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Anwendersoftware (AS)

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Anwendersoftware (AS)
Anwendersoftware (AS) aa Anwendungssoftware ss Introduction to Database and Information Systems Lectures: Daniela
aa Anwendungssoftware ss
aa
Anwendungssoftware ss

Introduction to Database and Information Systems

Lectures: Daniela Nicklas nicklas@informatik.uni-stuttgart.de Room: 2.365 Phone: +49 711 7816 217

Exercises: Nazario Cipriani cipriani@informatik.uni-stuttgart.de Room: 2.356 Phone: +49 711 7816 347

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Anwendersoftware (AS)

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Anwendersoftware (AS)
Room: 2.356 Phone: +49 711 7816 347 1 Anwendersoftware (AS) IPVS, University of Stuttgart nicklas@ipvs.uni-stuttgart.de

IPVS, University of Stuttgart nicklas@ipvs.uni-stuttgart.de nicklas@ipvs.uni-stuttgart.de

Chapter 0: Why Database Management?

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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

HTML

ERM

Goals

Document Object Model

 
 

Rational Rose

XML

UML

Modelling of Data and processes
Modelling of
Data and processes
 

Visual Basic

STEP/EXPRESS

Business Objects

BPEL

Information Systems Workflow Management DCOM
Information Systems
Workflow Management
DCOM

iWebDB

OpenDoc

ORBIX

CORBA

OLE

ActiveX

Visual Studio

Enterprise

JavaBeans

Gateways

Tuxedo

Sybase

Adabas

Visual Age

R3

Component Ware
Component Ware

.Net

Universal Storage SQL3
Universal Storage
SQL3

Oracle VB

Informix

Dynamic Server

OMG

Transaction Processing TP Monitors
Transaction
Processing
TP Monitors

Encina

CICS

JDBC

IBM

DataJoiner

Middleware Standards
Middleware
Standards

OBDC

Xopen/DCF

Universal Access
Universal Access

Java

SQLJ

 
 
DB2 V8 Object-Relational Database Technology
DB2 V8
Object-Relational
Database Technology

DataLinks

 

Information Integrator

 

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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Goals

 

Knowledge and skills in:

 
 

Usages of information models and data models, esp.

 

- Entity/Relationship-Model and extensions

 

- Relational Model and SQL

 

- Network model and Hierarchical Model

 

Modeling of real worlds scenarios (universes of discourse) Development of database applications Design, management and administration of databases

 

Become an expert in data management!

 
 

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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)
Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS) Goals • Requirements for Tasks: Development of database-based applications Usages

Goals

Requirements for Tasks:

Development of database-based applications

Usages of interactive database languages

Responsibility for various tasks in database administration, esp.

- database archiving

- database (re-) organization

- database application management

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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS) What is a Database Management System? • Manages very large amounts of
Motivation
Anwendersoftware (AS)
What is a Database Management System?
• Manages very large amounts of data
• Supports efficient access to very large amounts of data
• Supports concurrent access to very large amounts of data
Example: bank and its ATM machines
• Supports secure atomic access to very large amounts of data
Contrast two people editing the same UNIX file - last to write
"wins" - with the problem if two people deduct money from the
same account via ATM machines at the same time - new
balance is wrong whichever writes last.
new amount :=
new amount :=
amount-$250
amount-$100
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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)
Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS) Three Aspects to Studying DBMS´s • Modeling and Design of Databases Allows

Three Aspects to Studying DBMS´s

Modeling and Design of Databases

Allows exploration of issues before committing to an implementation

Programming: queries and DB operations like update

SQL = "intergalactic dataspeak"

DBMS Implementation

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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS) Data Models • Several different data models have been proposed since the
Motivation
Anwendersoftware (AS)
Data Models
Several different data models have been proposed since the
first commercial DBMSs appeared in the late 1960's. First
systems were directly based on the file system.
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
hierarchical model
network model (CODASYL)
relational model (RDBMS)
object-oriented models (OODBMS)
object-relational model (ORDBMS)
flat files
40%
30%
since ~2000:
RDBMS/ORDBMS
20%
semistructured data
and XML
OODBMS
10%
CODASYL
Hierarchical DBMS
0%
Flat Files
1990
1995
2000
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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Data Structures? (1)

Well-known Data Structures:

 
 

Array, sequence Tuple, record List Graph Tree

mostly transient data:

 
 

maintained in main memory does only survive a single program execution

   

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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Data Structures? (2)

New Aspect: usage of external memory (secondary memory, non-volatile memory)

Persistence:

Data survives end of program, end of session, operating system uptime, New kind of access: Read operations and Write operations based on units of data blocks or units of tuples

data structures and algorithms (search and sort) that are efficient for main memory do not necessarily show efficiency for secondary memory

