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Heat exchanger design

3.2 Evaluation of the mean temperature difference in a heat exchanger

Extended use of the LMTD

**Limitations on the use of LMTD
**

Restricted to the single-pass parallel and counter-flow configurations

For other configuration LMTD need to be adjusted

**3. Heat exchanger design
**

3.2 Evaluation of the mean temperature difference in a heat exchanger（cont.)

Hot gas side

**U is constant (more serious)
**

U(T, Configuration) Regionally Uniform? More severe in lager exchanger Less serious in compact exchanger

Water side

**A typical case of a heat exchanger in which U varies dramatically.
**

JHH

College of Energy and Power Engineering

JHH

1

College of Energy and Power Engineering

2

3. Heat exchanger design

3.2 Evaluation of the mean temperature difference in a heat exchanger

3. Heat exchanger design

3.2 Evaluation of the mean temperature difference in a heat exchanger

**Extended use of the LMTD
**

Extended use of the LMTD

Limitations

U variation

PFT-type boiler

**The heat exchange surface for a steam generator
**

This PFT-type integral-furnace boiler,with a surface area of 4560 m2, is not particularly large. About 88% of the area is in the furnace tubing and 12% is in the boiler.

Side view of PFT boiler

College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH 3 College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH 4

3. Heat exchanger design

3.2 Evaluation of the mean temperature difference in a heat exchanger

3. Heat exchanger design

3.2 Evaluation of the mean temperature difference in a heat exchanger

Extended use of the LMTD

**Extended use of the LMTD
**

LMTD should always calculated for the equivalent counterflow single-pass exchanger with the same hot and cold temperature The basis of the LMTD in a multipass exchanger

**LMTD correction factor, F
**

For common range of heat exchanger[Bowman 1940]

F is an LMTD correction factor Tt temperature of tube flow, Ts temperature of shell flow P is the relative influence of overall temperature difference ( Ts − Tt ）on tube flow temperature, P < 1

in in

⎛ ⎞ ⎜ T −T T −T ⎟ tout tin sin sout ⎟ Q = UA( LMTD) ⋅ F ⎜ , ⎜ Tsin − Ttin Ttout − Ttin ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ P R ⎝ ⎠

**R = Ct / Cs If one flow remain constant T, then either P or R equal 0, F=1
**

College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH 5 College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH 6

R) = F ( PR.3. 1 / R) PR = 0. College of Energy and Power Engineering 12 .119 JHH 11 College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH = 121.4 5.92 Q = UAF ( LMTD) A= = Q UF ( LMTD) c p (Tsin − Tsout ) m UF ( LMTD) Water 32oC = 38oC R= Tsin − Tsout Ttout − Ttin = 8. R) = F ( PR.2 Evaluation of the mean temperature difference in a heat exchanger 3.795kg/s Oil 181oC Oil Cooler 49oC Example 3.76 K ⎛ 181 − 49 ⎞ ln⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 38 − 32 ⎠ As R > 1 F ( P.114 As R > 1 F ( P. 1 / R) JHH 10 College of Energy and Power Engineering College of Energy and Power Engineering 3. Heat exchanger design 3. Heat exchanger design 3. Shamsundar noted F ( P. 1 / R = 0. R) = F ( PR.2 Evaluation of the mean temperature difference in a heat exchanger 3. Heat exchanger design 3.2m 2 PR = 0.412 P = Ttout − Ttin Tsin − Ttin = 0.959. To find: A=? LMTD = (Thin − Tcout ) − (Thout − Tcin ) T −T ln( hin cout ) Thout − Tcin (181 − 49) − (38 − 32) = 40. Heat exchanger design 3.4 Known :Cpoil and U.… tube-pass exchanger F for a two-shell-pass.959. 1 / R) JHH 9 For R > 1. Heat exchanger design 3. 1 / R) JHH 7 For R > 1. 1 / R) 1 / R = 0. Shamsundar noted F ( P.2 Evaluation of the mean temperature difference in a heat exchanger Extended use of the LMTD Extended use of the LMTD F for a one-shell-pass.2 Evaluation of the mean temperature difference in a heat exchanger Extended use of the LMTD Extended use of the LMTD F for a cross-flow exchanger with both passes unmixed F for a cross-flow exchanger with one passes mixed R= Tsin − Tsout Ttout − Ttin R= Tsin − Tsout Ttout − Ttin For R > 1. 1 / R) JHH 8 College of Energy and Power Engineering College of Energy and Power Engineering 3. Shamsundar noted F ( P. R) = F ( PR. Shamsundar noted F ( P.119 F = 0. six.2 Evaluation of the mean temperature difference in a heat exchanger 3.2 Evaluation of the mean temperature difference in a heat exchanger Example 3. four or more tube-pass exchanger R= Tsin − Tsout Ttout − Ttin R= Tsin − Tsout Ttout − Ttin For R > 1. four. Heat exchanger design 3. R) = F ( PR. R) = F ( PR.

