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Christianity (from the Ancient Greek translation Χριστός, Christos of the Hebrew ח ַ משִׁי ָ , Mašíaḥ, meaning "the   anointed one" and the Latin suffixes ian and -itas) is a monotheistic religion based on the life and oral teachings of Jesus Christ as presented in the New Testament. Christianity is the world's largest religion, with approximately 2.2 billion adherents, known as Christians. Most Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God, fully divine and fully human, and the savior of humanity prophesied in the Old Testament. Consequentially, Christians refer to Jesus as Christ or Messiah. The foundations of Christian theology are expressed in ecumenical creeds that are accepted by followers of the Christian faith. These professions state that Jesus suffered, died, was buried, and was resurrected from the dead in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust in him for the remission of their sins. The creeds further maintain that Jesus bodily ascended into heaven, where he reigns with God the Father. Most denominations teach that Jesus will return to judge all humans, living and dead, and to grant eternal life to his followers. He is considered the model of a virtuous life. His ministry, crucifixion, and resurrection are often referred to as the gospel, meaning "Good News" (a loan translation of the Greek: εὐαγγέλιον euangélion). The term gospel also refers to written accounts of Jesus's life and teaching, four of which—the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John—are considered canonical and are included in the Christian Bible. Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Jewish sect in the mid-1st century. Originating in the Levant region of the Middle East, it quickly spread to Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and Egypt. It grew in size and influence over a few centuries, and by the end of the 4th century had become the official state church of the Roman Empire, replacing other forms of religion practiced under Roman rule. During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized, with Christians also being a sometimes large religious minority in the Middle East, North Africa, Ethiopia and parts of India. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, Australasia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization. Worldwide, the three largest groups of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the various denominations of Protestantism. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox patriarchates split from one another in the schism of the 11th century, and Protestantism came into existence during the Reformation of the 16th century, splitting from the Roman Catholic Church.
1 Beliefs 1.1 Creeds 1.1.1 Ten Commandments 1.2 Jesus Christ 1.3 Death and resurrection of Jesus 1.4 Salvation 1.5 Trinity 1.5.1 Trinitarians 1.5.2 Nontrinitarians
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Christianity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1.6 Scriptures 1.6.1 Catholic and Orthodox interpretations 1.6.2 Protestant interpretation 1.7 Eschaton 1.7.1 Death and afterlife 2 Worship 2.1 Sacraments 2.2 Liturgical calendar 2.3 Symbols 2.4 Baptism 2.5 Prayer 3 History 3.1 Early Church and Christological Councils 3.1.1 End of Roman persecution under Emperor Constantine (313 AD) 3.2 Early Middle Ages 3.3 High and Late Middle Ages 3.4 Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation 3.5 Post-Enlightenment 4 Demographics 5 Major denominations within Christianity 5.1 Catholic 5.2 Orthodox 5.3 Protestant 5.4 Restorationists and others 6 Christian culture 7 Ecumenism 8 Criticism and apologetics 9 See also 10 References 10.1 Bibliography 11 Further reading 12 External links
Though there are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible on which Christianity is based, Christians share a set of beliefs that they hold as essential to their faith.
Main article: Creeds Creeds (from Latin credo, meaning "I believe") are concise doctrinal statements or confessions, usually of religious beliefs. They began as baptismal formulae and were later expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
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Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal "in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another." :p.111 Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada and the Churches of Christ.
The Apostles' Creed remains the most popular statement of the articles of Christian faith that are generally acceptable to most Christian denominations that are creedal. It is widely used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical Churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism, Anglicanism, and Western Orthodoxy. It is also used by Presbyterians, Methodists, and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries. Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was apparently used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points: belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God and the Holy Spirit the death, descent into hell, resurrection, and ascension of Christ the holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful. The Nicene Creed, largely a response to Arianism, was formulated at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 respectively and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch, Danish painter, d. 1890.
The Chalcedonian Creed, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox Churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably": one divine and one human, and that both natures are perfect but are nevertheless perfectly united into one person.
An Eastern Christian Icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno– Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance." Most Christians (Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Rite and Protestants alike) accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the creeds mentioned above.
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Ten Commandments Main article: Ten Commandments The Ten Commandments are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship which play a fundamental role in Judaism and most forms of Christianity. They include instructions to worship only God and to keep the Sabbath, and prohibitions against idolatry, blasphemy, murder, theft, and adultery. Different groups follow slightly different traditions for interpreting and numbering them. According to the synoptic gospels, Christ generalised the law into two underlying principles; The first is "Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one; and you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength." While the second is "You shall love your neighbor as yourself."
[Matthew 22:34-40][Mark 12:28-33]
These are quotes from Deuteronomy 6:4 and Leviticus 19:18. Barnes' Notes on the New Testament comments on these verses saying: "These comprehend the substance of what Moses in the law, and what the prophets have spoken. What they have said has been to endeavour to win men to the love of God and each other. Love to God and man comprehends the whole [of] religion; and to produce this has been the design of Moses, the prophets, the Saviour, and the apostles."
Main articles: Christian views of Jesus, Christology, and Jesus Christ in comparative mythology The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God and the Messiah (Christ). Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus' coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept. The core Christian belief is that through belief in and acceptance of the death and resurrection of Jesus, sinful humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life. While there have been many theological disputes over the nature of Jesus over the earliest centuries of Christian history, Christians generally believe that Jesus is God incarnate and "true God and true man" (or both fully divine and fully human). Jesus, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin. As fully God, he rose to life again. According to the Bible, "God raised him from the dead", he ascended to heaven, is "seated at the right hand of the Father" and will ultimately return[Acts 1:9–11] to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment and final establishment of the Kingdom of God.
A depiction of Jesus as a child with his mother, Mary, the Theotokos of Vladimir. 12th century, Russia.
According to the canonical gospels of Matthew and Luke, Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born from the Virgin Mary. Little of Jesus' childhood is recorded in the canonical Gospels, however infancy Gospels were popular in antiquity. In comparison, his adulthood, especially the week before his death, is well documented in the Gospels contained within the New Testament, because that part of his life was believed to be most important. The Biblical accounts of Jesus' ministry include: his baptism,
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wrote. was buried within a tomb. using a hovering sacrifice can bring about new kinship ties. 17th century Salvation Main article: Salvation (Christianity) Resurrection of Christ by Noel Paul of Tarsus. According to the New Testament Jesus was crucified. then all our preaching is useless. For depiction of Jesus. Velázquez. teaching. and rose from the dead three days later.org/wiki/Christianity miracles. Christian churches accept and teach the New Testament account of the resurrection of Jesus with very few exceptions."[1Cor 15:14]  Crucifixion.Christianity . and eternal life. Some liberal Christians do not accept a literal bodily resurrection. the death and resurrection of Jesus are two core events on which much of Christian doctrine and theology is based. Paul the Apostle. and deeds. 16:1] [16:6] The New Testament mentions several resurrection appearances of Jesus on different occasions to his twelve apostles and disciples. Paul the necessary sacrifice was the death of Jesus: Gentiles who are "Christ's" are. partly because they demonstrate that Jesus has power over life and death and therefore has the authority and power to give people eternal life. 1700. like Israel. 3:29]  The God who raised Jesus from the dead would also give new life to the "mortal bodies" of Gentile Christians. preaching.[Gal. who had become with Israel the "children of God" and were therefore no longer 5 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . 19:30–31] [Mk. painting by D. believed that Coypel. Death and resurrection of Jesus Main articles: Crucifixion of Jesus and Resurrection of Jesus Christians consider the resurrection of Jesus to be the cornerstone of their faith (see 1 Corinthians 15) and the most important event in history. The death and resurrection of Jesus are usually considered the most important events in Christian theology. descendants of Abraham and "heirs according to the promise".wikipedia. Arguments over death and resurrection claims occur at many religious debates and interfaith dialogues. an early Christian convert and missionary. "If Christ was not raised. Some modern scholars use the belief of Jesus' followers in the resurrection as a point of departure for establishing the continuity of the historical Jesus and the proclamation of the early church. and your trust in God is useless. Jesus' death and resurrection are commemorated by Christians in all worship services. seeing the story as richly symbolic and spiritually nourishing myth. purity. died a physical death. representing the death of Jesus on the Cross.Wikipedia. like Jews and Roman pagans of his time. with special emphasis during Holy Week which includes Good Friday and Easter Sunday.[Jn. the free encyclopedia http://en. Among Christian beliefs.[1Cor 15:6] before Jesus' Ascension to heaven. including "more than five hundred brethren at once".
rather. According to both Catholic and Protestant doctrine. and the Holy Spirit proceeding from the Father and (in Western Christian theology) from the Son. and the Spirit proceeds from the Father. The "Shield of the Trinity" illustrates the Trinity 6 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . The Trinity is an essential doctrine of mainstream Christianity. Orthodox Christians and Arminian Protestants believe that the exercise of free will is necessary to have faith in Jesus. "the Father is God. the Father. It is found in many passages of Origen.11. and yet there are not three Gods but one God". the Son is begotten of the Father. the three 'persons' are each eternal and omnipotent. According to this doctrine.wikipedia. the Son is God. God is believed to be infinite and God's presence may be perceived through the actions of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit. Regardless of this apparent difference.org/wiki/Christianity "in the flesh". Though distinct. His Word (the Son) and His Wisdom (Holy Spirit)". Son and Holy Spirit" represents both the immanence and transcendence of God. Martin Luther taught that baptism was necessary for salvation. "Father.16]  Modern Christian churches tend to be much more concerned with how humanity can be saved from a universal condition of sin and death than the question of how both Jews and Gentiles can be in God's family. God is not divided in the sense that each person has a third of the whole. The word trias. Trinity Main article: Trinity Trinity refers to the teaching that the one God comprises three distinct.Wikipedia. an early statement of Christian belief. from which trinity is derived. although there is no single term in use in Scripture to denote the unified Godhead. but that sanctifying grace is irresistible. even apart from baptism. eternally co-existing persons. Together. He wrote of "the Trinity of God (the Father). the Son (incarnate in Jesus Christ). Afterwards it appears in Tertullian. They are distinct from another: the Father has no source. but modern Lutherans and other Protestants tend to teach that salvation is a gift that comes to an individual by God's grace. sometimes defined as "unmerited favor". and the Holy Spirit. is first seen in the works of Theophilus of Antioch. the Father being unbegotten. Christians differ in their views on the extent to which individuals' salvation is pre-ordained by God. Reformed theology places distinctive emphasis on grace by teaching that individuals are completely incapable of self-redemption. the free encyclopedia http://en. each person is considered to be fully God (see Perichoresis). The Catholic Church teaches that salvation does not occur without faithfulness on the part of Christians. In the words of the Athanasian Creed. the three persons cannot be divided from one another in being or in operation. converts must live in accordance with principles of love and ordinarily must be baptized.Christianity . 8:9. The distinction lies in their relations. and the Holy Spirit is God. these three persons are sometimes called the Godhead. the Son being begotten of the Father. In the following century the word was in general use.[Rom. The term may have been in use before this time. salvation comes by Jesus' substitutionary death and resurrection. In contrast Catholics.