 
 

Value-based access (associative access) to large data sets Voluminous attribute values (e. g. pictures, documents)

 
   

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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)
Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS) Data Models? (1) • Constructors to generate data structures and associated

Data Models? (1)

Constructors

to generate data structures and associated operations. For example, Tables (sets of equally structured records or tuples)

CREATE TABLE STUDENT (MATRIKELNUMBER INTEGER, LASTNAME VARCHAR(40), FIRSTNAME VARCHAR(40), BIRTHDATE CHAR(8), )

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• • • Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS) Data Models? (2) e.g.: students enrole in a course

• • • Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS) Data Models? (2) e.g.: students enrole in a course that

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Data Models? (2)

e.g.: students enrole in a course that is given by a lecturer

student

enrol
enrol
 
give
give

lecturer

 

course

 

Notion of Model

Given set of language features to describe an universe of discourse programming languages and operating systems have a data model as well

Important Role of Relationships Some data models have special relationships between tuples (records): hierarchies, aggregations,

of Relationships Some data models have special relationships between tuples (records): hierarchies, aggregations, 12
of Relationships Some data models have special relationships between tuples (records): hierarchies, aggregations, 12

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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)
Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS) Databases? (1) • Efficient Management of Huge Amounts of Data • Data

Databases? (1)

Efficient Management of Huge Amounts of Data

Data Independence (of the applications)

Data usage without any knowledge of the technical aspects and implementation (abstract data model table) Ease of use and powerful operations

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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)
powerful operations 13 Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS) Databases? (2) • Openness to New Applications Symmetric

Databases? (2)

Openness to New Applications

Symmetric structuring

Explicit constraints Single and neutral representation System enforced integrity

Transactions (ACID property)

Atomicity Consistency Isolated execution Durability

customer management transfers ATM ? bank data
customer
management
transfers
ATM
?
bank
data

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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Databases? (3)

Fault Tolerance

 
 

Logging of redundant data during normal operations Automatic repair (recovery) of data structures after program failure, system failure, or media failure

 

- Undo of not finished transactions

- Redo of the effect of completed (committed) transactions

 

Multi User Operation

 
 

Simultaneous (concurrent) access of different users to the same data Synchronization

   

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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)
    15 Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS) How many information is there 1 ? (1) • Several

How many information is there 1 ? (1)

Several thousand PBytes² suffice to store all relevant information in the world

There will be enough disk and tape capacity to store everything written, said, done, and photographed by humankind

This is already true today for written information In some years this will be true for the remaining amount of information

Computers store and manage information more effective than humans

1 http:// www.lesk.com/mlesk/ksg97/ksg.html 2 1 Gigabyte (GByte) = 1,000 Megabytes = 109 Bytes

1 Terabyte (TByte) = 1,000 Gigabytes

1 Petabyte (PByte) = 1,000 Terabytes

1 Exabyte (EByte) = 1,000 Petabytes

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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)
Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS) How many information is there? (2) • Consequences for the Future In a

How many information is there? (2)

Consequences for the Future

In a few years one will be able to retain all information indefinitely, i. e. no information needs to be discarded Computers will do searching, storage, and processing automatically, without human intervention Today, digital libraries focus on input: scanning, compression, and OCR technology Tomorrow, the focus will shift to retrieval: selection, search, and quality assessment.

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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)
quality assessment. 17 Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS) Lecture Overview • URI:

Lecture Overview

URI:

http://www.ipvs.uni-stuttgart.de/abteilungen/as/start/en Courses Database and Information Systems

Contents:

Chap. 1: Introduction Chap. 2: Realization of Information Systems Chap. 3: Information Models and Data Models (Exercise E.1) Chap. 4: Relational Model Chap. 5: Relational Algebra (Exercise E.2) Chap. 6: SQL (Exercise E.3, E.4) Chap. 7: SQL Programming Chap. 8: Logical Database design (Exercise E.5)

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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS) Course chapters Mapped to Book Chapter Chapter in Script [1] Date (7th
Motivation
Anwendersoftware (AS)
Course chapters Mapped to Book Chapter
Chapter in Script
[1] Date
(7th Ed, 2000)
[2] Korth &
Silberschatz
Chap 1: Introduction
Chap 1
Chap 1
Chap 2: Realization of Information Systems
Chap 2
Chap 1
Chap 3: Information and Data Models
Chap 13
Chap 2
Chap 4: Relational Model
Chap 5: Relational Algebra
Chap 6: SQL
Part II
Chap 3
Chap 3
Chap 4, 6, and 15
Chap 7: SQL Programming
Part III
Chap 7
Chap 8: Logical Database Design
Part IV
Chap 4 to 6
Recent chapters are on web page
[1] C. J. Date: An introduction to database systems, 2000
[2] Abraham Silberschatz, Henry F. Korth: Database system concepts, 2002
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Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS)
concepts, 2002 19 Motivation Anwendersoftware (AS) Exercises (Nazario Cipriani / Daniela Nicklas) • Work can

