130

s 350 (outboard version) II500

1
so%-1 8.43 m 2.26 m

20 hp

I
IO-20 hp

(outboard version) 4 men in 14 days 4 men in


16 days

27 ft 8 in IVC-7 11.25 m

7 ft

5 in

0*73 m

14.0 2

945

2 ft

5 in 18.5

ke; No

080 lb

Long shaft lo-20 hp Long shaft maximum


20 hp

2.24 m

36 ft IOin

7 ft

4 in

0.73 m

2 ft 1

5 in

1 220 kg No 2 687 lb

IO-20 hp

% 650

4.90
Flat bottom

m
boat

\ \L

__-

LLm!?-. ---

1
C 0 047m i 0.15 I gl 055m

4.66rn 17Qrn
C 0.65 m (122

I.TBnl

&
0035 j 0525m

b
0.65 Ill

II

i 1

0.45m

071 m

LOWER

SIDE

PLANK

0.5 : :: : : : : :

I : :. : :

I. 5 M51R I

F$J -_ E /-%--Lj i ~~
1: M5o5urrm5nt5 on mlllim5tr55. or. !#a

MAIN
Length Boom Depth Weight approx. : : avw owr oil all

PARTICULARS
4.90 1.22 0.40 176 m m m kg up b IO hp ( 16 ft) ( ( 4R) I f! 4 in 1

4p,d=+
FRAME @ FRAME @

Pmpulrisn Purpo55

paddling gillnrtting,

or outboard

hondlinip,gwml

Puporr

4.90m Flat bottom boat ARRANGEMENT, DETAILS


SCOl5 055ign Roma, Nawm m ahown Boat No OmaNa

pm or IS

AFR-I

TIMBER

SPECIFICATIONS

Weight pr.m (at 0.6Skg/dm5)

2.50 kg

I .25 kg

2.80 kg

2.20 kg

____ Weight length Total 87 kg 34.80m I3 kg 10.55 m 42 kg 15.00 m

-. --.

32 kg 22.90 m

2 kg ..--0.75 m -!

The timber should preferobly be medium heavy ond medium hard with good holding power for naiis on.1 low tendency to split. For maximum durobrlity, the timber should be treated impregnation system, preferably pressure impregnation construction. with the best locally ovailable of oil plonks before the

CAULKING :
All joints should be treated with an asphalt- based or bitumastic compound during the It may be necessary to caulk eventual bad leaks with caulking cotton construchon. afterwards.

FASTENINGS
For ossembly Elsewhere :

:
50 x 5 mm flat head wood screws. round noils.

of frames : golvanized

60 x 3.0 mm galvanized

4.90 m Flat bottom boat MATERIALS


Scale Design
L

Boat

No.

Drwg. NI

Rome, November I97

AFR-I

D. I

) /#I ; .*>, ,

.,:

\ : _,I < .,I . I ,_.I < ( .; ,, - .. ,,

. .

. >

,,~ ;< :,

BUILDING I.
PnflarS:

INSTRiJCTlONS
fmm@S trattsan atom pircr lower SidS planha

Arrrmbla on a flat ground or on D floor. Fia framSS 1Smpororily with dioponal battanS.

NOTE I: Aftw Ihii firlt StagS of oSwnbly, it iS ConVSniSnt IO plocr thS boat on two wwhow6 oppmr. l.3Om long and 0.60 m high. Plonldng of lhs bottom will b don with Iha bottom up. :saa l3oG No. WC-4. oii.Na3:

NOTE 2 : For swims production of IO of mm

unib

tha boots shwld b built ups!& down c+w 0 jiQ similar to that in Boot MLW-6. Drwg. No.6 but with fmmes A and B permamntly fitted kfom rsmovrd from tk jig. hull is

Building 3. 4. 5.

inStruction

continurd

Fix side rtiffrnarr

and cornplotS planking of the Sides. rtiffrnrr trmpomrity.

Turn thS bOat ond fir the bottom Complsta planking of the botiom.

Use MoSticon or bitumostic 6. 7. 8. Fir tha bottom Prepors StiffanSr

compound in oil joints.

and kSSl ond rkeg pSrmaMnty. ond knees. and edges and apply wood

ond fix IhwartS

Round off all co,nrrS prsservotivS and pomt.

____ ____ PARTICULARS

paddling

or outbwrd

up t0 IO hP

I,,, (>. I> .

