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OF BEEF BALLS
GROUP : GROUP 6 GROUP MEMBERS : TEY CHEE SENG SITI FARHIAH BINTI ABDUL MANAN FARHANA YUSOF NUR BAITI SOFYUDDIN AMINAH LET FARHAH IZZATI SHUKOR YONG XIANGPEI SEE HUI YONG
137999 136430 136499 136786 137176 137259 138713 138835
PROGRAM : BACHELOR OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY LAB : MAKMAL PEMPROSESAN & MAKMAL BIOKIMIA DATE : 27TH OGOS 2008 LECTURER: PROFESSOR MADYA DR. AZIS ARIFFIN
Introduction: A meatball is generally a mass of grounded meat and other ingredients, such as bread or breadcrumbs, minced onion, various spices, and possibly eggs, cooked by frying, baking, steaming, or braising in sauce. There are many kinds of meatball make using different kinds of meats and spices. How one makes meatballs depends as much on one's cultural background as on individual taste. There are even "meatless" meatballs to satisfy vegetarian palates (Hsu and Yu, 1999). Meatballs are normally made by grinding muscle tissues, fat, salt and other ingredients with a cutter, meat pounder or stone grinder. Therefore, it is an emulsified meat product (Hsu and Yu, 1999). The technical basis for the production of the beef ball is perhaps very similar to the fish ball whereby the texture of the product is contributed by the formation of a stable network between proteins and starch molecules. The solubilization of the protein occurs in the presence of sodium chloride (Lab Manual 2008). Meatball is a very popular meat product. However, it is becoming a health concern for consumers because of its high lipid content which is greater than 30% of its total weight. Therefore, Hsu an Yu done a series of studies in developing low-fat meatball. Water was used to replace some fat ingredient in the study and phosphates were adopted to improve qualities of the low-fat products (Hsu and Yu, 1999). This experiment was designed to let students understand the processing of beef ball and to discover the effects of added starch on the characteristics of the beef balls. Experiment 1: Experiment 1a: Meat Grinder Silent Bowl Cutter Forming Machine (optional) Utensils for washing (e.g basin and sieves) PH meter Moisture meter Balance The Processing of Beef ball The Effect of Added Starch on the Characteristic of the Beef ball
Equipments and Utensils:
Ingredients and Chemical: Beef Salt Sugar Corn starch Tripolyphosphate Garlic Black pepper Ice Procedure All the ingredients were weighed accurately The meat was cut into cube by using meat cutter The beef was washed and the meat was grind by using meat grinder Salt was added and mixed for 10 to 15 minute Corn starch, polyphosphate, ice and the rest of ingredients were gradually added to the mixture The ingredient was mixed for another 10 minute The mixture was shaped into balls by using forming machine and the product was frozen. Analysis The sensory evaluation (texture, flavor, overall acceptability), determination of moisture content and the pH of the fresh meat and the beef balls. At the same time, the yield of beef balls also determined. 1.0kg 20g 5g 100g (optional- only for experiment 1a) 25g 2.5g 2.5g 50g
Results and Analysis: Table 1: The yield of beef balls, pH, moisture content, and sensory evaluation of fresh meat and beef balls with different formulations. Control (Group 1, 2, and 3) Fresh meat Beef balls – 86.31% 6.47 6.68 38.70% 54.60% Added Corn Starch (Group 4, 5, and 6) Fresh meat Beef balls – 95.16% 5.39 6.64 50.20% 57.90%
Yield of beef balls pH Moisture content Sensory Evaluation: Texture score Flavour score Overall acceptability Key: For texture score:
– – –
3 2 3
– – –
2 2 2
1 – very springy, 2 – springy, 3 – neither springy or soft, 4 – slight soft, 5 – very soft For flavour and overall acceptability score: 1 – very acceptable, 2 – acceptable, 3 – least acceptable
PERCENTAGE OF YIELD OF BEEF BALLS WITH DIFFERENT FORMULATIONS
96.00% 94.00% 92.00% 90.00% 88.00% 86.00% 84.00% 82.00% 80.00% Control Formulation Added Corn starch
Percentage of Yield
Yield of Beef Balls
Graph 1: The percentage of yield of beef balls with different formulations. The percentage of yield of the beef balls with added corn starch gave higher value than that of control beef balls. This may due to the degree of wastage during the processing of the beef balls.
pH OF FRESH MEAT AND BEEF BALLS WITH DIFFERENT FORMULATIONS
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Control Formulation Added Corn starch
Fresh Meat Beef Balls
Graph 2: The pH of fresh meat and beef balls with different formulations. The pH of beef balls of different formulations showed very similar pH value to each other. The pH of fresh meat and beef balls with added corn starch showed higher difference than those of control. This may due to the corn starch that present in the ingredients.