Exercises

(Nazario Cipriani / Daniela Nicklas)

(AS) Exercises (Nazario Cipriani / Daniela Nicklas) • Work can be done in groups of 1-3

Work can be done in groups of 1-3 students

Grading of exercises:

you explain your solution and get bonuses for the final exam

Tutoring:

We are present in the seminar room or computer lab You can work there and ask questions

Tutoring/Gradings:

16.5.2007

13.6.2007

20.6.2007

27.6.2007

4.7.2007

18.7.2007

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Anwendersoftware (AS)

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Anwendersoftware (AS)
Anwendersoftware (AS) aa Anwendungssoftware ss Chapter 1: Introduction Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
aa Anwendungssoftware ss
aa
Anwendungssoftware ss

Chapter 1: Introduction

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
1: Introduction Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Introduction to Database and Information Systems • The

Introduction to Database and Information Systems

The Concept of Information Systems Computer-based Information System (CIS) Universe of Discourse Requirements for Business Information Systems

Database System (DBS) Properties Example: Relational Model

Classes of Database Applications Information Pyramid Transaction Processing Web-based Application Architecture Data Warehousing

Classes of Databases Non-Standard-DBS Object-oriented DBS and Object-relational DBS Information Retrieval Systems

2

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Computer-based information systems Database systems (DBS): key component for CIS
Introduction
Anwendersoftware (AS)
Computer-based information systems
Database systems (DBS): key component for CIS
application
database
system
CIS
operating
system
hardware
DBS = DB + DBMS
A database is a collection of stored data that are used by
applications.
3
Introduction
Anwendersoftware (AS)
Database Management Systems
as Part of a CIS
• DBMS: A tool for creating and managing large amounts of
data efficiently and allowing it to persist over long periods of
time, safely. (Garcia-Molina et. al., 2002)
• Databases today are essential to every
business, in order to:
present data to customers
present data on the World-Wide-Web
support commercial processes
DBMS
• Some important capabilities:
Persistent storage for large amounts of data
Programming interface for users
and applications
Transaction management
Database
DBS
4
Introduction   Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

 

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction   Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Modeling and Design of Databases (1 of 2)

 
 

R

activity

R' R:

Universe of discourse (miniworld)

 

modeling

 

A

modeling

I I :

I I:

Information model of the miniworld

 

realization

query

M:

Database model of the miniworld (schema) Mapping of all relevant objects and relationships abstraction step

 

M

transaction

M'

 

A:

Transaction:

 
 

Models the activity (business

process) of R within M. Guarantees an atomic transition from M to M’ implemented via a sequence of DB operations Database queries refer to M or M’.

 

Integrity Constraints:

 

Assertion of best possible match between R and M. Ideally the database is a perfect representation of the

 

miniworld.

 

5

representation of the   miniworld.   5 Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Modeling and Design of
representation of the   miniworld.   5 Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Modeling and Design of
representation of the   miniworld.   5 Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Modeling and Design of

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

miniworld.   5 Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Modeling and Design of Databases (2 of 2) • A

Modeling and Design of Databases (2 of 2)

A

R

change of information need

modeling

I

incremental change

realization

M

schema evolution

Schema Evolution:

R'

I'
I'

query

M'

R:

I:

M:

A:

Universe of discourse (miniworld)

Information model of the miniworld Database model of the miniworld (schema) Mapping of all relevant objects and relationships abstraction step

Change or new definition of types and rules. Not every change from M to M' can be automated by the DBMS itself stored data (objects and relationships) have to obey valid types and rules

can be automated by the DBMS itself stored data (objects and relation ships) have to obey

6

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Issues in Business Information Systems (1) • Requirements on a business

Issues in Business Information Systems (1)

Requirements on a business information system can be distinguished according to the following three levels:

Operational level (clerks) Middle management level (middle management) Strategic level (board of directors)

Operational Level:

Enhancement of processes by usage of query systems, report systems, reservation systems, production systems and all their applications (enterprise resource planning, ERP)

Characteristics:

huge amounts of data high update probability

7

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Issues in Business Information Systems (2)

 

Middle Management Level:

 

Support of and partial automations of business processes:

 

Interactive data analysis Automation of routine decisions Use of mathematical and statistical methods Characteristics:

- partially unpredictable information need

- aggregated data

- no updates

Strategic Level:

 

Data provision for mostly unpredictable information needs

 
   

8

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Examples for Information Systems (1)

 

Airline Reservations Systems

 

Data items:

 

1. Reservations by a single customer on a single flight, including such information as assigned seat or meal preference.

 

2. Information about flights - the airports they fly from and to, their departure and arrival times, or the aircraft flown, for example.