, I

F11V/Tll?(Re~~~)

11

CVC-4

5.10
Flat bottom

m
canoe

, ,
4% 8 0 4 E :: 0 P g%z= gg 8 9E % -- ----__ 8 __---- _-2s

2E * P

4 E B I::: 0 c1 FJ 4-l EiiJ 0

T 5 .g f 2: si EE B1 :: I .c
3

n L-l El

g In z z

TIMBER

SPECIFICATIONS

Weight pr.m (at 0.65kgIdm3)

1.95 kg I 2x5.10 m I

1.4Okq

1 2.90kg 12x5.00m

1.95 kg 12x5.15m

370 kg

r-

Srde planking Bottom Frames Stem piece Transom Side stiffeners Bottom stiffener plonking

I
0.75 m

20.00 m 5.00 m

I .OO m 7.00 m I x 4.40 m 2x 2.80m I x4.60m lx l.50m 1 0.35m 30.55 m 60 kg 1 0.60m 29.70 m 42 kg

1.30 m
I

Keel and skeg 1 Thwarts Total Weight and knees

1 4.00m 15.30 m 45 kg

1 IO.30 m 20 kg

I 0.75 m 3 kg

length

The timber should preferably be medium heavy ond medium hord with good holding power for nails and low tendency to split. For maximum durability, the timber should be treated impregnation system, preferobly pressure impregnation construction. with the best locally ovoiloble of oil plonks before the

CAULKING :
All joints should be treated with on ospholt- based or bitumostic compound during the construction. It may be necessary to caulk eventual bad leaks with caulking cotton afterwards.

FASTEN I NGS :
For ossembly of fromes : yolvonized 50 x 5 mm flat heod wood screws. For planking of bottom : 50 x 3.0 mm golvonized round nails. Elsewhere : 60 x 3.0 mm golvonized round nails.

BUILDING
1. Prrpllre :

INSTRUCTIONS
frmne1 ironwm stem piece lower ride planks

2.

Assemble the above items on o flat ground or o floor. Fix fmmer tempomrily with diogonol battens. (See Boot Na Fix ride stiffeners and complete planking of the eidee. eliffenere tempomrily.

AFR

3. 4. 5.

Turn the boot and fia the bottom

Complete planking of the bottom. Use Mooticon or bitumot$ compound in all joints

NOTE 2:

For series pro&ction of IOormwe

units

the boots should be built upside +wn war o jig similar to that in Boot MW-6. Dr*p Ho6 but with fmmn F pmumently fmm the ii. fitted brfdm hull isrenwed

Bwldmg 6 7 6 9. IO.

mstrucfmn bottom ond fir

contmued stfffenars

: permanently

FIX the Prepare

keel ond skeg. and knees.

Prepare and fix thwarts Round off 011 cornor Apply wood

ond edger. ond pomt.

preservative

MAIN
Length Beam Depth Weight opprox. : : over over oil oil

PARTICULARS
5.10 1.14 0.40 170 m m m kg UP to 5 hp general PurPoee (17ft) ( ( 3ft I ft gin) 4 in )

Propulsion Purpose

paddling gillnetting,

or outboard handlining,

..,

,:

,,

,((.

-,

..,

_.

FIIV/T117(Rsv.l\

1%

LW-

5.40

rn

Flcnt bottom

boat

. :

\.

_,! ( ,;. <,- ,L._, :; ,-. : I, - , ._ i _

. ...!. - .<y, ;:

_ :

r )

r_

MAIN
Lenght Boom Depth

PARTICULARS
over all over 011 5.40m 1.6Bm 0.49m Outboard (ITA (LA ( I ft motor gin) 6in) 7in) 4-6 hp

midship :

Propulsion

long nhoft and owl

+-.-----

lb90

1690

----

..--.&

.-.-

2100

"E

0.5 UAU!tn?TAlu

I II \ \ L::ZZ::-J I cz .r:-:-,

I .-

ow:

I I

I I -----------i---------L

I -------- 8 ----- % ----,

1 . I I. u:::::::;:::::::::1 jplsi5 ;:,, .c ~~~~~ zj I /F


I I $--=--I \ -;; :; :-----a -., , 14. _,K T\k-~I I soo -4 .- -y/7r!. b .-I$ . .tI \ t------A : . y--j-- -j-y .I, :. h/l V A I ,. 650 -I c 500 \ b\h
MOULD I MOULD 2 r-zl MIDSHIP 1 SECTION 20150 _-

STEM

-1.