MOISTURE CONTENT OF FRESH MEAT AND BEEF BALLS WITH DIFFERENT FORMULATIONS
70.00% Moisture Content 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Control Formulation Added Corn starch Fresh Meat Beef Balls
Graph 3: The moisture content of fresh meat and beef balls with different formulations. The moisture content of both fresh meat and beef balls with added corn starch showed higher values than those of control respectively. This may due to the water holding capacity of the fresh meat and beef balls.
THE SENSORY SCORES FOR BEEF BALLS WITH DIFFERENT FORMULATIONS
3.5 3 2.5 Scores 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Texture Flavour Overall Acceptability Control Added Corn Starch
Graph 4: The sensory scores on texture, flavour, and overall acceptability of the beef balls with different formulations. The scores for texture and overall acceptability of control beef balls are higher than that of beef balls with added corn starch. This may due to the ingredients added.
Discussions: This experiment was conducted to observe and understand the processing for the production of beef balls and the effects of the addition of corn starch to the beef balls productions. In this experiment, red meat (e.g., beef meat) was used to produce beef balls. During the experiment, we were given two attributes to be observed, one with mixture added with corn starch and the other one is the control mixture which is not added with any corn starch. Thus, several details or properties that we observed to the beef ball mixture such as the yield of the beef balls, the pH, the moisture content and the sensory evaluation of the beef balls produced. Based on the result obtained from the experiment, it could be observed that the percentage of yield for beef balls was higher for added corn starch in the mixture of beef balls which was 95.16% of yield compared to the control meat balls which was not added with any corn starch and produced 86.13% percentage of yield. The differences of percentage of yield between both mixtures was due to the properties of corn starch which capable of expanding the yield of the mixture. Next properties that we observed to the beef balls production is the pH value for both beef balls products. Both control and added corn starch beef balls showed not much significant difference of their pH value. This might be due to corn starch that did not give any effect on the pH value on the beef balls products and hence the pH value showed not much difference. Our next analysis that we observed was the moisture content for both beef products. The moisture content analysis was carried out using oven method and the analysis was done to both samples. It was shown that the moisture content of beef balls added with corn starch was 57.90% which is higher than beef balls without any addition of corn starch was 54.60%. The moisture content of the beef balls with corn starch added was high due to the properties of the corn starch itself which capable of retaining the moisture in the mixture. Hence it gave high moisture content reading due to the moisture retained in the mixture. To produce beef balls of good quality, sugars and salts should not be omitted from the formulations. This is because both sugars and salts have their own functional properties and characteristics, which can improve the quality of manufactured beef balls. While processing beef balls, salts must be added in them as salts function as the improver of the proteins in the beef balls. Salts, such as sodium chloride can enhance the role of
proteins by adhering restructured meat pieces to give a good binding. Water retention in beef balls is also important because good water retention can make the beef balls juicier and tenderer. Hence, with the addition of salts, salts can help to retain water molecules in the beef balls. Other than that, salts can also reduce cooking loss and this is an advantage of adding salts as the beef balls processed in this laboratory will be boiled at later stage. When salts are added to beef balls, myosin depolymerizes and actomyosin dissociates to allow the expansion of myofibrillar lattice. With this expansion, more water can be retained and weight loss of cooking can also be reduced. Other than that, the depolymerization of myosin and dissociation of actomyosin can cause adhesion on cooking. The constituent meat pieces can be bound together with the assistance of solubilized proteins as these solubilized proteins can gell with the presence of salts. Sugar should not be omitted from the formulation because sugars can prevent the granules from clumping together and also omit the formation of lumps. As a result, sugars must be added in the beef balls to allow the occurrence of individual swelling. Individual swelling is important because sugar can physically separate the starch granules and acts as separating agent. In addition, sugar can also contribute to the sweet taste especially when a higher amount of sugars are added. Apart from giving sweet taste when a considerable amount is added, sugars also do not degrade the structure of the meat and improves the organoleptic properties, especially the taste. Starch is popular for its versatile use in foods. Starch has gelling properties and it is able to thicken the food and bind water to which it is added in. In this experiment, cornstarch was used. Cornstarch is the starch made from endosperm of corn, which is comprised of amylose and amylopectin. With the presence of heat in water, a viscous, opaque paste is formed. It has the functions as mentioned above. It gells in the food to which it is added and acts as a thickener. In beef balls, cornstarch can act as fat replacer too. Starch in beef balls can give mouthfeel attributes when they are consumed. This is because the amylose chains in starch can form helical or spherical shapes, which hold water molecules and thus provide bulk. Apart from that, the mouthfeel and viscosity impacted by cornstarch can also take place when the cornstarch is hydrolysed. Hence, the maltodextrin formed as a result of hydrolysis of starch can contribute to the use of lower fat content in some foods as well as to obtain the effect of mouthfeel exerted by fats and oils. Apart from that, cornstarch can also act as flavor carrier, which enhance the flavor of beef balls and thus increases its palatability.