3. Information about ticket prices, requirements, and availability.

Typical queries ask for flights leaving about a certain time from one given city to another, what seats are available, and at what prices.

Typical data modifications include the booking of a flight for a customer, assigning

 

a

seat, or indicating a meal preference.

Many agents will be accessing parts of the data at any given time.

 

The DBMS must allow such concurrent accesses, prevent problems such as two agents assigning the same seat simultaneously, and protect against loss of records

 

if

the system suddenly fails.

   

9

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Examples for Information Systems (2)

 

Corporate Records

Many early applications concerned corporate records, such as record of each sale, information about accounts payable and receivable, or information about employees ---their names, addresses, salary, benefit options, tax status, and so on.

 

Queries include the printing of reports such as accounts receivable or employees’ weekly paychecks. Each sale, purchase, bill, receipt, employee hired fired, or promoted, and so on, results in a modification to the database.

   

10

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Examples for Inform ation Systems (3) • Data items: Banking Systems • Typical

Examples for Information Systems (3)

Data items:

Banking Systems

Typical queries:

Typical data modifications:

Access requirements:

11

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
requirements: 11 Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Examples for Inform ation Systems (3) Banking Systems Data

Examples for Information Systems (3)

Banking Systems

Data items include names and addresses of customers, accounts, loans, and their balances, and the connection between customers and their accounts and loans e.g., who has signature authority over which accounts. Queries for account balances are common, but far more common are modifications representing a single payment from or deposit to an account.

As with the airline reservation system, we expect that many tellers and customers (through ATM machines) will be querying and modifying the bank’s data at once. It is vital that simultaneous accesses to an account not cause the effect of an ATM transaction to be lost. Failures cannot be tolerated. For example, once the money has been ejected from an ATM machine, the bank must record the debit, even if the power immediately fails. On the other hand it is not permissible for the bank to record the debit and then not deliver the money because the power fails. The proper way to handle this operation is far from obvious and can be regarded as one of the significant achievements of DBMS technology.

12

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Examples for Information Systems (4)

 

What's the fundamental difference between the CIS of a car manufacturer and a bank?

The role of CIS in banking systems:

 
 

“In banking, by contrast, the data actually is the inventory - the two are synonymous. In increasingly many cases, the DB transaction is the financial transaction. There are no real, tangible tokens (greenbacks) moved as a result of the monetary transfer transaction. If the data is bad, money is lost or created. There is no possibility of counting the money (bits) in order to verify the status. Fiscal responsibility dictates that creating or destroying money - even temporarily - is unacceptable.”

(Mike Burman, Bank of America)

   

13

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Introduction to Database and Information Systems

 

The Concept of Information Systems Computer-based Information System (CIS) Universe of Discourse Requirements for Business Information Systems

 

Database System (DBS) Properties Example: Relational Model

Classes of Database Applications Information Pyramid Transaction Processing Web-based Application Architecture Data Warehousing

Classes of Databases Non-Standard-DBS Object-oriented DBS and Object-relational DBS Information Retrieval Systems

   

14

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Database Systems – First Characterization

 

General Tasks of a DBS

 
 

Management of persistent data Efficient access to large amounts of data (GBytes - TBytes) Flexible multi-user Join of objects of different types ( type-spanning operations)

 

Classical Data Models

 
 

relational model

network model hierarchical model

   

15

• Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Database Systems – First Characterization (cont.) Data Structures S c h

• Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Database Systems – First Characterization (cont.) Data Structures S c h

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Database Systems – First Characterization (cont.)

Data Structures

Schema

EMPLOYEE

Record type

(Table, Relation)

Instance(State)

ENR NAME FUNCTION SALARY AGE 496 PEINL Manager 2100 63 497 KINZINGER Administrator 2800 25
ENR
NAME
FUNCTION
SALARY
AGE
496
PEINL
Manager
2100
63
497
KINZINGER
Administrator
2800
25
498
MEYWEG
Resercher
4500
56

Formatted data structures, fixed record structure Record type, attributes and attribute values (S i /A j /AV k ) describe objects The description information (metadata) A j and S i determine the meaning of each attribute value AV k .

The description information (metadata) A j and S i determine the meaning of each attribute value
The description information (metadata) A j and S i determine the meaning of each attribute value

16

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Database Systems (2) • Data Model / DBS Interface Operations to define object

Database Systems (2)

Data Model / DBS Interface Operations to define object types (description of objects) DB schema: which objects should be stored in the DB?