though none of those are extant. also include the Deuterocanonical Books. Although the words "Trinity" and "Triune" do not appear in the Bible. These variations are a reflection of the range of traditions and councils that have convened on the subject. Others claim inerrancy for the Bible in its original manuscripts. such as adoptionism or modalism. The Books of the Bible. Still others maintain that only a particular translation is inerrant.Christianity . and the Catholic. thus each define the canon differently. These Books appear in the Septuagint. This makes up what Christians regard as the Old Testament. However. The Catholic and Orthodox canons. the free encyclopedia http://en.org/wiki/Christianity Trinitarians Main article: Trinitarianism Trinitarianism denotes those Christians who believe in the concept of the Trinity. and in the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century. theologians beginning in the 3rd century developed the term and concept to facilitate comprehension of the New Testament teachings of God as Father. Christianity regards the Biblical canon. Every version of the Bible always includes books of the Tanakh. and by groups with Unitarian theology in the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century. but are regarded by Protestants to be apocryphal.wikipedia. what they produced was what God wished to communicate. God as Jesus the Son. although there is substantial overlap. Almost all Christian denominations and Churches hold Trinitarian beliefs. which literally means "God-breathed". geography. Orthodox and Protestant churches vary. has adherents whose beliefs and biblical interpretations vary. Various nontrinitarian views. Trinity is defined as one God in three Persons. they are considered to be important historical documents which help to inform the understanding of words. the Old Testament and New Testament. The New Testament. leading to the disputes about Christology. but may include errors on matters such as history. the canon of the Hebrew Bible. nor that each member of the Trinity is one-third of an infinite God. Some versions of the Bible include a separate Apocrypha section between the Old Testament and the New Testament. Another view closely related is Biblical infallibility or Limited inerrancy. considered to be inspired. Since that time. as the inspired word of God. among Judaism. existed in early Christianity. or science. as part of the Old Testament. which affirms that the Bible is free of error as a guide to salvation. Some believe that divine inspiration makes our present Bibles "inerrant". Nontrinitarianism later appeared again in the Gnosticism of the Cathars in the 11th through 13th centuries.Wikipedia. The Greek word referring to inspiration in 2 Timothy 3:16 is Theopneustos. contains 27 books which are agreed upon 7 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . The traditional view of inspiration is that God worked through human authors so that. like other religions. grammar and syntax used in the historical period of their conception. such as the King James Version. Nontrinitarians Main article: Nontrinitarianism Nontrinitarianism refers to theology that rejects the doctrine of the Trinity. and in some groups arising during the Second Great Awakening of the 19th century. in addition to the Tanakh. originally written in Koine Greek. Christian theologians have been careful to emphasize that Trinity does not imply three gods. and God as the Holy Spirit. Scriptures Main articles: Bible and Development of the Christian Biblical canon Christianity.
The Gospel of John. While some of these texts are quite different to what modern Christians are used to.org/wiki/Christianity by all churches.Christianity . a similar phrase in 1 Corinthians 14. eternity and the consummation of the world Regarding exegesis. The Gospel of Thomas contains much that is familiar with existing Gospels.  Catholic and Orthodox interpretations In antiquity. Clearly when they are not silent! A final issue with the Bible is the selection of which books were included in the New Testament. which is thought to be by Paul. Much scholarship in the past several hundred years has gone into comparing different manuscripts in order to reconstruct The Gutenberg Bible. Other texts have been recovered. the free encyclopedia http://en. the allegorical sense.wikipedia. Peter's Basilica. which applies to eschatology. The spiritual sense is further subdivided into: St. The literal sense of understanding scripture is the meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture.Wikipedia. And while the Gospel of Thomas verse 113 states: "the Father's kingdom is spread out upon the earth. two schools of exegesis developed in Alexandria and Antioch. it should be understood that they existed simultaneously in early Christianity with those later selected as canon. tended to read Scripture allegorically. Alexandrine interpretation. Catholic theology distinguishes two senses of scripture: the literal and the spiritual. While the Authorized King James Version is held to by many because of its striking English prose. exemplified by Origen. described as the "gnostic Gospel". An example would be the parting of the Red Sea being understood as a "type" (sign) of baptism. which understands the scripture to contain some ethical teaching. Vatican City. The injunction that women "be silent and  submissive" in 1 Timothy 12 is thought by many to be a forgery by a follower of Paul. and people don't see it" the same verse can be found in Luke 17:20-21. appears in different places in different manuscripts and is thought to originally be a margin note by a copyist. which includes typology. while Antiochene interpretation adhered to the literal sense. such as the Gnostic Gospels of Nag Hammadi. holding that other meanings (called theoria) could only be accepted if based on the literal meaning. Catholic theology holds: 8 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . the anagogical sense. is believed to have been a response to the Gospel of Thomas which makes it closer to the original events. the largest church in the world and a symbol of the Catholic Church. Another issue is that several books are considered Bible to be forgeries. the first printed the original text. while it has a gnostic twist so that rather than being completely different there is an element of overlap. Other verses in 1 Corinthians contradict this verse such as 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 where women are instructed to wear a covering over their hair "when they pray or prophesies". Modern scholarship has raised many issues with the Bible.[1Cor 10:2] the moral sense. in fact it was translated from the Erasmus Greek Bible which in turn "was based on a single 12th Century manuscript that is one of the worst manuscripts we have available to us". following the rules of sound interpretation.
composed by the pastor of the Reformed church in Zürich (successor to Protestant reformer Zwingli) was adopted as a declaration of doctrine by most European Reformed churches. This original intended meaning of the text is drawn out through examination of the passage in light of the grammatical and syntactical aspects. Sola fide (by faith alone).org/wiki/Christianity the injunction that all other senses of sacred scripture are based on the literal that the historicity of the Gospels must be absolutely and constantly held that scripture must be read within the "living Tradition of the whole Church" and that "the task of interpretation has been entrusted to the bishops in communion with the successor of Peter. The significance of the text includes the ensuing use of the text or application. Protestant interpretation Clarity of Scripture Protestant Christians believe that the Bible is a self-sufficient revelation. The original passage is seen as having only a single meaning or sense. Original intended meaning of Scripture Protestants stress the meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture. follow the Holy Spirit as their guide. Solus Christus (through Christ alone).." The Second Helvetic Confession. Protestants characteristically believe that ordinary believers may reach an adequate understanding of Scripture because Scripture itself is clear (or "perspicuous"). The historicalgrammatical method or grammatico-historical method is an effort in Biblical hermeneutics to find the intended original meaning in the text. the historical-grammatical method. This concept is known as sola scriptura. Terry said: "A fundamental principle in grammatico-historical exposition is that the words and sentences can have but one significance in one and the same connection. Some Protestant interpreters make use of typology. and Soli Deo gloria (glory to God alone) Eschaton Main article: Christian eschatology 9 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . or both. the historical background. "all who . the Bishop of Rome". and revealed all truth necessary for salvation. Protestants believe Martin Luther's basic beliefs against the Catholic Church: Sola scriptura (by Scripture alone). because of the help of the Holy Spirit. Sola gratia (by grace alone). the free encyclopedia http://en.Wikipedia." Technically speaking. the grammatical-historical method of interpretation is distinct from the determination of the passage's significance in light of that interpretation. He advocated "one definite and simple understanding of Scripture".Christianity . The historical-grammatical method distinguishes between the one original meaning and the significance of the text.wikipedia. The moment we neglect this principle we drift out upon a sea of uncertainty and conjecture. As Milton S. the final authority on all Christian doctrine. John Calvin wrote. both define the term (Biblical) hermeneutics. the literary genre as well as theological (canonical) considerations. Taken together. Martin Luther believed that without God's help Scripture would be "enveloped in darkness". find in the Scripture a clear light..
wikipedia. such as Seventh-day Adventists. broadly speaking is Christian eschatology. This includes the general judgement at the resurrection of the dead as well as the belief (held by Roman Catholics. Some Christian groups. Heaven and Hell. Christians believe that the second coming of Christ will occur at the end of time after a period of severe persecution (the Great Tribulation).Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. according to his ability. Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as the state religion. the Rapture. the Second Coming of Jesus. the end of the age. and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read. 150) to Emperor Antoninus Pius. and those 10 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM .. bread and wine and water are brought. give what each thinks fit. Millennialism. the belief that the human soul is not naturally immortal. i. as we before said. and willing. Resurrection of the Dead. hold to mortalism. then. saying Amen. the Last Judgment. but are still imperfectly purified from the effects of sin. Those who have attained this goal are called saints (Latin sanctus. and his description remains relevant to the basic structure of Christian liturgical worship: And on the day called Sunday. without any mortal sin separating them from God. or the end of the world. Main article: Christian worship Justin Martyr described 2nd-century Christian liturgy in his First Apology (c. death and the afterlife. The major issues in Christian eschatology are the Tribulation. the end of the world. those who die in a state of grace. and there is a distribution to each. The 7th-century Khor Virap monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat. Jehovah's Witnesses hold to a similar view. when our prayer is ended. Then we all rise together and pray. and is unconscious during the intermediate state between bodily death and resurrection. as long as time permits. and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings. and a participation of that over which thanks have been given. In Roman Catholicism. These Christians also hold to Annihilationism. and. who succours the orphans and widows and those who. and the people assent. Jesus will fully establish the Kingdom of God in fulfillment of scriptural prophecies. and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. undergo purification through the intermediate state of purgatory to achieve the holiness necessary for entrance into God's presence. and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. and what is collected is deposited with the president. through sickness or any other cause. all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place. the president verbally instructs. the belief that subsequent to the final judgement. in AD 301. are in want. Orthodox and most Protestants) in a judgment particular to the individual soul upon physical death. the wicked will cease to exist rather than suffer everlasting torment. Death and afterlife Most Christians believe that human beings experience divine judgment and are rewarded either with eternal life or eternal damnation.Christianity . "holy"). the study of the destiny of humans as it is revealed in the Bible. whether the end of an individual life.org/wiki/Christianity The end of things. and the New Heavens and New Earth.e. when the reader has ceased. And they who are well to do. All who have died will be resurrected bodily from the dead for the Last Judgment.