Tripolyphosphate is a widely used preservative in seafood, meats and poultry. The addition of tripopyphoaphate in the beef balls of this laboratory had increased the amount of water they could retain. This was shown by the moisture content of control fresh meat and beef balls and also fresh meat and beef balls added with cornstarch. Both the control and cornstarch added beef balls had higher moisture content than the control and cornstarch added fresh meat. A difference of 15.9% moisture content and 7.7% moisture content was found between both fresh meat and beef balls. Thus, from the comparison of moisture content above, tripolyphosphate has an effect in retaining moisture content in beef balls. It increases the water-holding capacity of meats. This hydration of water in meat can be influenced by pH changes, ionic strength effect and specific phosphate anions interaction with divalent cations and myofibrillar proteins. Apart from acting as a moisture control agent, tripolyohosphate can also form a stable emulsion, where in this experiment, after cooking the beef balls, tripolyphosphate can also contribute to the cohesive network of coagulated proteins. Other than that, tripolyphosphate can also increase the palatability of the beef balls in terms of color, flavor and tenderness. Finally, the sensory evaluation was done to the beef balls to identify consumer’s preference and this evaluation is important in evaluating the characteristics of the products. Generally for beef balls characteristic evaluation, beef balls should have good appearance, firm texture and good taste which may be much preferable by the consumer. As for this sensory evaluation, we carried out the evaluation among all the group members and the evaluation was based on the texture, the flavor and the overall acceptability of the beef balls. Based on the results of the sensory evaluation, most of our group member preferred the texture of the control beef balls which was not added with corn starch mainly because the texture of beef balls with addition of corn starch was slightly soft and the texture was not preferable. For flavor of the meat balls for both attribute, our group members like both of the products because both of the product taste were quite the same. As for the last evaluation was the overall acceptability of the beef balls and the results showed that our group prefer control beef balls compared to beef balls with added corn starch.
1. Different addition of ingredients namely corn starch and tripolyphosphate (TPP)
into the beef ball mixture will result in different texture characteristic of the beef ball. It can contribute to higher viscosity in beef balls and thus increase the mouthfeel of beef balls. 2. Beef balls added with cornstarch give higher yield. 3. Tripolyphosphate and salts have the function in beef balls processing, where they act to retain moisture in the beef balls and contribute to the better texture in beef balls. 4. pH of meat and beef ball are almost the same. 5. The sensory evaluation is important in evaluating the characteristic of the product. Conclusion In conclusion, the quality of processed beef balls can be enhanced by adding different type of ingredients for each of their special functional properties. The beef balls with added cornstarch gained preference from most consumers as these beef balls had higher moisture content which might contribute to the juiciness of the beef balls. In addition, cornstarch added beef balls also had higher quality in terms of texture and flavor. It has more viscous texture and most acceptable flavor. References 1. Hsu, S.Y. and Yu, S.H. (1999). Effects of phosphate, water, fat and salt on qualities of low-fat emulsified meatball, Journal of Food Engineering 39, (pg 123-130)
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