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The concept of a metro for Delhi was first formalized in the Delhi Master Plan of 1960, and the legal framework for the metro was laid out in the Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act of 1978. Actual work towards building the metro, however, only started in March 5, 1995, when the DMRC was established to provide a rail-based transport system that will alleviate Delhi’s ever growing transport congestion and vehicular pollution. The government of Japan has contributed more than half the cost of this project, through a soft loan disbursed by DMRC’s major funding agency, the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC). Delhi’s metro rail system, to be constructed in four phases covering 245 kilometers, is scheduled to be finished in 2021. Today three functioning lines connect central Delhi to east, north, and southwest Delhi. DMRC is responsible not only for construction of the system but also for its operation and maintenance. It has 450 personnel in its construction department and 3,000 staff for system operation and maintenance. Physical construction work started on October 1, 1998 Aside from one major disagreement in 2000, where the Ministry of Railways forced the system to use broad gauge despite the DMRC's preference for standard gauge, construction proceeded smoothly. The first line opened on December 24, 2002and the entire Phase I of the project was completed in December 2005, on budget and almost three years ahead of schedule, an achievement described as "nothing short of a miracle".
NEED FOR MRTS
As cities grow in size, the number of vehicular trips on road system goes up. This necessitates a pragmatic policy shift to discourage private modes and encourage public transport once the level of traffic along any travel corridor in one direction exceeds 20,000 persons per hour. Introduction of a rail based (MRTS) Mass Rapid Transit System is called for. Mass Rapid Transit Systems are capital intensive and have long gestation period. It has been observed that in developed countries, planning for mass transit system starts when city population size exceeds 1 million; the system is in position by the time the city population is 2 to 3 million and once the population exceeds 4 million or so, planned extensions to the Mass Rapid Transit Systems is vigorously taken up. In developing countries including India, because of paucity of funds planning and implementation of rail based Mass Rapid Transit Systems has been lagging far behind the requirements. The city of Delhi with a population of round 12 (16.2) million should have had an MRTS network of at least 100 (300) KM by this time, whereas actually it is still (65.10 kms) at the take-off stage. Delhi has all the ideal dress-up for an excellent Mass Rapid Transit System to be brought in. It has wide roads (roads cover 23% of the city area) where road possession for construction is not difficult (except in the old city area). Implementation will also not involve demolition of large scale private properties. Most of the land required is under Government control and hence can be easily acquired. The citizens are enlightened and would eagerly welcome introduction of people friendly MRTS though they may initially face some difficulties during the implementation phase. Added to this Delhi has an unassailable advantage in its excellent railway network comprising two rings and six spurs totaling about 120 KM within the urban area. Unfortunately, these Rail assets are not presently fully being utilized as its share of commuter traffic is only a mere 2%.
Delhi has experienced phenomenal growth in population in the last few decades. Its population has increased from 57 lakhs in 1981 to 120 (162)
lakhs in 1998 (2006) and is poised to reach 132 (190) lakhs by the year 2001 (2011). For want of an efficient mass transport system, the number of motor vehicles has increased from 5.4 lakhs in 1981 to 30 (51) lakhs in 1998 (2007) and is (increasing at the rate of 6.21 per annum). The number of motor vehicles in Delhi is now more than that of Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai put together. The result is extreme congestion on Delhi roads, ever slowing speeds, increase in road accidents fuel wastage and environmental pollution with motorized vehicles alone contributing to about two thirds of the atmospheric pollution. Today the traffic on roads of Delhi is a heterogeneous mix of cycles scooters buses cars and rickshaws jostling with each other. This has resulted in a chaotic situation so much so that due to road accidents, the average number of persons killed per day has increased to 5 and of those injured to 13. The position is expected to deteriorate further in the years to come. To rectify this situation the Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, in equal partnership have set up a company named Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. under the Companies Act,1956 which has (already commissioned a 65.10 kms route in Phase-I and is proceeding ahead with another 121 kms in Phase –II).