Wwtruct building jig, fhot it is;itraight and Ywsun.u~ tb poaiCon maul6 2-01-4 inqrr ahm

mntml with a spirit IWII level. Stretch a clntw line string. of thr hunsom, on the jig. mould I,

.2

3. Plumb 4. Posi&tht .tmn&i, moulds and the atrm on tha jig. Aftu cant@ling with plumb-bob fix to jig and bracr Imjlh 550 In. Tha jig should h wdl brocod ar

TRANSOM THE

SEEN SIDE

FROM

% ? 0 i / . !!!si&
SEEN FROM lH< SIDE STEM

5.

Contrm MI bawl of ths tmnsom loid over the mouldr Fis the krrlson

with o flsxibls

batten

6. 7.

30 I 70 to tmnsom

and stsm. Screw 7 x 60

Ftm tha two lids planks 20 II IS0 with thr bottom wlga in tii with morks on ths tmnsom, moulds t. ~( stem ond fir. Lat the plonk8 band without forcing up or dwn. Fir Ampomry hrlps to Lap batton 25 x 50 along chino. Ths battm ths sidr fmmrr in place. hmpomry batten 25 x 50

6.

9.

Fostan ths rida fmmrr 25 x !tO with nails to the ridm planks. Start fmm aft and ploco them with a dirtarcs of 40 an. batwwn.

scnws

5 x40

for fixing of ride-fmmor

13 in. No. 12

Side nailed

frames 25 x to sheer &on 30 x 70 Side plonk 20 x I50

Golvonised

boot nails

.-, b: is. ?

IO.

Plank ths aidss up with plonkr 20 I 150 nailing to tha fmmea. A Jnan on the insidr muat support tha fmmrs during nailing. Ths top plonk is widrr than the othon and is sown off to align with thr to@ of tha moulds. Bwrl off the top oflrr fortning to take the bottom plonk. China piarke battan 20 II 50 is fixed along lop odga of sidr and belrvrd off for bottom planks.

II.

12.

Chine batlen fastmsd after

20 i 50 top

Thr ridr

planks an

of same dimrnrions

20 x 150. and planks.

Top plonk is mode from a plonk 20 I 200 swn to fit the top of the moulda. off to loko the botlom on the outride It is then brvrlrd

China batten is fastened beveled off.

and

5.40

ftl

Flat bottom boat

CONSTRUCTION 3j STAGI

IS.

Usa auffiiiont botnm 20 I I50

Bitumovtii kssl-

compound in thl Nail tha bottom sidos. and thr

joint plonk1

bottom and sides. tu th

14. IS.

Caulk

tha sidaa

attd thr bottom ond fill thl reams with bitumostic


nails thmugh the

compound

Fir thr outor bottom pbtks 6ott the tig golvanind

kwl 30 I( 70 with into th4 karlson. and Ihr wtw rtam

Keel 30 I 70 is fined after bottom planking i# wmplatad. boot nail8 50 mm (2 in.) with IO mm Uar golvanirrd

16.

bolts.

Bottom starting boot naila

plonkad with from aft. USI Outer stem made fmm 50a70~900 50 mm (2in.

Shag Fixed IO mm

50 x 70

length

600 bolts

raduced

in height 8 In.1

forward.

with galvanized

E 5

Rrlwr the moulb fmm ths jig and turn th@ boat ovmr. ..z Gil. Ptaa 0 tomtmnswma bmdttg on it-aide of beat and 11111ava the muuldl.
IT. IS. 20.

Fia support 20 I 50 for thwart to rida frontal.


.P

Fin thwrh to support rith wnw oftw bawling. #am thud bracing 30 I 70 08 shown and wtat wall. Fin 12 mm ring-bott tkmugh etom. Ftirn
botiem of fmmee and kw mil topping 20 I SO on inside on outeide of rid@ p&king. Ring-b& l2mn fixed thmugh stem

21. 22. 23. 24.

Fix mil ccrppingand fan drck.


Apply wed pmeervotive and point.

hart
cnwed

20 x 230
to eupport

-.