Still others may lack any formal leaders. Such children's worship is often called Sunday school or Sabbath school (Sunday schools are often held before rather than during services). which occur throughout the and a Rosary. In the early church. Instruction is given based on these readings. usually bread and wine. as Justin described. —Justin Martyr Thus. Some churches use only a cappella music. confession. thanksgiving. including objects—The Holy Bible.Christianity . adults and children will separate for all or some of the service to receive age-appropriate teaching. Anglican sacraments. Most other churches practice open communion since they view communion as a means to unity. dancing. A modern Protestant worship band leading a contemporary worship session. Christians assemble for communal worship on Sunday. Seventh-day Adventists meet on Saturday. characterized by greater solemnity and ritual. There are a variety of congregational prayers. and invite all believing Christians to participate. Christians and those yet to complete initiation would separate for the Eucharistic part of the worship. Worship can be varied for special events like baptisms or weddings in the service or significant feast days. either on principle (for example. For groups which do not recognize a priesthood distinct from ordinary believers the services are generally led by a minister. Some Evangelical services resemble concerts with rock and pop music. silent. but especially the gospel accounts. and use of multimedia. In many churches today. including spontaneous prayer. rather than an end. a Crucifix. or sung. Scripture readings are drawn from the Old and New Testaments. preacher. service and take a variety of forms including recited. or Samples of Catholic religious homily. using a book called a lectionary. and Lutheran sacraments 11 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . Some Christian denominations practice closed communion. or pastor. They offer communion to those who are already united in that denomination or sometimes individual church.wikipedia. called a sermon. or Our Father. but even within these two categories there is great diversity in forms of worship. Some groups depart from this traditional liturgical structure. and intercession. and in a word takes care of all who are in need. responsive. Sacraments Main article: Sacrament See also: Sacraments of the Catholic Church.Wikipedia. is regularly prayed.org/wiki/Christianity who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us. Charismatic or Pentecostal congregations may spontaneously feel led by the Holy Spirit to action rather than follow a formal order of service. Catholics restrict participation to their members who are not in a state of mortal sin. many Churches of Christ object to the use of instruments in worship) or by tradition (as in Orthodoxy). The Lord's Prayer. either in principle or by local necessity. while others do not meet on a weekly basis. though other liturgical practices often occur outside this setting. the free encyclopedia http://en. Quakers sit quietly until moved by the Holy Spirit to speak. and "Low" services. Often these are arranged on an annual cycle. A division is often made between "High" church services. the day of the resurrection. The Eucharist is the part of liturgical worship that consists of a consecrated meal.
Easter and Pentecost. Most other denominations and traditions typically affirm only Baptism and Eucharist as sacraments. Eastern Orthodox. periods of fasting such as Lent. instituted by Christ. spiritual grace through Christ. while some Protestant groups. as well as some modern denominations. however. these are the Seven Sacraments as recognised by churches in the High church tradition —notably Roman Catholic. reject sacramental theology. —Justin Martyr Liturgical calendar Main article: Liturgical year Roman Catholics. that mediates grace. The two most widely accepted sacraments are Baptism and the Eucharist (or Holy Communion). of which no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true. and who is so living as Christ has enjoined. Symbols Main article: Christian symbolism Christianity has not generally practised aniconism. Oriental Orthodox. Old Catholic most Anglicans. a sacrament is a rite. Most Protestant Christian denominations who believe these rites do not communicate grace prefer to call them ordinances. instituted by Christ.org/wiki/Christianity In Christian belief and practice. the free encyclopedia http://en. even if the early Jewish Christians sects. is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh. Eastern Christians. had both flesh and blood for our The Holy Eucharist. Taken together. or the avoidance or prohibition of types of images. and unto regeneration. and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished. Anointing of the Sick. This includes holy days. and Matrimony. salvation. and some Lutherans. Holy Orders. The term is derived from the Latin word sacramentum. A few churches make no use of a liturgical calendar. Justin Martyr described the Eucharist: And this food is called among us Eukaristia [the Eucharist]. but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Savior. The most conventional functional definition of a sacrament is that it is an outward sign. such as the Quakers. and what it means for an act to be a sacrament vary among Christian denominations and traditions. such as solemnities which commemorate an event in the life of Jesus or the saints. that conveys an inward. Anglicans. Views concerning both what rites are sacramental.Christianity . constituting a sacred mystery. which was used to translate the Greek word for mystery. and traditional Protestant communities frame worship around a liturgical calendar. and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins. Confession. such as Christmas. and other pious events such as memoria or lesser festivals commemorating saints. Independent Catholic. preferred to some extent not to use 12 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . Christian groups that do not follow a liturgical tradition often retain certain celebrations. the majority of Christians also recognize five additional sacraments: Confirmation (Chrismation in the Orthodox tradition). having been made flesh by the Word of God. For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these.wikipedia. so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word.Wikipedia.
These all derive from writings found in the New Testament. by which a person is admitted to membership of the Church. The letters of the Greek word ΙΧΘΥΣ Ichthys (fish) form an acronym for "Ίησοῦς Χριστός. Θεοῦ Υἱός. with the use of water. which is today one of the most widely recognised symbols in the world. Its popularity among Christians was due principally. Son of God. Other major Christian symbols include the chi-rho monogram. and is intimately linked to salvation. on whether the act has any spiritual significance. Beliefs on baptism vary among denominations. Secondly. Σωτήρ). that of the fish or Ichthys seems to have ranked first in importance. this view is held by Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches as well as Lutherans and Anglicans. Prayer Main article: Prayer in Christianity Jesus' teaching on prayer in the Sermon on the Mount displays a distinct lack of interest in the external aspects of prayer. the vine (symbolising the necessary connectedness of the Christian with Christ) and many others.[Mat. meaning. by invoking the Decalogue's prohibition of idolatry. an external public declaration of the inward change which has taken place in the person. The cross. there are differences of opinion on the methodology of the act.org/wiki/Christianity figures in their symbols.Christianity . Those who hold the first view may also adhere to the tradition of Infant Baptism. Differences occur firstly.Wikipedia. Although the cross was known to the early Christians. Θεοῦ Υἱός. God's Son. Saviour. which affirms that baptism creates or strengthens a person's faith. Savior". These methods being: Baptism by Immersion. while others simply acknowledge it as a purely symbolic act. tells how it was already a tradition for Christians to trace repeatedly on their foreheads the sign of the cross. the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia. the sacrificial lamb (symbolic of Christ's sacrifice). A concern with the techniques of prayer is condemned as 'pagan'. to the famous acrostic consisting of the initial letters of five Greek words forming the word for fish (Ichthys). in his book De Corona. Σωτήρ". the crucifix did not appear in use until the 5th century. 6:5–15] Elsewhere in the New Testament this same freedom of access to 13 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . and Baptism by Affusion (pouring) and Baptism by Aspersion (sprinkling). Tertullian. The fish was depicted as a Christian symbol in the first decades of the 2nd century. which translates into English as "Jesus Christ. and instead a simple trust in God's fatherly goodness is encouraged. which words briefly but clearly described the character of Christ and the claim to worship of believers: Iesous Christos Theou Yios Soter (Ίησοῦς Χριστός. WW II cemetery with mostly Christian grave markings Baptism Baptism is the ritual act. the dove (symbolic of the Holy Spirit). From monumental sources such as tombs it is known that the symbolic fish was familiar to Christians from the earliest times. Among the symbols employed by the primitive Christians. Baptism by Submersion. The cross and the fish are two common symbols of Jesus Christ. it would seem. Jesus Christ. if immersion is total. some churches hold to the doctrine of Baptismal Regeneration. was used as a Christian symbol from the earliest times.
wikipedia." The Book of Common Prayer in the Anglican tradition is a guide which provides a set order for church services. Intercessory prayer is prayer offered for the benefit of other people. bowing and prostrations (see also poklon) are often practiced in more traditional branches of Christianity. The ancient church. Main articles: History of Christianity and Origins of Christianity Early Church and Christological Councils Main articles: Early Christianity and First seven Ecumenical Councils Christianity began as a Jewish sect in the Levant of the middle east in the mid-1st century. Churches of the Protestant Reformation however rejected prayer to the saints. certain physical gestures are emphasized.. Roman Catholic. It had a number of influences. Its earliest development took place under the leadership of the Twelve Apostles. the free encyclopedia http://en.Christianity . and some Anglican churches. Oriental Orthodox. and hymns or sung Psalms. and this remains the practice of most Eastern Orthodox. Zoroastrian beliefs". In the New Testament book of James no distinction is made between the intercessory prayer offered by ordinary believers and the prominent Old Testament prophet Elijah.Wikipedia. followed by the early bishops.. to include other religions. particularly Saint Peter and Paul the Apostle. 5:13–19] This confident position should be understood in light of Christian belief in the unique relationship between the believer and Christ through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. Kneeling. Christian ideas such as "angels. the end of the world. According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church: "Prayer is the raising of one's mind and heart to God or the requesting of good things from God. and heaven and hell received form and substance from . In subsequent Christian traditions. in both Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity. whom Christians consider the successors of the Apostles. including medieval gestures such as genuflection or making the sign of the cross. scripture readings.[Jam 5:16–18] The effectiveness of prayer in Christianity derives from the power of God rather than the status of the one praying. a final judgment. There are many intercessory prayers recorded in the Bible. 4:6][Jam. largely on the basis of the sole mediatorship of Christ. At other times the older orans posture may be used. developed a tradition of asking for the intercession of (deceased) saints. 14 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . containing set prayers. Frequently in Western Christianity the hands are placed palms together and forward as in the feudal commendation ceremony.org/wiki/Christianity God is also emphasized.[Phil. The reformer Huldrych Zwingli admitted that he had offered prayers to the saints until his reading of the Bible convinced him that this was idolatrous. with palms up and elbows in. including Francesco Albani's The Baptism of prayers of the Apostle Peter on behalf of sick persons[Acts 9:40] and by [1Ki 17:19–22] Christ prophets of the Old Testament in favor of other people. the resurrection.