Operations to find and update data Application interface: how to create, update and select DB objects.

Definition of integrity constraints ensuring of quality: which DB states are acceptable?

Definition of data control (e.g., access rights) which user is allowed to invoke which operation on which object with which parameters?

17

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Database Systems (cont.)

 

The Nature of DB Languages Depends on the data model Formal language Navigation-based or descriptive Tuple- or set-oriented Selection power: minimum Predicate Logic (1st order)

Search Methods Character or value comparison:

 
 

(FUNCTION = ‘ADMINISTRATOR’) AND (AGE > 60)

 

Exact match query:

find/select exactly all records with the specified property

 

Search for synonyms, fuzzy search,

no support

Natural language support, recognition of ambiguities no support in formatted DBS (see Information Retrieval Systems)

 
   

18

Introduction   Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

 

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction   Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Example

 
 

Schema

Faculty

 

FNBR

   

FNAME

 

DEAN

 
 

Student

 

MATRNR

   

SNAME

 

FNBR

BEGIN

   

Examination

 

PNR

   

MATRNR

 

SUBJECT

DATE

 

MARK

 

Professor

 

PNR

   

NAME

FNBR

 
 

Instance

FACULTY

FNBR

 

FNAME

DEAN

   

(state)

 

F

9

 

BUSINESS ADMIN.

 

4711

 
   

F

5

 

COMPUTER SCIENCE

 

2223

 
 

STUDENT

MATNR

 

SNAME

FNBR

BEGIN

 
 

123766

 

COY

 

F

9

1.10.95

 

225332

 

MILLER

F

5

15.

4.87

 

654711

 

TAYLOR

F

5

15.10.94

 

226302

       
 

CANETTI

F

9

 

1.10.95

 

SUBJECT

 

DATE

 

SCORE

 
 

196481

 

EXAMINATION

 

PNR

 

MATNR

 

BERNSTEIN

F

5

 

23.10.95

 

DS

 

22.10.98

4

 
 

130680

       

5678

 

123766

 

SMITH

 

F

9

1.

4.97

 

OS

 

16.

1.98

3

 
   

4711

123766

 

1234

654711

 

DB

17.

4.97

2

 

1234

123766

 

DB

17.

4.97

4

 

6780

654711

 

DS

19.

9.97

1

 

6780

 

196481

 

OS

 

23.12.97

3

 
 
 

19

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Schema FACULTY STUDENT EXAMINATION Example 1995. PROFESSOR PNR NAME
Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Schema FACULTY STUDENT EXAMINATION Example 1995. PROFESSOR PNR NAME

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Schema

FACULTY

STUDENT

EXAMINATION

Example Schema FACULTY STUDENT EXAMINATION 1995. PROFESSOR PNR NAME FBNR Instance (state) FACULTY FNBR FNAME DEAN

1995.

PROFESSOR

PNR NAME FBNR
PNR
NAME
FBNR

Instance (state)

FACULTY

FNBR

FNAME

DEAN

 

F

9

BUSINESS ADMIN.

4711

 

F

5

COMPUTER SCIENCE

2223

 

STUDENT

MATNR

 

SNAME

FNBR

   

BEGIN

 
 

123

766

COY

F

9

   

1.10.95

 

225

332

MILLER

F

5

   

15.

4.87

 

654

711

TAYLOR

F

5

   

15.10.94

 

226

302

CANETTI

F

9

   

1.10.95

 

196

481

BERNSTEIN

F

5

   

23.10.95

 

130

680

SMITH

F

9

   

1.

4.97

EXAMINATION

PNR

MATNR

SUBJECT

DATE

   

SCORE

 

5678

123

766

DS

22.10.98

 

4

 

4711

123

766

OS

16.

1.98

   

3

 

1234

654711

 

DB

17.

4.97

   

2

 

1234

123766

 

DB

17.

4.97

   

4

 

6780

654

711

DS

19.

9.97

   

1

 

6780

196

481

OS

23.12.97

   

3

and passed the examination in database and information systems with 2 or better

SELECT * FROM STUDENT

WHERE FNBR = ’F5’ AND MATNR IN

Q1: Find all students, who belong to F5 and had started studying before

students, who belong to F5 and had started studying before SELECT * FROM STUDENT WHERE FNBR=’F5’

SELECT * FROM STUDENT WHERE FNBR=’F5’ AND BEGIN<’1.1.95’

Q2: Find all students, who belong to F5

SELECT * FROM STUDENT WHERE FNBR=’F5’ AND BEGIN<’1.1.95’ Q2: Find all students, who belong to F5

20

MATRNR

SNAME

FNBR

BEGIN

PNR

MATNR

SUBJECT

DATUM

MARK

(SELECT MATNR

FROM EXAMINATION

WHERE SUBJECT=’DB’