Thwrt

support 20

Thwart bmcing 30 x 70 ecrow faetened

5.40

Flat bottom boat

CONSTRUCTION dh STAGE

j::qy,,,,,,;. <,I ,, i><,$.p.v,, 2, ., ,I/ ,.,-: ,: .c

,I

! ! j /

FIIV/T117(Rev,l~

23

Flat

bottom

boat

.c .c .c 02 =tz & em--I 25 EEE,o;; 5 g g m .c nio;g p ;p gz == a 0 00 $ ~ 55 00 0.0 -:: i oEfiOe c 0 a.D::F fls&S&&?

O+ a-. k @

2 $

E I 2r 1

,_ . Lo d

01

f )zJ 0.0s ?7 o.sq_m o.wm @ 0.53 m @ 0.53n _ Q O.SSm 5.3 m gl 053m @ 0.SZ.m 3 n aelm o.m5a o.yiL

LOWER

SIDE

PLANK
I 700 I 700 I

.o(I

n t-- 5b 645 I 845

TRANSOM ,I x11 7 I
251145mm Weiipr.m(ot0.65kgldms) 2.40 kg

FRAME

Meosunments

ore gwen in millimetms

I
25rlOOmn 1.62 kg

I
35xl45mm 3.30 kg

I
26x7Omm 1.27 kg

P
60xS5mm 3.70 kg

I
12r35mm 0.27 kg

TIMBER

SPECIFICATION :

k
)*~ For etd. ehoft outboard 0 , . , . 0.5 , , , . . r

Stiffeners

26mmxl00m

Ths timber should pnfembly be medium heavy and medium hard with good holding power for nails ond low tendency to split. For maximum dumbility, ovoilable impmgnatian plonk8 befom the timber ehould be heated with the beet locally system, prefembly pressure impregnation of all

the construction.

ALTERNATIVE TRANSOM CAULKING :


All joints should be treated with on asphalt-based or bitumortic cunpound during the conrtruction. It may be neceeeory to caulk eventual bad Ieoke with caulking cotton afterwords. engine1

I.5 Metm

FASTENINGS :
For assembly Total Weight length 53.IOm 126kg I 65.00m 138 kg 21 .IOm 70 kg 51.50m 66 kg l.lOm 4 kg 6.00m 2 kg Elaawhem : 60 x 3.0 mm galvanized round xiiri. of frames : galvanized 50 I 5 mm flat hood wood screw.

BUILDING I.
Prepare

INSTRUCTIONS
frowa transom stem pmca lower SldO plonkt.

2.

Assemble the above item8 on o flat grOud Or 0 fbor. FIX frames lsmpomrily wlh diagonal battens. FIX s#de stlffanera ond complete plonking of the SiLs. Stiffens tsmpomrity.

3 4 5

Turn the boot and (Ix. the bottom

Complete plonkmg of the bottom Use Mastwan or bltumotx compound I 011 joints. FIX the Prepora bottom stiffeners parmonantly.

6 7 6 9 IO II

and 111 keel and skeg. on tro50m. and knees

FIX scorn battens Prepors

and far thwarts

Round off Apply

all corners and edges. preservohve ond point.

wood

REMARK : SW soat

No. 1X-4, 3 for

Drrg.

No.3 of

and

MAIN
Langht lkom Depth Woighl opprox. : : over over all oil

PARTICULARS.
5.94 I. 94 0.56 406 m m m kg up to 20 wrw8e hp ( 19 ft ( ( 6 ft Sin) 4 in 1

I ft loin)

Propulsion Purpose

outboard gillnetting.

rngine gmeml

1 5.94 m Flat

bottom

boat

0 pycy;, , <. 6:. I ,a,<, : -; ,; ::, i jb _<p( .:;/;s :<: *f I; !,

_. ^I .)

27

FISIi/Tll7~Rev.l~

n/c-5

6.80
Flat

bottom 1canoe

L z 2,

ID I,

ii $.n r 0-E ii gtx zm cw 0s; 0


ig{ Efp j 3
g 2.= l O=s

P Zf-

E % d 0 I : ,E . 2 a ( : d 0 I ;I d 0 E 3 m E z, 0 --l5 5 ,0 _.-. :I s ?rn E z 0 0 E %