Heat exchanger design 3.3 Heat exchanger effectiveness 3. Heat exchanger design 3. Heat exchanger design 3. Heat exchanger design 3.3 Heat exchanger effectiveness 3.3 Heat exchanger effectiveness Effectiveness-NTU method Effectiveness of parallel & counterflow exchangers Number of Transfer Units (NTU) defined by Nusselt NTU = UA C min = heat capacity of the heat exchanger heat capacity of the flow For counterflow single-pass case (Homework) ε= 1 − exp[−(1 + Cmin / Cmax ) NTU] 1 + Cmin / Cmax exp[−(1 + Cmin / Cmax ) NTU] For parallel single-pass heat exchanger ⎡ (1 + Cc / Ch ) (Tcin − Tcout ) + ΔTb ⎤ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ln ⎢ ⎥ = −UA ⎜ + ⎟ T C C Δ ⎢ ⎥ b c h ⎠ ⎝ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ⎛ Cc ⎞ Cmin ⎤ ⎛ Cmin Cmin ⎞ + 1⎥ = −⎜ ln ⎢− ⎜ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎟ε ⎜ C + C ⎟ ⎟ NTU h ⎠ ⎝ c ⎣ ⎝ C h ⎠ Cc ⎦ ε= 1 − exp[−(1 + Cmin / Cmax )NTU] C = fn( min . Heat exchanger design 3. Heat exchanger design 3.3.3 Heat exchanger effectiveness A design problem Gessing an exit temperature Effectiveness-NTU method Developed by Kays and London in 1955 Compact heat exchanger in which U is likely fairly uniform Heat exchanger effectiveness Qh = Qc = Ch ΔTh = Cc ΔTc ε≡ Calculate Q Q = UAF ( LMTD) To define actual heat transfered maximum heat that could possibly be transfered from one stream to the other Qh Check Q against Qh ε≡ Ch (Thin − Thout ) Cmin (Thin − Tcin ) = Cc (Tcout − Tcin ) Cmin (Thin − Tcin ) Where Cmin is the smaller of Cc and Ch A design problem in which the LMTD cannot be calculated a priori Qh Q not equal Qh? so 13 Q = εC min (Thin − Tcin ) College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH 14 College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH 3.3 Heat exchanger effectiveness 3. NTU) 1 + Cmin / Cmax Cmax College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH 15 College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH 16 3.3 Heat exchanger effectiveness The effectiveness of cross-flow heat exchangers Effectiveness of shell-and-tube heat exchangers College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH 17 College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH 18 .

5 Example 3. typically the kind of compact crossflow exchanger The method described before Lager exchanger design process Decide which fluid should flow in the shell side which tube side Pumping power. 传热面积为 8m2。水的入口温度为 12 ℃，油的出 口温度为40℃。试确定水的质量流量。（用两种方法解此题） College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH 23 .0m2 . corrosion behavior. cleaning Larger exchanger pose difficulty in relation to U The variation of U through the exchanger Hard to predict convective heat transfer coefficient h Assess the cost of calculation The converging accuracy of computation The investment in the exchanger The cost of miscalculation Minimization of pumping power ρ Minimization of fixed costs College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH 21 Pumping power = Δp m (W ) Rough estimate of the size of the exchanger by using U and experience Evaluate the Q. Thout=90oC To find A=? ε≡ Ch (Thin − Thout ) Cmin (Thin − Tcin ) = 0.6kW NTU=1.20 3.5 Cmin Cmin = 0.730m2 . Ch=10000W/K. fouling.596 Cmax Q = εCmin (Thin − Tcin ) = 655. Heat exchanger design 3. Heat exchanger design 3. Thout=? Cannot find LMTD Same kind of heat exchanger as Example 3. Tcin Cc=20000W/K.78o C Cc College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH NTU LMTD=52.5 ε = 0.4 Heat exchanger design Homework 3. Tcout=?.4 Heat exchanger design Heat exchanger design Heat exchanger design Small exchanger.3.79K Q=UA(LMTD) A=22.25kg/s、比热容为2000J/(kg*K)的油进入冷油器时温 度为80℃。冷油器中冷却剂为水，与油呈逆流布置，其传热系数 为 560W/(m2•K).44o C Ch Q = Tcin − = 72.5455 UA NTU = = 1. A=30 m2 . Known: parallel-flow heat exchanger. U=500W/m2K To find: Q=?.3 Heat exchanger effectiveness Example 3.6 =49oC. Heat exchanger design 3. Thin=150oC. Heat exchanger design 3. and the cost of various exchanger configurations that appear reasonable for the application Might involve 200 successive redesign College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH 22 3.3 Heat exchanger effectiveness 3. Δp. Heat exchanger design 3. Or Tcout = Tcin − Ch (Thout − Thin ) Cc = 70o C Thout Tcout Q = Thin − = 84.28 一种工业流体在顺流换热器中被油从300℃冷却到140℃，而此时 油的进、出口温度分别是44℃和124℃。试确定： （1）在传热面积足够大的情况下，该流体在顺流换热器中所能冷却 到的最低温度； （2）传热面积足够大时，该流体在逆流换热器中所能冷却到的最低 温度。 （3）在相同的流体进口、出口温度下顺流和逆流换热器传热面积之 比。假定两种情形的传热系数和传热量均相同。 质量流量为2. A=23.5. 19 College of Energy and Power Engineering JHH NTU 20 3.15=UA/Cmin .4 Heat exchanger design 3.

HE DESIGN CURVES

HE DESIGN CURVES

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