AND SCORE <= ’2’)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Introduction to Database and Information Systems

 

The Concept of Information Systems Computer-based Information System (CIS) Universe of Discourse Requirements for Business Information Systems

 

Database System (DBS) Properties Example: Relational Model

Classes of Database Applications Information Pyramid Transaction Processing Web-based Application Architecture Data Warehousing

Classes of Databases Non-Standard-DBS Object-oriented DBS and Object-relational DBS Information Retrieval Systems

   

21

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
    21 Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Classes of Database Applications: Terminology • OLTP

Classes of Database Applications: Terminology

OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing)

DW (Data Warehouse)

OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing):

Analysis of business data ROLAP (Relational OLAP) MOLAP (Multi-dimensional OLAP)

DSS (Decision Support System)

Data Mining: Search for data patterns inherent to voluminous databases

“In Data Mining applications, not only does the system define the semantics, it actually defines the queries. The user simply says ‘Go’, and the system produces what it believes to be useful answers.”

KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Databases), mostly used as synonym to Data Mining

22

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Information Pyramid • Data Warehouse comprises a thematic, integrated time
Introduction
Anwendersoftware (AS)
Information Pyramid
• Data Warehouse comprises a thematic, integrated time
varying non-volatile data set
• Separation of operational data from warehouse data
23
• • Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Transactions Business Transaction An interaction in the real world,

• • Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Transactions Business Transaction An interaction in the real world,

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Transactions

Business Transaction

An interaction in the real world, usually between an enterprise and a person, where something is exchanged.

(On-line) Transaction The execution of a program that performs some functions of a business transaction by accessing a shared database, usually on

behalf of an online user.

(P. Bernstein, E. Newcomer: Transaction Processing, 1997)

application state.

T

1

BOT

O 11

(J. Gray, A. Reuter: Transaction Processing, 1993)

O 12

O 13

EOT

T

2

BOT

O 21

O 22

O 23

EOT

A transaction is a collection of operations on the physical and abstract

BOT O 2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection
BOT O 2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection

24

2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
2 1 O 2 2 O 2 3 EOT A transaction is a collection of operat
Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

ACID Properties

Atomicity A transaction's changes to the state are atomic; either all happen or none happen. These changes include database changes, messages, and actions on transducers.

 

Consistency A transaction is a correct transformation of the state. The actions taken as a group do not violate any of the integrity constraints associated with the state. This requires that the transaction be a correct program.

Isolation Even though transactions execute concurrently, it appears to each transaction, T, that others either execute before T of after T, but not both.

 

Durability Once a transaction completes successfully (commits), it’s changes to the state survive failures.

 

(J. Gray, A. Reuter: Transaction Processing, 1993)

   

25

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Transaction Processing (1)

Three Aspects:

 

A transaction executes the activity in our reality or mini world within a computing system. Such an activity typically represents

a

non-trivial step (unit of work) in a business activity.

A (on-line) transaction is the execution of a program that uses database accesses to fulfill the application functionalities.

 

A transaction is a non-interruptible sequence of DB operations

that transforms the given logically consistent database state to

a

new logically consistent database state.

   

26

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Transaction Processing (2) • Examples: Money transfer Seat reservation

Transaction Processing (2)

Examples:

Money transfer Seat reservation Order processing Processing telephone calls etc.

27

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Transaction Processing (3)

 

Transaction Program „Debit-Credit“:

 

Read message(acctno, tellerno, branchno, delta) from terminal; BEGIN TRANSACTION UPDATE ACCOUNT SET balance TO balance + delta WHERE acct_no = acctno and balance >= delta UPDATE TELLER SET balance TO balance +delta WHERE teller_no = tellerno UPDATE BRANCH SET balance TO balance +delta WHERE branch_no = branchno INSERT INTO HISTORY (timestamp, values) COMMIT TRANSACTION ;

SET balance TO balance +delta WHERE branch_no = branchno INSERT INTO HISTORY (timestamp, values) COMMIT TRANSACTION

Write message(acctno, balance,

.) to terminal

 

28

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Transaction Systems (1) • Overview 29
Introduction
Anwendersoftware (AS)
Transaction Systems (1)
• Overview
29
Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Transaction Systems: Characteristics

 

Dialog-oriented: “parameterized” user

 

Few, short transaction types showing a very high repeating frequency

 

Many concurrent users

 

Shared data with high actuality

Short response time, weighted higher than utilization

 

Stochastic request arrival

 

High system availability

   

30

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Examples for High Performance Requirements (1)

 

1.

Banking and Reservation Systems

Throughput of some 1000 TPS with a mean response time of less than 1 second.