2--

04s~. 1

0.Q a 0 k B P

o-

(y- I:: .I : 2 ::Z( .:q


2 -

t--M

pq-

0 g w 5 L

VI3

0 i: 3 B

rll

25 I

,2L 7

I (

E : L 24 E1 I ii 5
J

09E =I 0 0 x f B : 3 a _I 0, : Ll 3

09E 30 : J il:
Zf

0 E :: 0 4 % f

=I

Y-fy-==T 5&r

= E 2s
I

/j -&I

TIMBER

SPEClFlfZATlONS

Bottom

stiffener

5.80 m

2 x 3.40 m 760 m

Keel and skeg Thwarts Total Weight and knees 0.70 m 4750 m 13.80 m 14 kg 3.70 m

length

,
20.70 m 51 kg 15.50 m 25 kg b9.60 m 24. kg 0.90 m 95 kg

kg

The timber should preferobly be medium noils and low tendency to split.

heavy and medium hard with good holding power for

For maximum durability, the timber should be treated impregnation system, preferably pressure impregnotion

with the best locally available of all planks before the construction.

CAULKING :
All jcints should be treated with an asphalt- based or bitumostic compound during the construction. It may be necessary to caulk eventual bad leaks with caulking cotton afterwards.

FASTENINGS

For ossembly of frames : galvanized 45 x 5 mm flat heod wood screws. For planking of bottom : 50 x 2.7 mm galvanized round nails. 60 x 2.7 mm galvanized round nails. Elsewhere :

BUILDING
I. Prepor* :

INSTRUCTIONS :
from88 +,~lWJfll stem pm8 low., s:de planks

Assemble the above items on o flor ground or c floor. Fix frames temporarily with diogonol battens. Fis side stiffeners awl complete planking of the sides. stiffenwr temporarily.

3. 4. 5.

Turn the boot and fix the bottom

Compleh plonhing of the bottom. Use Mosticon or bitumotic compound in 011 joints Fix the bottom stiffeners psrmanently.

6. 7 B 9. I 0.

Pnpore Prepon

and fir h-1 and

and sheg.

fin thwarts and knees.


and point.

Round off all corners and rdges. Apply wood preurvative

REMARK : see hat


Boat No. AFR-I. Drug.

No. IVC-4. orrp No.3 ond No 3 for proesdure of construction.

MAIN
Longht Beom Depth Weight opprox. : : over over 011 all

PARTICULARS
6.80 0.43
210

m
m kg

(22ft
( I ft

4in)

I. 19 m

( 3 tt II in 1
5 in)

Pmpulsion PurDoee

paddling aillnettina.

or outboard

up to 5 hp ourpoee

hondlinina.aeneral

6.60 m Flat bottom corroe COMPLETED CANOE


Scala 0arlcJn Rams, Novetnb%; I I 5 3 Boat NO orwg. NC

.23

Flat

bottom

boat

Il,i _, ,s i B. ,,,j;,.,,

I.

, (,

y.-,:: ,_I> ,,1 _,

),I,, _ ;~ I

I (

j :< ,.I-,

% l!i=-+l
16

s
I6

[y-=i=i
6

TRANSOM 6 %. f

FRAME B

I h-l-?llti
--I I I -._____-

iI

_._ -44 %

I iii /II/!

I:.::::::::

TIMBER

:
hq ; 2.64 hq j 1.64 kq / 3.7Ohq

&&&i&i&p/dij;&&kpjOO 5,ca plmlkln~

KeeLand

sheq hnmas I 10 OOm I rnzI .-,-~/-30k.q.\ , _-._.196*p IROOm lakq j 63.5Om 166 hq a)300 l-n 98 hd 1.30m Sk-

Thwarts-ond I_.^, llYl Weiqhl t-^** ms,,y,,*

8.23 FASTENIfJG-S, :
F~, rromss Errsrhrrr sIc - q&mind : )0,~3:5,~,m 50~5 polwn&d mm llot head y,od screws, nutnber ?t : OppoXlmOti@Y 1000 or WPQI. 50 5 kg nobIll.; number ol : OppmllmWinly

m Flat bottom boat


PfWFRFfl VFRSION .-..-.v..

nllTRnARn

Desgn ;qzT,,,, 1 PDY- I 1 P--a

Detachable

rudder

I I::;::::::!
Prapeller Ilifting device --Universal IOcm r--autside long joint stern rube and wirh stuffing box

I I

2 -*

Metres

bearing

inside

I wi A

] 1 +f -- I i 1 1 w I I I I I

-%

i Tunnel far propeller shaft

Engine

beds

MAIN
I

PARTICULARS
8.23 1.80 0.57 11 0.20 700 m m m m
kg

Length Beam

over over

all all

(27 ft ( 5 ft ( I ft ( 8in)

0 in ) II in I IO in 1

-2Zx70mm

~~-

28xl45mm 70 mm thickness -22 I 145 mm

I* retrocled Weight opprox. : fishing,


~~28 x 145 mm 28x 90mm

tronsportotion

i-~--

22

x 145 mm

7-

~----.--

..,

I_(

.~,j~.