first in the year 64.Wikipedia. Cyprian. From at least the 4th century. Athanasius and Augustine of Hippo. Polycarp. and are still separate today. including death. the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church in the Horn of Africa.[Acts 12:2] Larger-scale persecutions followed at the hands of the authorities of the Roman Empire. These authors are known as the Church Fathers. it was under Nero's persecution that early Church leaders Peter and Paul of Tarsus were each martyred in Rome. when Emperor Nero blamed them for the Great Fire of Rome. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization. In 395.Christianity . Chapel of Saint Ananias. Further widespread persecutions of the Church occurred under nine subsequent Roman emperors. End of Roman persecution under Emperor Constantine (313 AD) State persecution ceased in the 4th century. Constantine was also instrumental in the convocation of the First Council of Nicaea in 325. an early example of a Christian house of worship. 11th-century icon of Jesus from Greece. Important Africans who influenced the early development of Christianity includes Tertullian. Asia Minor. Nicaea was the first of a series of Ecumenical (worldwide) Councils which formally defined critical elements of the theology of the Church. and by the end of the 2nd century in the region around Carthage. The later rise of Islam in North Africa reduced the size and numbers of Christian congregations. Irenaeus. Christians were from the beginning subject to persecution by some Jewish religious authorities. The Assyrian Church of the East did not accept the third and following Ecumenical Councils. which is still used by the Catholic Church. From the year 150. which sought to address the Arian heresy and formulated the Nicene Creed. and many Protestant churches. Justin Martyr. On 27 February 380. Clement of Alexandria. According to Church tradition. Mark the Evangelist started the Orthodox Church of Alexandria in about 43 AD. when Constantine I issued an edict of toleration in 313. most intensely under Decius and Diocletian. Anatolia. Ephesus. Emperor Theodosius I enacted a law establishing Nicene Christianity as the state church of the Roman Empire.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. Syria. Origen of Alexandria. notably concerning Christology. who disagreed with the apostles' teachings (See Split of early Christianity and Judaism). for Christians such as Stephen[Acts 7:59] and James. and Numidia (present-day Tunisia and Algeria). The presence of Christianity in Africa began in the middle of the 1st century in Egypt. Anglican Communion. son of Zebedee. Christian teachers began to produce theological and apologetic works aimed at defending the faith. Notable early Fathers include Ignatius of Antioch. However. created by combining the Greek letters ΙΧΘΥΣ into a wheel. the most Christianized regions of the world were Crete. Cyprus. leaving only the Coptic Church in Egypt. built in the 1st century AD An early circular ichthys symbol. and Origen. Damascus. and the Nubian 15 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . the Nile delta. Armenia.org/wiki/Christianity According to the scriptures. Tertullian. Clement of Alexandria. This involved punishments. and study of them is called Patristics. Armenia is considered the first nation to accept Christianity in 301 AD. Eastern Orthodoxy.
and Alodia). and physicians. contributing to the Carolingian Renaissance of the 9th century. editor of A History of the University in Europe. in which monks and nuns taught classes. Originally teaching only theology. among the Germanic peoples. St. the Celtic and Slavic peoples. Around 500. In the early 10th century. the papacy began to find greater political support in the Frankish Kingdom.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. Benedict set out his Monastic Rule.Wikipedia.) The traditional medieval universities — evolved from Catholic and Protestant church schools — then established specialized academic structures for properly educating greater numbers of students as professionals. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools (Scholae monasticae). Judaism. with the rise of Carolingian leaders. Western Christian monasticism was further rejuvenated through the leadership of the great Benedictine monastery of Cluny. has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the Christian era. University of Paris. Monasticism became a powerful force throughout Europe. has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization. Lebanon. The Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea (787) finally pronounced in favor of icons. lawyers. The Middle Ages brought about major changes within the church. philosophy and law. the papacy became a political player. The university is generally regarded as an institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting. becoming the direct ancestors of modern institutions of learning. older cathedral schools developed into universities (see University of Oxford. reports that universities then only trained students to become clerics.org/wiki/Christianity Church in the Sudan (Nobatia. High and Late Middle Ages In the west. In the early 8th century. establishing a system of regulations for the foundation and running of monasteries. North Africa and Spain. evidence of these immediate 16 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . and University of Bologna. Walter Rüegg. and gave rise to many early centers of learning. as the precursor of Christianity. Pope Gregory the Great dramatically reformed ecclesiastical structure and administration. universities steadily added subjects including medicine. Scotland and Gaul. home to tribes. Early Middle Ages With the decline and fall of the Roman Empire in the west. Prof.Christianity . In the 7th century Muslims conquered Syria (including Jerusalem). Part of the Muslims' success was due to the exhaustion of the Byzantine empire in its decades long conflict with Persia. civil servants. the Hungarians. like Hellenism. The church also entered into a long period of missionary activity and expansion among the various Kadisha Valley. and the Baltic peoples. Catholicism also spread monasteries in the world. from the 11th century onward. first visible in Pope Leo's diplomatic dealings with Huns and Vandals. most famously in Ireland. Whilst arianists instituted the death penalty for practicing some of the earliest Christian pagans (see Massacre of Verden as example). Hebraism. Makuria. Prior to the establishment of universities. Christianity has been an important part of the shaping of Western civilization. Beginning in the 8th century. when it was sponsored by the Byzantine emperors. at least since the 4th century. iconoclasm became a divisive issue.
were established with the aim of suppressing heresy and securing religious and doctrinal unity within Christianity through conversion and prosecution. The Crusades ultimately failed to stifle Islamic aggression and even contributed to Christian enmity with the sacking of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade. branch. The Reformation in England began in 17 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . the Reformation. culminating in the orders of Romanesque and Gothic architecture and the building of the great European cathedrals. The two principal mendicant movements were the Franciscans and the Dominicans founded by St. These two churches disagree on a number of administrative. most notably papal primacy of jurisdiction. whose large isolated monasteries spearheaded the settlement of former wilderness areas. the Crusades were where he preached the First Crusade. Accompanying the rise of the "new towns" throughout Europe. the free encyclopedia http://en. the role of tradition. but in both cases the Eastern Orthodox refused to implement the decisions and the two principal churches remain in schism to the present day. Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation Main articles: Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation The 15th-century Renaissance brought about a renewed interest in ancient and classical learning. Beginning around 1184. Francis and St. Dominic respectively. bringing the consecrated religious life out of the monastery and into the new urban setting. From 1095 under the pontificate of Urban II.Wikipedia. liturgical. In this period church building and ecclesiastical architecture reached new heights. the Roman Catholic Church. Over a period stretching from the 7th to the 13th century. and doctrinal issues. which repudiated the primacy of the pope.org/wiki/Christianity forerunners of the later university at many places dates back to the 6th century AD. the Orthodox Church. These were a series of military campaigns in the Holy Land and elsewhere. and an Eastern. Others like Zwingli and Calvin further criticized Roman Catholic teaching and worship. mendicant orders were founded. These challenges developed into the movement called Protestantism. The Second Council of Lyon (1274) and the Council of Florence (1439) attempted to reunite the churches. However. largely Greek. launched. Both orders made significant contributions to the development of the great universities of Europe. the Roman Catholic Church has achieved union with various smaller eastern churches. initiated in response to pleas from the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I for aid against Turkish expansion. Another major schism. various institutions.wikipedia. the Christian Church underwent gradual alienation. Martin Luther in 1517 protested against the sale of indulgences and soon moved on to deny several key points of Roman Catholic doctrine. resulted in the splintering of the Western Christendom into several Christian denominations. resulting in a schism dividing it into a so-called Latin or Western Christian branch. and other doctrines and practices. following the crusade against the Cathar heresy.Christianity . the seven sacraments. broadly referred to as the Inquisition. Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont. Another new order were the Cistercians.
Partly from missionary zeal. Ultimately.Wikipedia. The Council of Trent clarified and reasserted Roman Catholic doctrine. Meanwhile. The Thirty Years' War. In all European countries. the Roman Catholic Church engaged in a substantial process of reform and renewal. religious and national communities are more or less identical. the English Civil War. the Netherlands. all countries with competing denominations. known as the Counter-Reformation or Catholic Reform. Finally. specifically Catholicism) and the state is found to a great degree in France and Italy. competition between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism became deeply entangled with political struggles among European states. to greater or lesser extents.org/wiki/Christianity 1534. and general hostility of Marxist movements. Cultural symbiosis and separation are found in Poland. Oceania. In traditionally Catholic countries such as Belgium. political. These events intensified the Christian debate on persecution and toleration. and to some extent Austria. See also: European wars of religion Michelangelo's Pietà in St. different Christian denominations found themselves in competition. Urs Altermatt of the University of Fribourg. the monasteries throughout England. going against the Catholic Church interpretation of the Bible Post-Enlightenment In the era known as the Great Divergence. but under the impetus of colonial expansion by the European powers. and ideological orientation of the state. Christianity was confronted with various forms of skepticism and with certain modern political ideologies such as versions of socialism and liberalism. looking specifically at Catholicisms in Europe.wikipedia. Wales and Ireland were dissolved. Peter's Basilica. Competition is found in Germany. During the following centuries. the Spanish Civil War. with each other and with the state. and again Switzerland. Martin Luther started the Protestant Reformation in 1517 with the Ninety-Five Theses. separation between religion (again. when King Henry VIII had himself declared head of the Church of England. the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492 brought about a new wave of missionary activity. Partly in response to the Protestant Reformation. The Catholic Church were among the patronage of the Renaissance. and the French Wars of Religion are prominent examples. 18 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . Throughout Europe. especially the Russian Revolution. Events ranged from mere anti-clericalism to violent outbursts against Christianity such as the Dechristianisation during the French Revolution. the free encyclopedia http://en. Especially pressing in Europe was the formation of nation states after the Napoleonic era. when in the West the Age of Enlightenment and the Scientific revolution brought about great societal changes. Christianity has played a role in shaping of Western civilization. Variables are the relative sizes of the denominations and the religious. Ireland.Christianity . East Asia. Beginning in 1536. all countries with minority Catholic populations who to a greater or lesser extent did identify with the nation. identifies four models for the European nations. Christianity spread to the Americas. and sub-Saharan Africa. these differences led to the outbreak of conflicts in which religion played a key factor. Spain. the divides caused by the Reformation led to outbreaks of religious violence and the establishment of separate state churches in Europe: Lutheranism in parts of Germany and in Scandinavia and Anglicanism in England in 1534. and Switzerland.