Line1 Shahdara – Inderlok - Rithala Line2 Vishwa vidyalaya –Central secretariat Vishwa vidyalaya to Kashmere gate Kashmere gate to Central secretariat Line 3 Barakhamba road -Dwarka Barakhamba rd - Indraprastha Dwarka – Dwarka sub city 25.60 km 2.81 km 6.5 km 31 stations 22.0 km 11.0 km 4.0 km 7.0 km 18 stations 10 stations
Completed lines of Phase-2
Between stations Length (km)
Shahdara - Dilshad Garden Vishwavidyalaya – Jahangirpuri 3.1 6.3
Date of Commencement Remarks of Operation
June 4, 2008 February 4, 2009 May 10, 2009 Eastern extension of Red Line Northern extension of Yellow Line Eastern extension of Blue Line
Indraprastha - Yamuna 2.1 Bank
Routes under construction
Length (Kms.) No. of stations Completion Time
27.45 19 Jun 2010
Central Secretariat - Qutub Minar Sushant Lok (Gurgaon) Unnamed Central Secretariat - Nehru Place Badarpur Blue Line Dwarka (Delhi) Sector 9 - Sector 21 - IGI Airport Blue Line Yamuna Bank Mayur Vihar NOIDA Sector 32 City Centre Blue Line(Branch) Yamuna Bank Anand Vihar Unnamed Inderlok - Kirti Nagar - Mundka Airport Express New Delhi Railway Station Indira Gandhi International Airport - Dwarka (Delhi) Blue Line(Branch) Anand Vihar Vaishali (Ghaziabad)
20.04 6.26 15.07
15 3 11
Sep 2010 Sep 2010 Aug 2009
6.17 18.46 22.4
5 15 6
Dec 2009 Sep 2009 Sep 2010
This phase has a 2015 deadline. The following lines are tentatively planned: 1. Jahangirpuri - Badli (northern exten sion of Yellow Line) = 3.42 km 2. Mukundpur - Azadpur - Rajouri Garden - AIIMS - Sarai Kale Khan ISBT = 31 km 3. Central Secretariat - Mandi House - Daryaganj - Welcome - Gokulpuri - Nawada (Bahadurgarh) = 18 km 4. Rithala - Kirari - Barwala (western extension of Line 1/Red Line) = 6 km 5. Dilshad Garden - Ghaziabad ISBT (eastern extension of Line 1/Red Line) = 9.5 km 6. Airport link - Sushant Lok (Gurgaon) = 16.5 km 7. Mundka - Delhi border – Bahadurgarh (western extension of Line 5) = 11 km 8. Badarpur - YMCA chowk, Faridabad (southern extension of Line 6) = 14 km 9. Sushant Lok (Gurgaon) - T-junction of Sectors 47 & 48, Gurgaon (southern extension of Line 2/Yellow Line) = 6.5 km Jahangirpuri - Badli line may be implemented in Phase II Total length = 112 km
This phase has a 2020 deadline. The following lines are tentatively planned:
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1. Sarai Kale Khan ISBT - Anand Vihar - Dilshad Garden - Yamuna Vihar - Sonia Vihar = 22 km 2. Sarai Kale Khan ISBT - Nehru Place - Palam - Reola Khanpur = 28 km 3. Mukundpur - GTK By-Pass - Pitampura - Piragarhi - Janakpuri Palam = 20 km 4. Barwala - Mundka - Najafgarh - Dwarka = 20 km 5. Ghazipur – Noida Sector 62 = 7 km 6. Dwarka Sector 21 - Iffco Chowk = 15 km 7. Ajronda (Faridabad) - Kheri (Faridabad) = 5.5 km
Total length = 108.5 km
PROCEDURES FOLLOWED IN THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS, INCLUDING CHANNELS OF SUPERVISION AND ACCOUNTABILITY The decision-making process in DMRC involves the following Channel: BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Overall management of DMRC rests with the Board of Directors, its highest decision making body. DMRC being a 50-50 joint venture of the Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, the Board of Directors of DMRC is accountable to the Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. As per the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 certain matters require the approval of the shareholders of the Company in general meeting. The primary role of the Board is that of trusteeship to protect and enhance shareholders’ value. The Board oversees the Company’s strategic direction,
reviews corporate performance, authorizes and monitors strategic decision, ensures regulatory compliance and safeguards interests of shareholders. The Board ensures that the Company is managed in a manner that fulfils stakeholders aspirations and societal expectations. The day-to-day management of the Company is entrusted with Managing Director who is supported by Functional Directors and other Officers and staff of the Company. For effective discharge of his functions, the Board of Directors has delegated most of the powers to the Managing Director. The Managing Director, in turn, delegated specified power to Functional Directors/Officers subject to due control being retained by him and subject to such conditions which are consistent with the need of prompt, effective and efficient discharge of responsibilities entrusted to such a Director/Officer. The Managing Director is accountable to the Board of Directors. Functional Directors are accountable to Managing Director. The Officers are accountable to concerned Functional Directors.