I_

.,. ,_

Stru9 rilh rubber bearing shoN lop r 0.. Sll~ bm

\ i'

NB.

FW m.mrm~ ~pmtamm
Sn POY -I. Orr2. No. I OYtba.xd Parend wnsm

SECTION Ai FRAME @ I SECTION THROUGH TUNNEL SPECIFICATIONS


ENGINE: shown I, ~onrnw PMX P e 5 hp 01 a00 rpm. 1 RUDDER Imps GEAR : !wo scf, cd p~lrmzsd 150 mm .dh ,ldel collYoYs 10 mm plnllea and drdlrd

Red gcor 2 31 I, WwJld 175 ilp PROPELLER: 15hm dm I 13in odch WOOm I 55Omnl

brockal~ IO lin on Irmmn FASTENINGS: Weed, pmlecled for heal md cnpme beds rod WI lo FolreCt sue and E, I emh md 10 lake nut, and IO,~CI,. o~otns1 co~msmn. preferably

cIocL*Ise rOlDtl0 STERN GEAR: I 30 m (4 ll,h 3, I bronze f.,d ,hol25 sell- olqn,~ rats, IUbrlCotCd wbbrr mm

10 mm 13/s ml SICII

, I I, dmmakr , ,h.,,t log r,lh b0, , amp,* oml ,tm

lNl~

, I _ _ _ 2, ,.

FIIV/T117(Rsv.l)

35

SOM-I

8.43

m
boat

Transport

MAIN
Length over oil 06om over oil

PARTICULARS
6.43 2.26 0.76 945 m m m kg I27 ft 8 in 1 I 7 tt 5 in 1 ( 2ft 6ln1

Depth Weight oppror. Carrying copocitJ up to 2 ions of payluod Propulsion : outboard up to 20 hp. heovy duty type Purpose i tmnsportotion on lakes ond rivers or mutt1 purpose fishing boot on protected coast.

0.5

1.5

Metres

-1-.-

1 (OXA> (ti

(Cl]

CD 8)

(D

(01

I (0)

KD)

[D)

@x0)

KD)

Lo)

(AID)

to)

[D)

.4-T---X

- l-l
InWFR -- -.-.. SIDE -.-PLANK _.

I,,.,lI AiA \sN0

1 Q-43 m Trc Jnsport boat -_ -- --LINES, ARRANGEMENT


Boat fly Rome, November197
""".,.I

No.

Drwg. Na I

SOM-I

This mould

to ba nwdo otter

of

IO - I2 mm of

plywood

To ba rwnowd

complrlion

plonkintl

MOULD

FOR STATION @

n
I 25 I I3mmll 35 I ,150 25 IL I50 35 1150 mm mm mm--j 25 I I50 mm .o mm mm mm

4019s 25 I I50

i
PYPlCAL
40195 mm

FRAME SECTION

Mao#uromrntr

ore

giwn

in millimrtrrl

L
K-4 [

290 I y

j I x 7 i I

/ / , ,
27 Plyro@d tamplola

1 2, /; k&. 45
INNER ! : STEM SIDE
Number. 30

KNEE E
Thickn4w Numbw 40 mm : I4

KNEE
Thicknasa Number : 40 mm 4

,:::

;;:;::;::::, 0.5

1.0

I.5 Mom

STIFFENER @

TRANSOM +I?.!!cL

22;

CAULKING TIMBER :
, 1

:
oephol: - bored or bitumostic compound during bod 1rok.l with coullunq cotton oftwwordr. the construction.

All joint8 should bo trooted with on It moy be nosw.oory to caulk wontuol

Wefight pr. m lot 065kq/ddJ


_I---.-

487

kg

2.44kQ 55.00 75.00 m m

1.37 kg

3.42 35.00m

kg / /

2.50kq

0.82

kq 1

370

kq

FAGTFNINCS m-m m.....wr


.

* .
tromw : 70r35mm Cn*%Omm 1 ..u qolvamzrd golvanirod or 7013.5 60 I 5 mm wood screw round noilr. mm qolvonwd round noble.