Christian commitment in Europe dropped as modernity and secularism came into their own in Europe. and in Germany would lead directly to the Kulturkampf. northern Europe (including Great Britain. The combined factors of the formation of nation states and ultramontanism.wikipedia. often forced Catholic churches. East Timor and the Philippines. However. France.2 billion adherents. it is the dominant religion in Georgia. Christianity is the world's largest religion. Approximately 7. particularly in the Czech Republic and Estonia. especially in Germany and the Netherlands but also in England (to a much lesser extent).1 to 10% of Arabs are Christians most prevalent in Egypt. Protestant and Orthodox. the Americas and Southern Africa. The late 20th century has shown the shift of Christian adherence to the Third World and southern hemisphere in general. Countries with 50% and more Christians are colored purple while countries with 10% to 50% Christians are colored pink. Armenia.Christianity . specifically the papacy. the Canadian provinces 19 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM .Wikipedia. where liberals and Protestants under the leadership of Bismarck managed to severely restrict Catholic expression and organization.000 per day) have been accompanied by substantial declines in the developed world. Some Europeans (including diaspora). Christianity is still the predominant religion in Europe. split into 3 main branches of Catholic. Scandinavia and other places). large increases in the developing world (around 23. and natives of other continents have revived their respective peoples' historical folk religions.org/wiki/Christianity countries where the state actively opposed itself to the authority of the Catholic Church. and believers to choose between the national demands of the state and the authority of the Church.600 per day). In Asia. which says that one in three persons on earth are Christians. This conflict came to a head in the First Vatican Council. Oceania (Australia and New Zealand). Indigenous peoples of the Americas. organizations. Syria and Lebanon. while religious commitments in America have been generally high in comparison to Europe. Further information: Christianity by country and Christian population growth See also: Christendom With around 2. Germany. This masks a major shift in the demographics of Christianity. A depiction of Madonna and Child in a 19th-century Kakure Kirishitan Japanese woodcut. mainly in Europe and North America (around 7. the free encyclopedia http://en. The Christian share of the world's population has stood at around 33% for the last hundred years. with the western civilization no longer the chief standard bearer of Christianity. it is declining in many areas including the Northern and Western United States.
 Christianity. while others link it to signs of a decline in belief in the importance of religion in general. church attendance among people who continue to identify themselves as Christians has been falling over the last few decades. Georgia (Georgian Orthodox). Nigeria. in one form or another. Christianity remains the dominant religion in the Western World. there are many charismatic movements that have become well established over large parts of the world.Wikipedia.  and Central Asia.org/wiki/Christianity of Ontario. Taiwan. Nations with Christianity as their state religion: Orthodox Christianity Protestantism and Anglicanism Catholicism However. Despite the declining numbers. Some sources view this simply as part of a drift away from traditional membership institutions. such as Cyprus. Canada. and South Korea. still give official recognition to a specific Christian denomination. the Christian population are declining in both numbers and percentage. In countries such as Australia and New Zealand. but the percentage is decreasing. and Quebec.Christianity . Latin America and Asia.2% of the population considering themselves Christians. In most countries in the developed world. South Korea. Iceland (Evangelical Lutheran). British Columbia. Liechtenstein (Roman Catholic). El Salvador (Roman Catholic). and 86. Russia. Singapore. England (Anglican). A leading Saudi Arabian Muslim leader Sheikh Ahmad al Qatanni reported on Aljazeera that every day 16. the free encyclopedia http://en. Iran. and Malaysia. There are numerous other countries. Morocco. is the sole state religion of the following nations: Costa Rica (Roman Catholic). Vietnam. where 70% are Christians. in Europe 76. Malta (Roman Catholic). Finland (Evangelical Lutheran & Orthodox). India. He claimed that Islam was The global distribution of Christians.wikipedia. including Muslims in Algeria. China. Indonesia.36% in Oceania still practice Christianity. the Southern United States and the province of Alberta.000 African Muslims convert to Christianity. It is also reported that Christianity is popular among people of different backgrounds in India (mostly Hindus). and Macau).0% of the Americas and 73. Japan. France. and Turkey. The Christian population is not decreasing in Brazil. and parts of Asia (especially the Middle East. especially Africa. losing 6 million African Muslims a year to  becoming Christians. Denmark (Evangelical Lutheran). and Vatican City (Roman Catholic). Monaco (Roman Catholic). Mongolia. Greece (Greek Orthodox). 20 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . which although do not have an established church.
morality and Church governance. As well as these modern divisions. Catholics maintain that the "one. holy. With more than 1. the largest being the Latin Church. eschatologies.wikipedia. the Catholic Church is the largest church representing over half of all Christians and one sixth of the 21 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM ." There is a diversity of doctrines and practices among groups calling themselves Christian. Eastern Orthodox. the first three centuries of Christianity was significantly more diverse than the modern Church. each with distinct traditions regarding the liturgy and the administering the sacraments. the Bishop of Rome. Catholic Main article: Catholic Church The Catholic Church comprises those particular Churches.834 sees are grouped into 23 particular rites. soteriologies. The 2. and cosmologies that existed alongside the "Early Church" which is itself a projected concept to indicate which communities were "proto-orthodox". which has its origins in the East–West Schism (Great Schism) of the 11th century.Wikipedia. Like the Eastern Orthodox. Anglican. and Protestantism. The Nicene Creed is "accepted as authoritative by the Roman Catholic. as its highest authority in matters of faith. Eastern Orthodoxy. in communion with the Pope. but also acknowledges other Christian churches and communities and works towards reconciliation among all Christians.1 billion baptized members. These groups are sometimes classified under denominations. the Roman Catholic Church through Apostolic succession traces its origins to the Christian community founded by Jesus Christ. though for theological reasons many groups reject this classification system. catholic and apostolic church" founded by Jesus subsists fully in the Roman Catholic Church. headed by bishops. and major Protestant churches. A broader distinction that is sometimes drawn is between Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity. in that their views would become dominate. The Catholic faith is detailed in the Catechism of the Catholic Church. there were many diverse Christian communities with wildly different Christologies.:14 There are other Christian groups that do not fit neatly into one of these primary categories.Christianity .org/wiki/Christianity Further information: List of Christian denominations and List of Christian denominations by number of members The three primary divisions of Christianity are Catholicism. In many ways. the free encyclopedia http://en.
and share much in common with Roman Catholicism but are no longer in communion with the See of Rome. communion comprises six groups: Syriac Orthodox. These six churches.wikipedia.Wikipedia. A number of conflicts with Western Christianity over questions of doctrine and authority culminated in the Great Schism.Christianity . Most Protestant traditions branch out from the Reformed tradition in some way. Some but not most Baptists prefer not to be called Protestants. Zwingli and Calvin's heirs are far broader denominationally. the free encyclopedia http://en. It is regarded as the place of instead espouse a Miaphysite christology. Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (India) and Armenian Apostolic churches. Eastern Orthodoxy is the second largest single denomination in Christianity. and are broadly referred to as the Reformed Tradition. include the word Catholic in their title.org/wiki/Christianity world's population. The Oriental Orthodox Churches (also called Old Oriental The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Churches) are those eastern churches that recognize the first three Jerusalem is shared by Eastern Orthodox. 22 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . and John Calvin inaugurated what has come to be called Protestantism. The Oriental Orthodox Jesus's crucifixion and resurrection. ecumenical councils—Nicaea. Martin Luther. such as the Old Catholic and Independent Catholic Churches. These churches are generally not in communion with Eastern Orthodox Churches with whom they are in dialogue for erecting a communion. Constantinople and Ephesus—but Oriental Orthodox and Roman Catholic reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon and Christians. Huldrych Zwingli. Various smaller communities. Coptic Orthodox. with over 200 million adherents. Ethiopian Orthodox. In addition to the Lutheran and Reformed branches of the Reformation. but has achieved a measure of affirmation in more recent history. Orthodox Main article: Eastern Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodoxy comprises those churches in communion with the Patriarchal Sees of the East. the Eastern Orthodox Church also traces its heritage to the foundation of Christianity through Apostolic succession and has an episcopal structure. Protestant Main article: Protestantism See also: History of Protestantism In the 16th century. while being in communion with each other are completely independent hierarchically. claiming a direct ancestral line going back to the apostles in the 1st century. such as the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. Eritrean Orthodox. though the autonomy of the individual. Like the Roman Catholic Church. Luther's primary theological heirs are known as Lutherans. mostly national churches is emphasized. The Anabaptist tradition was largely ostracized by the other Protestant parties at the time. there is Anglicanism after the English Reformation.
Pentecostals. they often refer to themselves as being born-again. which comes from Wesley's emphasis of the New Birth. Protestantism. They typically distance themselves from the confessionalism and/or creedalism of other Christian communities by calling themselves "non-denominational". Several Pentecostal and non-denominational Churches. which emphasize the cleansing power of the Holy Spirit. and other evangelicals stress "accepting Jesus as your personal Lord and Savior".1 billion Christianity followers. 200 million) and the Catholic Church (appx. Some Anglicans consider their church a branch of the "One Holy Catholic Church" alongside of the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. Often founded by individual pastors.Wikipedia. For example. 23 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . Some Anglican churches consider themselves both Protestant and Catholic. a concept rejected by the Roman Catholic Church and some Eastern Orthodox. A special grouping are the Anglican churches descended from the Church of England and organised in the Anglican Communion. but it seems clear that Protestantism is the second largest major group of Christians after Catholicism in number of followers (although the Orthodox Church is larger than any single Protestant denomination). followed in many cases by further divisions. partly because of the difficulty in determining which denominations should be placed in these categories.org/wiki/Christianity The oldest Protestant groups separated from the Catholic Church in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. 1. Often that number is put at 800 million.1 billion) form a total of 2.  Some groups of individuals who hold basic Protestant tenets identify themselves simply as "Christians" or "born-again Christians". the free encyclopedia http://en. along with the Orthodox Church (appx.wikipedia.Christianity . they have little affiliation with historic denominations. in turn grew out of the Methodist Church. Because Methodists. the Methodist Church grew out of Anglican minister John Wesley's evangelical and revival movement in the Anglican Church. Estimates of the total number of Protestants are very uncertain.