MISSION To cover the whole of Delhi with a Metro Network by the year 2021.
Delhi Metro to be of world class standards in regard to safety, reliability, punctuality, comfort and customer satisfaction
Metro to operate on sound commercial lines obviating the need for Government suppor
CORPORATE CULTURE We should be totally dedicated and committed to the Corporate Mission Personal integrity should never be in doubt, we should maintain full transparency in all our decisions and transactions The Organization must be lean but effective The Corporation must project an image of efficiency, transparency, courtesy and “we mean business” attitude. Our construction activities should not inconvenience or endanger public life nor should lead to ecological or environmental degradation All our structures should be aesthetically planned and well maintained Safety of Metro users is our paramount responsibility Our stations and trains should be spotlessly clean.
IMPORTANT FEATURES OF DMRC All metro stations and trains are monitored constantly by more than 1200 closed-circuit cameras, and specially trained Delhi Metro police are stationed at all stations and trains to deal with law and order issues in the system. The Delhi Metro is also one of the few metros in the world to have plainclothed metromarshals on trains. Intercoms are provided in each train car for emergency communication between the passengers and the driver
Special Features in New Metro Trains The new trains in view of the increased rush on the Metro system in Delhi, will provide passengers with power connections inside the coaches so that they can use their laptops and charge their mobiles while they are travelling in the Metro. Every new Metro coach of Phase – II will have power supply points for this purpose. The Metro coaches in Phase - II will also have reduced noise levels inside the trains as the DMRC is making major design changes to reduce the noise levels by use of special sound absorbing cushions in the walls of the Metro coaches and more buffing on the Metro doors which will be better sealed by reducing the door gaps to ensure that less sound from outside enters the trains thus enabling the passengers to travel in a better ambience. The noise level in the underground coaches has been reduced by 8 decibels(db) as in Phase-I the internal noise levels was around 92 db which will now be only 84 db in Phase-II. In addition, a new type of compressor called Scroll Compressor System will be used in the air conditioners of the Phase-II coaches which will be sealed and is more compact and this will reduce noise level in the coaches further. The Phase-II Metro coaches will also provide a much better level of passenger comfort as for the first time there will be Humidity control as Humidity Sensors will activate the newly planned heating system of the air conditioner which will eliminate humidity inside the coaches. The temperature will be maintained at 25 degree Celsius and relative humidity will be maintained at 60 % during the summer and monsoon months (in Phase I trains, there was only temperature control). With the start of Phase-II the Delhi Metro will start travelling very far distances covering around 50 kms in some destinations such as Dwarka-Noida, Gugaon-Jahangirpuri, etc. To avoid confusion for the passengers who will travel on these lines, there will be new destination sign boards in LED on one window of the side wall of each coach so that passengers can view the terminal stations while standing on the platform as some Trains
may be terminating at intermediate stations depending upon operational needs. This will be necessary as on the same line different trains may be terminating at different destinations. Phase - II trains will also have Closed Circuit Television Cameras (CCTVs) inside the coaches apart from cameras outside the coaches so that the driver can see the entry and exit of passengers from the train. The driver of the Metro trains will now be able to observe passenger behavior in every part of the train at all times. The trains in Phase - II are also being designed to travel upto a maximum design speed of 95 kmph as against 90 kmph in Phase - I. The braking system is also better as DMRC will use Wheel Mounted Disc Brakes which will be micro processor controlled. In addition, the train will have energy absorbent couplers which can absorb shock and reduce damage to the car body structure in collisions.