 

2.

Telephone Payment System

For each telephone call a user profile has to be read from the DB and a payment record has to be written to the DB. Sometimes more than 15.000 telephone transaction have to be processed per second, response time should be less than 0.2 seconds.

 

3.

Management Information System

Complex queries run on a 500 GB database that at worst need a full scan of the database. The DBMS should support a throughput of 5 TPS with a response time of less than 30 seconds.

 
   

31

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Examples for High Performance Requirements (2)

 

4. On-line Stock Trading Systems

 

Stock broadcast Broadcast to brokers Use a selection profile Brokers might buffer data locally at their PC or workstation

 

Bidding service for stock trading

 

Automatic Processing of ‘Deals‘ searching the DB for acceptable offers refresh of stock values broadcast to brokers associated with that deal

   

32

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Web-based Application Architecture • Special case of Multi –Tier • Based on
Introduction
Anwendersoftware (AS)
Web-based Application Architecture
• Special case of Multi –Tier
• Based on Internet-technology, i.e. TCP/IP, HTTP
• Standard components (Web-Browser/Server, DBMS)
• Customization: Applets, Servlets, database tables
• Suitable for Internet and Intranets
Browser
Web-Server
Database
33
Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
Database 33 Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Data Warehouse System • Business people (marketing,

Data Warehouse System

Business people (marketing, inventory management, …) need to know:

What are the gross sales for an article in each country? What are the gross sales for an article per month? What are the gross sales for an article per quarter?

DW Application Derivation of business reference numbers from voluminous DW databases (Gigabyte range to Terabyte range) Multi-dimensional organization and visualization Business reference numbers support management decisions Pre-aggregation is needed for performance reasons Incremental update of the pre-aggregated data out of the operational databases (over night time)

34

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Data warehouse: basic idea SELECT FROM supplier WHERE supp_date > 040126 AND
Introduction
Anwendersoftware (AS)
Data warehouse: basic idea
SELECT
FROM supplier
WHERE supp_date > 040126
AND supp_name LIKE 'A%'
Query
Reports
Enterprise
Data
Warehouse
OLAP
Data
Mining
35
Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
Data Mining 35 Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Data Warehouse System (2): Architecture source source

Data Warehouse System (2): Architecture

source source source
source
source
source
mapping data system warehouse
mapping
data
system
warehouse

The retail company runs several database systems that capture all the operational data:

one point-of-sale (POS) database per department store one supplier database per country

Broad range of data sources:

Database systems (relational, object-relational, hierarchical, …) External information sources (other companies, surveys, …) Files of standard applications (Excel, …) Other documents (Word, WWW, …)

36

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Data Warehouse System (3)

 

Data mining is the process of discovering hidden, previously unknown and usable information from a large amount of data. The data is analyzed without any expectation on the result. Data mining delivers knowledge that can be used for a better understanding of the data.

   

[ISO/IEC JTC1/SC32 WG4 SQL/MM Part 6 WD, 2000]

Data Mining Techniques:

• Data Mining Techniques:  
 

Association Rule Discovery

{beer, nappies} {potato chips} support = 0.04 confidence = 0.81
{beer, nappies} {potato chips}
support = 0.04
confidence = 0.81

Classification

Regression

Clustering

revenue age #children
revenue
age
#children
revenue age
revenue
age
 

37

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Introduction to Database and Information Systems

 

The Concept of Information Systems Computer-based Information System (CIS) Universe of Discourse Requirements for Business Information Systems

 

Database System (DBS) Properties Example: Relational Model

Classes of Database Applications Information Pyramid Transaction Processing Web-based Application Architecture Data Warehousing

Classes of Databases Non-Standard-DBS Object-oriented DBS and Object-relational DBS Information Retrieval Systems

   

38

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Variations in Object Representation Business Applications • Each object is
Introduction
Anwendersoftware (AS)
Variations in Object Representation
Business Applications
Each object is represented by exactly one tuple instance that
contains all descriptive attributes
39
Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Variations in Object Representation (cont.) CAD Application • A complex object
Introduction
Anwendersoftware (AS)
Variations in Object Representation (cont.)
CAD Application
• A complex object “product (under design)“ consists (or is
assembled) of simpler (complex) objects, each perhaps
showing a different type.
40
Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Example: Urban Information Systems

(AS)   Example: Urban Information Systems   41 Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)  
 

41

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Classification of DBMS Market (1 of 2)

Simple Data, Simple Queries In the future there might be a query capability, e.g. SQL available.

Simple Data, Complex Queries RDBS: scalable, robust, access based on content and structure. Limited support for complex objects and BLOB data. No indexing, manipulation and value-based searching of BLOBs in RDBS.