org/wiki/Christianity Restorationists and others The Second Great Awakening. founding hospitals. which was centered in Kentucky and Tennessee. and science. Christianity had a significant impact on education and science and medicine as the church created the bases of the Western system of education. It blends evangelical theology with elements of religious Jewish practice and terminology. throughout most of its history. which arose from Evangelical Protestantism. Churches of Christ. and the Christian churches and churches of Christ. the Seventh-day Adventists. A common belief held by Restorationists was that the other divisions of Christianity had introduced doctrinal defects into Christianity. and many of the population of the Western hemisphere could broadly be described as cultural Christians.Christianity . the free encyclopedia http://en. economics. Christian disciplines of the respective arts have subsequently developed into Christian philosophy. have their roots in the contemporaneous Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement. and was the sponsor of founding universities in the Western world as the university is generally regarded as an institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting.wikipedia. including the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). as the centralized Roman power waned. Until the Age of Enlightenment. saw the development of a number of unrelated churches.Wikipedia. a period of religious revival that occurred in the United States during the early 1800s. the dominance of the Catholic Church was the only consistent force in Europe. and profess the existence and possession of certain esoteric doctrines or practices. influenced the Jehovah's Witnesses movement and. Christian culture guided the course of philosophy. whose members may identify themselves as Jewish. as a reaction specifically to William Miller. Evangelical Christian Church in Canada. The Civilizing influence of Christianity includes social welfare. They generally saw themselves as restoring the original church of Jesus Christ rather than reforming one of the existing churches. Many clerics throughout history have made significant contributions to science and Jesuits in particular have made numerous significant contributions to the development of science. whilst also adhering to aspects of Jewish dietary law and custom. Messianic Judaism (or Messianic Movement) is the name of a Christian movement comprising a number of streams. or highly educated people. the Anthroposophical Society and the Martinism. which was known as the Great Apostasy. Other groups originating in this time period include the Christadelphians and Latter Day Saint movement. Messianic Judaism affirms the messiahship and divinity of "Yeshua" (the Hebrew name of Jesus). While the churches originating in the Second Great Awakening have some superficial similarities. Though Western culture contained several polytheistic religions during its early years under the Greek and Roman empires. "initiated". American Millennialism and Adventism. 24 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . hidden from the public but accessible only to a narrow circle of "enlightened". Some of the churches originating during this period are historically connected to early 19th-century camp meetings in the Midwest and Upstate New York. Christian music. Christian art. Others. their doctrine and practices vary significantly. Esoteric Christians regard Christianity as a mystery religion. has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture. Main article: Christian culture Western culture. art. Some of the esoteric Christian institutions include the Rosicrucian Fellowship. politics and family life. Christian literature etc.
in the 20th and 21st centuries. the Anglican Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC) working towards full communion between those churches since 1970. It refers to the loss of Christianity's monopoly on values and world view in historically Christian societies. Congregationalist. The other way was institutional union with new United and uniting churches. Congregationalist. Peace and Creation Commission of the World Council of Churches founded in 1948 by Protestant and Orthodox churches. One way was greater cooperation in the shaping of Western between groups. representing all Methodist denominations. and in 1977 to form the Uniting Church in Australia. and Presbyterian churches. Another frequent application of the term is to distinguish political groups in areas of mixed religious backgrounds. particularly in Europe.Wikipedia. The flag has a white field. Cultural Christians are secular people with a Christian heritage who may not believe in the religious claims of Christianity. and Presbyterian churches united in 1925 to form the United Church of Canada. Steps towards reconciliation on a global level were taken in 1965 by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches mutually revoking the excommunications that marked their Great Schism in 1054. which was designed to represent all of Christendom. considered in terms of postmodernism. the Justice. and similar national councils like the National Council of Churches in Australia which includes Roman Catholics. the World Methodist Council. art. Christian has played a prominent role ecumenism advanced in two ways. Canada. In 2006. such as the Edinburgh Missionary Conference of Protestants in civilization 1910. and so on related to it. music. The Christian Flag Another example of ecumenism is the invention of and growing usage of the Christian Flag. The Church of South India was formed in 1947 by the union of Anglican.wikipedia. Main articles: Criticism of Christianity and Christian apologetics Criticism of Christianity and Christians goes back to the Apostolic age.g. adopted the declaration. Christianity of being reconciled with each other. Main article: Ecumenism The Marble Church in Most Christian groups and individual denominations have long expressed ideals Copenhagen. but who retain an affinity for the popular culture. Australia and to a minor degree the Southern Cone. Methodist. Baptist. and in the 20th century. with the New Testament recording friction between the followers of Jesus and the Pharisees and scribes (e.org/wiki/Christianity Postchristianity is the term for the decline of Christianity.Christianity . and the Lutheran and Roman Catholic churches signing the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification in 1999 to address conflicts at the root of the Protestant Reformation. Methodist. Mark 7:1-23 and Matthew 25 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . the free encyclopedia http://en. with a red Latin cross inside a blue canton.
The name was given by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. In the 19th century. around 100 AD. "believers".g. Price has outlined the possibility that some Bible stories are based partly on myth in "The Christ Myth Theory and its problems". avoidance of temptations). By the 3rd century.Christianity .Wikipedia. ^ a b The term "Christian" (Greek Χριστιανός) was first used in reference to Jesus' disciples in the city of Antioch[Acts 11:26] about 44 AD. that the prophecies of the Hebrew Bible could not have been fulfilled by Jesus. while his Summa contra Gentiles was a major apologetic work. New Testament scholar Robert M. e. Jewish and Muslim theologians criticize the doctrine of the Trinity held by most Christians. running against the basic tenet of monotheism. In the New Testament the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren". 266. partly as a defense against it. 828. "elect".e. meaning "followers of Christ". The philosopher Thomas Aquinas presented five arguments for God's existence in the Summa Theologica. in that Christians attributed divinity to Jesus who had a physical body. Christian apologetics has taken many forms over the centuries. the free encyclopedia http://en. in part building on the pre-Christian concepts of Plotinus. the Mishneh Torah (i. Nietzsche began to write a series of attacks on the "unnatural" teachings of Christianity (e. the philosopher Bertrand Russell expressed his criticism of Christianity in Why I Am Not a Christian.g. pp. stating that this doctrine in effect assumes that there are three Gods. Rabbi Moses Maimonides) was criticizing Christianity on the grounds of idol worship. "the faithful". Tyndale Bible Dictionary. See Elwell/Comfort. to the disciples of Jesus. Christian apologetics aims to present a rational basis for Christianity. starting with Paul the Apostle. Criticism of Christianity continues to date.. Christianity was criticized by the Jews on various grounds. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" (Greek Χριστιανισμός) was by Ignatius of Antioch. and the 15-volume Adversus Christianos by Porphyry was written as a comprehensive attack on Christianity. formulating his rejection of Christianity in the setting of logical arguments. "saints". In the 20th century.org/wiki/Christianity 15:1-20). given that he did not have a successful life. The word "apologetic" comes from the Greek word "apologeomai". criticism of Christianity had mounted. e. meaning "in defense of".wikipedia. Main article: Outline of Christianity Christian mythology Christian philosophy Christianity and politics Political catholicism Christian views on marriage Church architecture One true church and One true faith 1. 26 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . and continued anti-Christian attacks to the end of his life. In the 2nd century. probably in derision. By the 12th century.g.
like Hellenism. Amsterdam University Press. 2006.pewforum.org/web/20071212011435/http://www. 496–99. ^ a b c d Cambridge University Historical Series. 441.111:three mighty founders of Western culture.40: Hebraism. the Catholic Encyclopedia (article "Monotheism (http://www. hospitals. "In the central provinces of India they established schools. ^ Christian Church Women: Shapers of a Movement (http://books. Richard Niebuhr." 15.html).com.Christianity. for him the Christian mission should be involved in the struggle for justice amid the process of modernization. by James B.htm).wikipedia.html). orphanages. orphanages and schools. ^ a b "The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions" (http://www. ^ a b Robinson. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. p. ^ Catholic encyclopedia (http://www.google. has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization. ^ a b c d e Caltron J. ^ McManners. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Monotheism (http://www. if the number of the Christians were double or triple.infoplease. Customs and Rituals.htm) New Advent 13. Catholic and Protestant. to serve the poor and society at large. Doing Faith Justice (http://books. March 1994. ^ a b Esler. ^ Fred Kammer (2004-05-01).co. ^ Hinnells. should be increased. Rives.com/ce6/society/A0833762. p. An Introduction to Christianity.com. New Dictionary of Theology.org/wiki/Christianity 2. ^ a b Horst Hutter.com/Religions_By_Adherents. Jesus. p. Retrieved 2009-05-05.com/books?id=g2AtOlJMPTUC&pg=PA52). Judaism.php?story_id=3835). page 196 12. hospices for pilgrims. Paul (http://www. "The enthusiasm for evangelization among the Christians was also accompanied by the awareness that the most immediate problem to solve was how to serve the huge number of new converts. Religious congregations and individual charismatic leaders promoted the development of a number of helping institutions-hospitals. as the precursor of Christianity. ISBN 978-0-8091-4227-9. namely Socrates. "Theologians. and Plato. ISBN 978-0-8272-0463-8.Stanford University Press.H Hayas. ^ Muslim-Christian Relations (http://books. 27 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM .com /od/monotheisticreligions/). 4. 8. pp.uk /world/feedarticle/10003271).org/Christian /Global-Christianity-exec. 2011). Christianity and Western Civilization (1953). 14. 229. orphanages.2006 18. In addition. Paulist Press. 3. Pewforum.newadvent. monotheism (https://web. universities. the free encyclopedia http://en.Wikipedia. p.org/cathen/10499a. ^ a b "Major Religions Ranked by Size" (http://www. Retrieved 2007-10-18.Graeco . H. Rachel (December 19.foreignpolicy.Christianity . 7. 10. 301–03.archive. Meconi."" 16.google.ntwrightpage.google. 157f.newadvent. ^ Zoll. Adherents. p.org/cathen/07218b.7 billion world population (under the section 'People') "World" (https://www. hospitals and orphanages.gov/library /publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx. "Pagan Monotheism in Late Antiquity". bishops. Wiley-Blackwell. Retrieved 2010-01-04. ^ a b 33. p.htm)"). 11. and preachers urged the Christian community to be as compassionate as their God was.about. Monotheistic Religion resources (http://ancienthistory. ISBN 978-90-5356-938-2. March 2007. amongst other sources. 20. CIA world facts. 5. 2011 (2011-12-19). Woodhead. The Early Christian World. They also accepted and developed the identification of Christ with the poor and the requisite Christian duty to the poor. ^ Religion in the Roman Empire.Page 146. has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the christian era. Shaping the Future: Nietzsche's New Regime of the Soul And Its Ascetic Practices (2004). God Against the Gods. University of New York. About. Retrieved 25 February 2012.html). and spread the gospel message in zenanas. Simatupang said.adherents. Kirsch. 111f." 17. "Global Christianity" (http://www. and churches.org. Associated Press.com.aspx).2% of 6.com/story /cms.2: That certain distinctive features of our Western civilization — the civilization of western Europe and of America— have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo .guardian. An Essay on Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects . ^ a b c ANALYSIS December 19. From the Stone Age to Christianity.com /59/5/monotheism. 9. Albright. ^ Religions in Global Society . p.com/books?id=dz_EM2ofIb4C& pg=PA132).cia. Chalice Press. Retrieved 2012-08-17. pp. Essential Judaism: A Complete Guide to Beliefs. Retrieved 2007-10-18. Peter Beyer . Retrieved 2007-10-18. "Study: Christian population shifts from Europe" (http://www.com /Wright_NDCT_Paul.html). 19. William F. then the number of the ministers should also be doubled or tripled and the tole of the laity should be maximized and Christian service to society through schools. shelters for unwed mothers-that laid the foundation for the modern "large network of hospitals.bartleby. reiterating that creation was for all of humanity. ^ Christianity's status as monotheistic is affirmed in.com/?id=WmuV6g0yR3sC&pg=PA77& dq=christianity+serve+others+hospitals+orphanages+schools#v=onepage&q&f=false). foreignpolicy. 6. The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity.