Side Bottom Fromon SI9m

plonkmq pl0nlunq I pi*um 0.5Om !

1 I 1 24.00111 1.40m 4.5Jm l.70m 24.00m I ! 1 / 1.40m

For owmbly For planking CI.m*ler -1-s1.11.

ot

Trotworn Side Show COvrrmq otifAnwo clomp board

BUILDING INSTRUCTIONS
See Boat No. IVC-7, Drouq. No. 3

I.

1 I

18.OOm

Chino Thwarts Chino Total ~.-~Weight and botlon lonqth

-knon 8.00 m lO.OOm

1700m I

26.50 00 h

2caJOm 488 kg ond

1700m 23

llq
hord wth qood
holdlnq

Thl timber should prokobly no118 and 108 tendency to For maKirrJm durability, ovoiloblo impnqnotion plonkl brlom the

bo medium 8plit

hoovy

mrdlum

powr

lor

the hmbor should ,yMm. prokobly

bo treated wth the prorruro imprrqnotlon

best locally ol oil

con,truct,on.

4 Cowrmg

board

to bo Ihoped

horn 25 i 300

to 25 I 200

finishod

MAIN
Length over oil Beam over all Depth Weight oppror.

PARTICULARS
8.43 2.26 0.76 In m m ( 27 ft 9 in I ( 7ft 5in) ( 2 ft 6 in 1

945 kg Corrying capacity up to 2 tons of paylood Propulsion : outboard up to 20 hp, heavy duty type Purpose : transportation on lokes and rivers or multi purpose fishing boat on protected coast.

II.25
Transport

m
boat

LOWER

SIDE

PLANK MAIN
Lenght over all Beam over all

PARTICULARS
11.25 m 2.24 m ( 36 ft IO In 1

SECTION

I 0.5 I::::t++::i

0.5 I I

I L

1.5 I

2 I

Metres

( 7 11 4 in I ( 2ft 61n ) 0.76 m Depth 1220 kg Weight opprox. Corrying capacity up to 3 tons of poylood Propulsion : outboord up to 20 hp. heavy duty type : transportation on laker ond rivers Purpose

D.

\ c

005
MOULD

I -I
FOR STATION @

P . .* s t .1/7 I-

-Lj --! I----*;77 *9 t


430

m! 1
FRAME @

La! i: 1

i
TYPICAL SECTION

FRAME

5 h
ora @van in millimrtrrr

M~osur~mantr

TRANSOM

ST, F;:DNEER @

01 i;! o--l
KNEE
Thichnrru Number 40 mm : 20 0 0.5 1.0 1::::: :: ::: : 40 Scolr Od~fl Roma,Novemlf>

KNEE
Thicknrw Numbw 40 n : 4

:::

I.5 Mar I

\.

INNER

STEM

Numbrr

I I.28 m Transport DETAILS


Boat No. - 7

boa1
Drwg.

BUILDING
1. Prepon:

INSTRUCTION
fmmel mould hn station ~ronsom innw Blwl lower side plqnkm C

2.

Awambla tha oboe itams on q flat ground or o floor. Fix aide planhs firat to Iha mould ot station C. than bend around fromrs E and fix to stam qnd Iransom. Fir fromlr A oftrrwords. Keep ~trucrure iv -aWion with diogonol boltone. ISee Boot No. AFR-I. Orwg, Fix side stiffwwrs planking to lower side plonkl.

31

3. 4. 3. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Complrtr Prrpqra Complete Turn Fir thl inaidr

of the sides.

ond fia thworfs show boot. bottom rtiffmwa temporarily. clomp md conrmg board.

Complrta planking of thr bottom. Uu Morticon or bifumortic compound Fir thoroughly ond fir the insida knll gqps bottom

in 011 joints.

IO. II. 12 IS. I4 I 5.

rtiffwws.

Pnpora Fill

and skeg bafwam planks wth bilumosiie compound.

011 vislbla

Fig chma and botAn. Round Apply oft corners wwd and edgas and 0s raquwed. point

pmswvotiva

CAULKING TIMBER :

:
ospholt - bawd or bitumoHlc compound during bod Irahs rlth caulking colton oftwuord~. tha ConttrUCtlM.