1) E Sreedharan – THE FAMOUS LEADER E Sreedharan was appointed Managing Director of Delhi Metro in 1997 and it was completed ahead of schedule in 2002 with underground, open and elevated tracks. The early completion of the project with little hassles to commuters, unlike Kolkata Metro, made it a milestone of Indian Railway’s construction history. E Sreedharan’s tenure was extended by a further three years in 2005 till the completion of the second phase of Delhi Metro. E Sreedharan was awarded the Padma Shree by the Government of India in 2001, the Man of the Year by The Times of India in 2002 and was named as one of Asia's Heroes by TIME in 2003. Besides, the Government of France honored him with the Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur in 2005. He is focused and passionate about his work. His insistence on deadlines had earned him 20 transfers in the early years of his career. New Delhi, July 12 (IANS) E. Sreedharan, managing director of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), resigned from the post Sunday, taking moral responsibility for the collapse of the underconstruction bridge that killed five people in the capital. Addressing a press conference here, the 77-year-old Sreedharan expressed “lot of pain and remorse” over the accident in south Delhi. “Having taken moral responsibility of the incident, I have sent my resignation to Delhi Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit and Lt Governor Tejendra Khanna,” Sreedharan told reporters. 2) STAFF TRAINING Even as the Delhi Metro faces an acute shortage of skilled labour, its training school located in Shastri Park received a shot in the arm recently through the ISO 9001:2008 certification, a validation from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), for maintaining a Quality Management System in its training programmes. Established in 2002, the Delhi Metro Training School is the only specialised training institute in Metro operations and maintenance technology in South Asia. The programme was initially developed with the help of the Hong Kong Metro. The institute has already trained more than 5,000 employees of the Delhi Metro’s Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Wing, CISF and Delhi Police personnel, Bangalore Metro personnel, contractors’ staff (ticketing, customer facilitation, etc), customer relation assistants (CRAs) and other departments of the organisation. “So far this year, 1,160 new staff members have joined the institute and 550 have already undergone training.
3)KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AIDS AND HIV DMRC has used its influence over contractors to further its goals in combating HIV and AIDS: the contracts it signs with these companies now require that they carry out HIV prevention and control activities for employees working on DMRC projects. DMRC has developed an HIV and AIDS policy to guide contractors in implementing these programs. Peer education The program used peer education to encourage the flow of information on HIV and AIDS and related issues from informed workers to their colleagues. Informal communication has been found to create greater acceptance of information than more formal ways of communication. The use of peer education was also aimed at creating a nondiscriminatory and nonstigmatizing environment. Condom promotion Promoting the correct and consistent use of condoms as an essential factor in preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections was an important part of the program. The program found that distributing condoms was a major factor in increasing the demand for them and resulted in correct and habitual use by the members of the target group. Some 90 percent of the workers covered by Modicare, and 67 percent of those covered by the peer educators, accessed condoms. Picture 3. A display of posters with information on HIV and AIDS
1) FEEDER BUSES
• • • • • • •
They are environment friendly with CNG engine Bharat Stage III buses. Aesthetics and safety are important features. Feeder buses have Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment for real time tracking, online alerts etc Control centers are set up to monitor the movement of vehicles and will have traffic managers, traffic inspectors and Control Room Operators. A complaint book is there in every bus - Zero tolerance of complaints. A Public Address System is there in every bus. All buses are fan cooled. First Aid box and Fire extinguisher are there in every bus.
2) Has a carrying capacity as high as 60,000 – 80,000 phpdt (peak hour peak direction traffic). 3) Requires 1/5th energy per passenger km compared to road – based system. 4) Causes no air pollution in the city and lesser noise levels 5) Occupies no road space if underground and only about 2 metre width of the road, along central median, if elevated. ADVANTAGES OF METRO SYSTEM • • • Carries same amount of traffic as 6 lanes of bus traffic or 26 lanes of private motor cars (each way) Is more reliable, comfortable and safer than road based system Reduces journey time by anything between 50% and 75% depending on road conditions