^ "The Significance of the Death and Resurrection of Jesus for the Christian" (http://dlibrary.org/ccel/barnes /ntnotes. 2:31–32. 6:14. (1991). 1 Thess. Romans 10:9. 51. 11:10. 2005. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia. he did not rise bodily from the dead. Kimbrough. Eph 1:20.shtml). 36.umc. 3:26. 5:24. ^ a b Eisenbaum. (2005). 47. Got Questions Ministries. ^ a b "Our Common Heritage as Christians" (http://archives. "Arianism". ^ Metzger/Coogan. and various Confessions drafted during the Reformation including the Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England. 33. 4:14. 17:30–31. pp. p. 38. First Meeting of the Council of Chalcedon (https://web. Dialogue Among Civilizations: Some Exemplary Voices (2004).cuf.org. St Vladimir's Seminary Press. ^ Ball/Johnsson (ed. Justice: Affirming the Resurrection Jesus Christ Today. 1 Pet.com/books?id=q-vhwjamOioC&pg=PA23&dq=anagignoskomena#v=onepage& q=anagignoskomena&f=true). St Louis. ^ A Jesus Seminar conclusion: "in the view of the Seminar. "A Remedy for Having Been Born of Woman: Jesus. 11." 48. 649. Paul (2002) The Christian Church: An Introduction to the Major Traditions. ^ a b Ron Rhodes.org/wiki/Christianity 21. Heb.html). Australian Catholic University National.xl.htm)". 10:10. 43.html). A handbook for Today's Disciples in the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) Revised Edition.acu. ^ S. ^ Christian History Institute. 44.xxii.net/DAILYF/2003/10/daily-10-08-2003. Orthodox and Wesleyan Scriptural understanding and practice (http://books. 23. Glastonbury Review (The British Orthodox Church) (113).google.Christianity . "We Believe in One God" (http://www.gospelcom. Resurrection: The Capstone in the Arch of Christianity. The United Methodist Church.org/113e.au/research /theology/Walsh. Retrieved 2007-05-16. 41.jstor. 1 Cor. MO: Chalice Press.org/cathen/02033b. 32. 13:37.org/wiki/Nicene_Creed). ^ White. Retrieved 2007-12-31. ^ John. p. "The Oriental Orthodox Rejection of Chalcedon" (https://web. 4:10. 6:39–40. The Foundations of New Testament Christology.Christian" civilization. JSTOR 3268465 (//www.2307/3268465 (http://dx. 49.pdf).php). Harvest House Publishers.com/restoration.org/faithfacts/details_view.archive. Col 2:12. London. ^ Pope Leo I. certain theological works. Entry for Matthew 22:40 (http://www. ^ Olson. Retrieved 2009-05-05. Journal of Biblical Literature 123 (4): 671–702. 50. Discipleship.newadvent. 13.org/113e. ^ Catholics United for the Faith.org/resurrection-Christimportant. 1:21 40. ^ Funk.22: Western civilization is also sometimes described as "Christian" or "Judaeo.org/cathen/05491a.org/interior. En. ^ Hanegraaff.html).britishorthodox. 22. the resurrection is based instead on visionary experiences of Peter.edu. 28 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . especially the early Creeds. T. The Mosaic of Christian Belief. Retrieved 2007-05-16. SPCK. 13:20. 29. and Genealogy in Romans" (http://www. Letter to Flavian (http://www. 24. ^ Barnes. Retrieved 7 October 2012. 3:15. 513. ^ This is drawn from a number of sources.appiusforum. ^ Cummins.asp?ffID=191) 30.newadvent.wikisource.asp?mid=1806). Archived from the original (http://www. 2 Cor. the free encyclopedia http://en.htm) 35. 39. ^ "Nicene Creed—Wikisource" (http://en. 5:30. Barnes' New Testament Notes. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia. The Complete Guide to Christian Denominations. Pamela (Winter 2004). 42. ^ "Why is the resurrection of Jesus Christ important?" (http://www. ISBN 0-8272-1425-1.wikipedia.archive. ^ Peter Theodore Farrington (February 2006). 13:34. Albert. 11:25–26. p. "Council of Ephesus (http://www.org/10. 31.htm)". works contained in the Book of Concord. ^ Acts 2:24.Wikipedia. 27. ^ Pelikan/Hotchkiss. ^ Fuller. Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition. The Essential Jesus.org/history/4ecumen2.2307%2F3268465). Oxford Companion to the Bible. 34. ^ Lorenzen. the Catechism of the Catholic Church. The History of the Church (http://www. Paul. 1:3. 15:15. ISBN 0-281-05246-8 paperback 25. ^ Avis. Duane D. doi:10.org /web/20080106201425/http://chi.wikisource. 13:30. "Athanasian Creed (http://www.). 46. Gentiles. 10:40–41. ^ Encyclopedia of Religion. ISBN 0-7369-1289-4 28.doi.gotquestions.ccel.htm).britishorthodox. 6:47.dailycatholic.org/web/20080619122112/http://www.php) on 19 June 2008. Resurrection. and 17:3 45. ^ a b Fred Reinhard Dallmayr.org/assets/pdfs/JBL1234.org/stable /3268465). Retrieved 2009-04-03. ed.sbl-site. The Acts of Jesus: What Did Jesus Really Do?.iv. and Mary. Gal 1:1. 26. 37. ISBN 978-0-88141-301-4.
Lumen Gentium 14 54. The Athanasian Creed. Karelynne Gerber. p.vatican.html).net/reformed/helvetic/c01.au.). p. ^ Pocket Dictionary of Church History Nathan P. ^ "1 Timothy 2:11-12 NIV . (2005). N.org. ^ Fowler. Retrieved 2013-03-12. Bible Gateway. ^ Ehrman. 69–78. p.org/general/cof_chapvi-x. 39. ^ Westminster Confession. Mmnet.com.A woman should learn in quietness and" (http://www.On Covering the Head in Worship . 61. 121. ^ "The Gospel of Thomas Collection . 83. Early Christian Doctrines. ^ McManners.html).T. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco page 209 77.Translations and Resources" (http://gnosis.org/naghamm/gosthom. 82. Grand Rapids.va /archive/catechism/p1s1c2a3. Archived from the original (http://www.iii. 76.biblegateway. The Trinity and the Kingdom: The Doctrine of God. 58. 84. ^ "1 corinthians 11:2-16 NIV . ISBN 978-0-8010-3138-0. 64. 21.htm). Retrieved 2013-03-12. ^ "Luke 17:20-21 NIV . 78. 57.com/passage /?search=Luke+17%3A20-21&version=NIV). ^ Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy. 81. ^ "1 corinthians 14:34-35 NIV .ii. Unitarians emerged from Protestant Christian beginnings in the sixteenth century with a central focus on the unity of God and subsequent denial of the doctrine of the Trinity" 71. Oxford Companion to the Bible.pcanet. A Defense of Calvinism (http://www. p.The Coming of the Kingdom of God" (http://www. 58.ccel. Ayayo. ^ Moltman.wikipedia.iii.org /a14. Bart D.com/passage /?search=1%20corinthians%2011:2-16&version=NIV). New Dictionary of Biblical Theology.). ^ Kelly. ^ Metzger/Coogan. ^ Oxford. from German. pg1207 63. 61. Bart D.htm) on 9 September 2010.va/archive/catechism/p1s1c2a3. ^ Theophilus of Antioch Apologia ad Autolycum II 15 65. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church. 62. 66. 68.html). ^ "Reflections on religions" (http://www.vatican. 60. online text (http://www.(§105-108) 73.com/passage /?search=1%20Timothy%202:11-12&version=NIV).archive. 56. 50. 85. Early Christian Doctrines.html) 75. "Encyclopedia Of Christianity.va/archive /catechism/p3s1c3a2. Hermeneutics: Principles and Processes of Biblical Interpretation (2nd ed. 29 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . Oxford Companion to the Bible.htm#chapx). 514f. Jurgen.mmnet. Misquoting Jesus: the story behind who changed the Bible and why. p. 59. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 1993. The Holy Spirit. Retrieved 2013-03-12. What Saint Paul Really Said: Was Paul of Tarsus the Real Founder of Christianity? (Oxford. 782. Bible Gateway. Henry A. Gnosis.com. (2007). 72.org/web/20100909213651/http://www. ed. History of Dogma (http://www. 70.org (http://www. Archived from the original (http://www. Catechism of the Catholic Church.135 "Unitarianism.org/documents/icbi.org /web/20071203120450/http://www.vatican. ^ "Inspiration and Truth of Sacred Scripture" (https://web. ^ CCC 846.htm). Retrieved 2013-03-12. ^ Wright. (2005). San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco page 183 80. World Religions: An Introduction for Students.spurgeon. ^ Virkler. 53.va/archive/catechism /p3s1c3a2. pp. ^ Kelly.archive. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. ^ McManners.org/wiki/Christianity 52. Bible Gateway. ^ Ehrman. USA: Baker Academic.htm) on 15 August 2010. ^ Harnack. ^ Alexander. 53.biblegateway.biblegateway. 79. ^ Kelly.org/web/20100815001751/http://www. ISBN 0-8006-2825-X 69. ^ Metzger/Coogan.va /archive/catechism/p1s1c2a3.vatican. p.Christianity . Spurgeon. Tr. ^ "Grace and Justification" (https://web.com/passage /?search=1%20corinthians%2014:34-35&version=NIV). p. Historical Theology.htm). 1997). 87–90. Retrieved 2013-03-12.archive. Misquoting Jesus: the story behind who changed the Bible and why. ^ McGrath.justforcatholics. ^ Second Helvetic Confession. Interpreter of Scripture § 115-118 (http://www. the free encyclopedia http://en. Catechism of the Catholic Church.au/australian_landscape_photos/writer/Reflections. pp.Women should remain silent in the" (http://www. Of the Holy Scripture Being the True Word of God (https://web. Vatican II.org/calvinis. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity.I" (http://www. Fortress Press.reformed. Bible Gateway. p. ^ See quotations from Council of Trent on Justification at Justforcatholics.htm#III.biblegateway.htm) 55.Wikipedia.htm) 74. Chapter X (http://www. Feldmeth p. ^ Tertullian De Pudicitia chapter 21 67.vatican.creeds.org/ccel/harnack/dogma1. p.