All joints should be tnotrd rlth on It moy be nreaaory to caulk ww~tuol

1 might Sldr

pr.m(oto.e~~iwrlj plonklng plonhlng

4.87

b4 1

2.44kg 74.00 IOO.00 In In

1.37 Lo 1

3.42 48.00

kg 1 m

2.3Otq

0.62

fq

3.70

llg

FASTENINGS
For oammbly For plonklng Eluwhm of

:
Kww mund nails.

Bottom

:
:

framlr : golvolxrd 60X 5 mm *ood 70 I 3.3mmgolvonlxd round nails. 60 I 3.0 mm or I 35mn galvanized

70

. _ __
Sldr Show Cwwlng Wtom l tiffwwn clomp board nlnforuments 23.00 _~ -.. mu S&OOm

Sk#
22.00 0.00m Total Walght Ianoth I 3l.SOm 1 14.00m ] 22.oom m I / I268.00m 88.50 m I 22.00m I

The noila

timbw and

lhould

prafwobly

ba medium

heavy

ond

mrdlum

hard

rlth

good

holding

Do*

low tmdency

IO lpllt be Irooted with tha ___._.,-_ i...l*l-. p..... 1,11 ,..dllO ball l0CnllY - 011 ~.. or

For maximum dumbility. the tlmbw lould -..-&..-----__.I__ __._.__ ---a -.-.I OYOIIOP,. m7prmgnsTw ,,.,.m, T..,, plonk8 bafora the Construction l/-rim board lo b. Ihoped from 23x 300

to 23 1200

finilh*d.

MAIN
Length over oil Beam over oil Depth Weight opprox.

PARTICULARS
11.25 m 2.24 m ( 36 ft IO in 1

( 7ft 4in) ( 2ft 6in) 0.76 m 1220 kg Carrying copocity up to 3 tons of poylood Propulsion : outboard up to 20 hp, heovy duty type Purpose : tronsportotion on lokes and rivero

ENGINE
1.5 Metrr o....o.,5.+L---+i Lidar

SPECIFICATION
marine diesel engine with: 2: I reduction (45.5 - IO gollonr

:
SR 2 MGIR,

air cooled

13 hp ot 2000 rpm, - Goorbox mrchonicol - Fual tank srporotr

litroIl

Ramovoblr engine opm in oft end

box

- Furl lift pump - Furl pipe ond connections, 6 It length - Eahoual pipa flrribla 16 in - Enhaust ailoncer, dry typa - Coupled drcomprrarorr - Lub oil rump drain pump - Holding down bolt1 : 0.5 in (12.7 mm) din, 6 in (150 mm) long with nut) ond woehera, quantity : 4 -Stern gror including tail ahaft 31.75 mm rubbar lining -Propeller 3 blad#d (430 I 330 mm 1 2.06 m (6ft f 1.25 in) dia blaring dia loin) long bronro wilh flrnibla Shaft lubricated

Cut hols for hotair outlet part sidr

log I2 drg. and outsida

with water by IJin

l7in

pitch

TIMBER
(in addition - KIII - Engine - En&r Shaft Ioa with self-allqc;ng stuffing - Rudder box - filler

:
to sprcification on Orrg. No. 4. IVC -7) 6.00m 7.00 m 16.00 m 75 I 145 mm length incl. waste 100 I 100 mm length incl. sort0 50rlOOmm 3 sidea with 1.221244 32 I 250 32x 60 8, top 7 m, mm mm IOI2 mm thick 1.60 m I.10 m length Ionglh *

bodr bd:.

I plate L-No strrn tube bearing of fuel tank

Water

lubricotad PosItion

FASTENINGS
lin addition

:
on Orwg. No. 4, IVC - 7 )

to aplccfication

- Bolts : 10 mm (3/G in) steel rod cut to correct sita and threads cut in each end IO take nut1 wtth washers - IO mm stnc; rod : length 7.00 m

- Galvanized henagonol nuts quantity : SO - Golvonizrd flat washers : quoF!Ity : 50

10 mm :

FiTTlNGS

- Keel strops polvonizsd holf-round van 50mm I2 in1 wldc. length 2.70 m - Propsllsr protection : 25 mm (I m 1 galvonwcd pipe. flattened in each and, lenqth I.15 m - Rudder gaar : two sets of golvanizad steel strops I50 mm w#th IO mm pmtles and drlllad brocksts to fil on transom

Il.25 m Transport boat ENGINE INSTALLATION


Scala Design Rome, Boot No. Drrg N

fly; February 197

IVC-7