html) §LXVII 112. However. 566. Biblical hermeneutics : a treatise on the interpretation of the Old and New Testaments.htm) 95. Handbook of the Christian Year. "Particular Judgment (http://www.D.archive. Summa Theologicum. p.newadvent. ^ Terry. ^ a b c Cross/Livingstone. Vatican. 98.com. 109.com/articles/pt173. Grand Rapids. ^ Ott. John. 104. Typology: A Summary Of The Present Evangelical Discussion (http://www. ^ Elwell.creeds.3) Matthew Henry interprets the twin sons of Judah. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia. ^ a b Gill.: Zondervan Pub. ^ Ken Collins. Ch. ISBN 0-8010-3413-2. 45–61. 2002. The Shape of Sola Scriptura. 97. as an allegory of the Gentile and Jewish Christians. A. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia. What the Orthodox believe concerning prayer for the dead (http://www.about. pp.kencollins. 101. Retrieved 2010-11-19. Commentaries on the Catholic Epistles 2 Peter 3:14–18 (http://www. Of Interpreting the Holy Scriptures. July 15.org/c/calvin/comment3 /comm_vol45/htm/vii. ^ Calvin.vatican. in his commentary on Matthew 1 (http://eword. see Glenny. Watchtower. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church. when all people will be resurrected and given a chance to gain eternal life. 89.htm#III). the free encyclopedia http://en. Phares and Zara. ^ Sproul. p. this division will not occur until Armageddon.ccel.Christianity .wikipedia. (1984). Walter A. ^ a b Foutz. 92.." What is God's Purpose for the Earth?" Official Site of Jehovah's Witnesses. p. ISBN 0-8010-3413-2.earlychristianwritings.html). Walter A. 93. and only those who gain entrance into the Kingdom of God will exist eternally. "The Communion of Saints (http://www.orthodox.htm) (§III. Dei Verbum (V. and Traditions (https://web. 111. Retrieved 8 October 2011. 108.htm) questions 69 through 99 103.: Academie Books. ^ Elwell.net/luther. 565 100. In the meantime. About. What Happens to Me When I Die? (http://www.html)." 102.newadvent. ^ Mathison. 107.va/archive /catechism/p1s1c2a3.htm). 90. 1435f.org/books/institutes /books/book3/bk3ch25. ^ David Moser.shtml).org/web/20071211005549/http://www.htm) 87. ^ Second Helvetic Confession.net/comments/matthew/mh/matthew1.org/cathen/04171a.biblicalstudies. Grand Rapids. 105.htm) 94. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology.net/reformed/helvetic/c02. 113. Martin Luther and Scripture (http://www.newadvent.va /archive/catechism/p1s1c2a2. ^ Hickman.19) (http://www. (1984).org. Mich.org/summa/5. 110. For a contemporary treatment. ^ "Audience of 4 August 1999" (http://www.org.: Baker Book House.htm).htm#III) 88. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church.net/articles/aboutprayer-for-the-dead. "the dead are conscious of nothing.html). Expository hermeneutics : an introduction. Retrieved 2008-01-01. Mich. ISBN 978-0-310-34160-4.va/archive/catechism/p1s1c2a3. 30 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . "The Interpretation of the Heritage of Faith" § 85 (http://www. N. Knowing Scripture. ^ Johnson.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/audiences/1999/documents/hf_jpii_aud_04081999_en. §116 (http://www.html). 301.uk/article_typology_glenny.vatican. ^ a b Justin Martyr.vatican.com/question-45.S. ^ "The death that Adam brought into the world is spiritual as well as physical. Bahnsen.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council /documents/vat-ii_const_19651118_dei-verbum_en.vatican. ^ Thomas Aquinas.org/summa /100110. ^ e.reformed. Councils. Grand Rapids Mich. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology.vatican. Grundriß der Dogmatik. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church.reformed. 106. ^ Second Vatican Council. Supplementum Tertiae Partis (http://www.Wikipedia.quodlibet.org/cathen/08550a.htm)".com/od/neareast /f/1stchristian.g. House. "Whether in Holy Scripture a word may have several senses" (http://www. ^ John Calvin.com/text/justinmartyr-firstapology.gospelcom. ^ Thomas Aquinas. "The Holy Spirit. "Institutes of the Christian Religion. Grand Rapids Mich.htm). "Which Nation First Adopted Christianity?" (http://ancienthistory. "Armenia is considered the first nation to have adopted Christianity as the state religion in a traditional date of c. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. 1999-08-04. and of Fathers.va.html). First Apology (http://www. p.iv. 96. 91.iv. Book Three. 205 99. A Reformed Confession Regarding Hermeneutics (article 6) (http://www. Milton (1974).htm)".: Baker Book House. Elliott (1990).org/wiki/Christianity 86. www.htm#III).cmfnow. 25" (http://www.newadvent. Interpreter of Scripture" § 113 (http://www.
^ "The World Factbook: Armenia" (https://www.newadvent.bethel. S. The Story of Christianity.. "Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective (http://books. 244–47. The Story of Christianity. ISBN 978-1-933405-49-0. at every going in and out. Commodian. preface. Documents of the Christian Church. we trace upon the forehead the sign. J. pp. B. CIA. 88.edu (http://www. ^ Bowker.e. 2008. (Sussex Academic Press. states that St. 126. 13. ed. ISBN 0-7894-1439-2. Borgna (2006). 118.org/fathers2/ANF-04 /anf04-34. are incorporated into the Church and made sharers in her mission" (Catechism of the Catholic Church.backriverumc. p. & Packer.cia.pdf) "As an initiatory rite into membership of the Family of God.edu/halsall/source/theodcodeXVI. 685. & Rosner.htm). Downers Grove. p. 312. New Dictionary of Theology. ^ Brunner. 119.ccel. Retrieved 2010-11-19. ^ a b Catholic Encyclopedia.org/cathen/06083a. 132. IL: Intervarsity Press.html).Christianity . Retrieved 2009-05-05. 2008. ^ Gonzalez. Ccel. Origen. 116. World Religions: The Great Faiths Explored & Explained. chapter 3 (http://www. 129. when we light the lamps. in: Bettenson.edu/~letnie/AfricanChristianity/WesternNorthAfricaHomepage.htm)William H. pp. on seat. "Saints".google.org. chapter XXIX). The Story of Christianity. 140. likening it to objects with a crossbeam or to a man with arms outstretched in prayer (Octavius of Minucius Felix (http://www. D. 127. p. 40 141. Minucius Felix.org/basics/catechism. New Dictionary of Biblical Theology. (http://www.htm)".2 (http://www. when we put on our clothes and shoes. (http://anglicansonline.htm#P5713_906729). Retrieved 2010-11-19.htm). London: Dorling Kindersley Limited.org/wiki/Christianity 114. the author of Ecclesiastical History in the 4th century. when we bathe. ^ a b c Orlandis. ^ Gonzalez. Brackney.html)) 117." (Tertullian. p. Fathers of the Third Century: Tertullian. page 140. 139. 278–81.html). p. i. New York: Time Home Entertainment. 136. IL: Intervarsity Press. p. ^ Theodosian Code XVI. Believer's Baptism).A. ^ "At every forward step and movement. ^ Eusebius of Caesarea.com/userFiles/1257/overview_of_baptism. Time Almanac with Information Please 2007. 1213 (http://www.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/am. Part Fourth. ^ McManners.org" (http://www. in all the ordinary actions of daily life.vi. ^ Minucius Felix speaks of the cross of Jesus in its familiar form. Meinardus p28.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3G. 125. the Church. when we sit at table. ^ Madeleine Gray. "Symbolism of the Fish (http://www. 41 or 43 AD. 2003). and inheritors of the kingdom of God" (Book of Common Prayer. T. 121. 134.org/ccel/schaff /anf03. pp. S. 130. 238–42.198..wikipedia. pp. 314f. ^ Ferguson. 138. 115.html) 133. we become members of Christ. Allaboutreligion. ISBN 2-7605-1588-5 131. 37f. ^ "Through Baptism we are freed from sin and reborn as sons of God.fordham. 93–4.com/books?id=cXuCjDbxC1YC&pg=PA198&dq&hl=en#v=onepage&q=&f=false)". ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church: Part Four – Christian Prayer" (http://www.org/fathers2/ANF-04/anf04-34.iv.htm). ^ Mullin. Parts First and Second | Christian Classics Ethereal Library" (http://www. The Symbols of the Church.org/pamphlets/baptism. ^ a b Alexander.org. 260. 120. 124. 1979. 31.. 2005-06-01. on couch. Mark came to Egypt in the first or third year of the reign of Emperor Claudius.baptisthistory. (1988). ^ Luc-Normand Tellier (2009).iii. 31 of 40 1/4/2014 6:56 PM . Va. p. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. p. 137. "Prayer". "Two Thousand years of Coptic Christianity" Otto F.ccel. ^ Bethel. Episcopal ). 305. B. A Short History of the Catholic Church (1993). The Protestant Reformation. ^ Gonzalez. The Universities of Europe. ^ Mullin. 123.ccel. p.allaboutreligion. ^ a b Dilasser.org/history-of-christianity-in-africa-faq.HTM). ^ "ANF04. ^ "Allaboutreligion. Downers Grove. the free encyclopedia http://en. 135. John (1997).Wikipedia. (2001). ^ a b c d Gonzalez. De Corona. baptismal candidates are symbolically purified or washed as their sins have been forgiven and washed away" ( (http://www. 1100–1914.va/archive/catechism/p4s1. 122. PUQ. ^ Gonzalez. "Holy Baptism is the sacrament by which God adopts us as his children and makes us members of Christ's Body. The Story of Christianity.i.vatican.html#Holy) "Baptism is the sacrament of initiation and incorporation into the body of Christ" (An United Methodist Understanding of Baptism). The Story of Christianity. Retrieved 8 October 2011. 128. ^ Rudy.
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