CAD CAD, SE multimedia complex object-oriented object-relational DBS DBS DATA file relational systems DBS
CAD
CAD, SE
multimedia
complex
object-oriented
object-relational
DBS
DBS
DATA
file
relational
systems
DBS
simple
QUERIES
complex
sequential
office appl.
processing
OLAP, data
warehouse
file relational systems DBS simple QUERIES complex sequential office appl. processing OLAP, data warehouse
file relational systems DBS simple QUERIES complex sequential office appl. processing OLAP, data warehouse
 

42

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Classification of DBMS Market (2 of 2)

Complex Data, Simple Queries OODBS provides persistent complex objects, which are manipulated by C++, SmallTalk, Limited scalability w.r.t.:

- huge amounts of data

- huge numbers of users.

Complex Data, Complex Queries ORDBS are capable to manage complex data as objects. User defined functions are available to manipulate the data within the server. Data types and functions are extensible.

CAD CAD, SE multimedia complex object-oriented object-relational DBS DBS DATA file relational systems DBS
CAD
CAD, SE
multimedia
complex
object-oriented
object-relational
DBS
DBS
DATA
file
relational
systems
DBS
simple
QUERIES
complex
sequential
office appl.
processing
OLAP, data
warehouse
file relational systems DBS simple QUERIES complex sequential office appl. processing OLAP, data warehouse
file relational systems DBS simple QUERIES complex sequential office appl. processing OLAP, data warehouse
 

43

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS) Example of an Object-Relational Data Model (1) • Integrated Content Search and
Introduction
Anwendersoftware (AS)
Example of an Object-Relational Data Model
(1)
• Integrated Content Search and Management
SQL supports the management of both conventional and non-
conventional data
A query might refer to all kinds of data at once
User-defined data types and functions can be employed
• Query Example
44
Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Information Retrieval Systems (IRS) (1)

 

Tasks / Properties

 
 

Management of documents, books, abstracts etc. Efficient search in voluminous datasets Typically only retrieval in multi-user environments

 

Data Structures

 
 

Unformatted (perhaps semi-formatted text data) Ambiguity: synonym and homonym problem Usage of a so-called thesaurus (complex organized dictionary):

 

consists of relationships among (technical) terms in the dictionary used for document indexing

 
   

45

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Information Retrieval Systems (IRS) (2)

 

Interface to IRS

 
 

No formal data model Retrieval language only close to natural language

Search

 
 

Queries are mostly fuzzy Nearest neighbor, best match, pattern matching, Result assessment via precision and recall

 

Usages

 
 

Libraries Literature inquiries (perhaps via Internet) Information services (chemical sciences, etc.) Patent information systems

   

46

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

The Big Picture

 
   
 
   

47

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Introduction Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Summary

Basic Components of Computer-based Information Systems

 
 

Database systems Transaction Processing system (TP-Monitor, DC-System)

 

DBS Technology

 
 

Management of persistent data Efficient access Flexible multi-user mode Concepts:

 

- Data Model and DB Language

- Transaction Processing

All critical execution steps in a CIS are processed by transactions showing ACID property

 
   

48

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Anwendersoftware (AS)
Anwendersoftware (AS) aa Anwendungssoftware ss Chapter 2 Realization of Information Systems 1 Chapter 2: Realization of
aa Anwendungssoftware ss
aa
Anwendungssoftware ss

Chapter 2

Realization of Information Systems

1

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS)

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS)
2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS) 2. Realization of Information Systems • Shortcomings

2. Realization of Information Systems

Shortcomings (Disadvantages, Limitations) of File Systems

DBS Requirements Operational Data Control System Enforced Integrity Ease of Use High Degree of Data Independence Efficiency

DBS Architecture Historical Evolution Five-layer Model Three-Schema Architecture (ANSI/SPARC Architecture) Dynamic System Behavior Application Programming Interfaces

2

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS)

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

The Use of Files to Realize Applications

 

Simple Operations on File Systems

 

redudant data

 
file 1 file 2 P1 P2
file 1
file 2
P1
P2
T1
T1
file 3
file 3
file 1 file 2 P1 P2 T1 file 3 Management: create/drop, open/close Access: read, write •

Management: create/drop, open/close Access: read, write

Different kinds of File Organizations

Structured files

- Directly accessed files (entry- sequenced, relative)

- Associatively accessed files (key- sequenced, hash)

Unstructured files (byte stream)

Concurrency Control?

Need for communication on updates
Need for communication on updates
Need for communication on updates
Need for communication on updates

Need for communication on updates

   

3

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS)

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Short exercise: ACID in file systems

 

How would you implement the ACID properties using a file system?

A

C

I

D

   

4

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS)

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS)
2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS) Shortcomings of File Systems (1) • Redundant data an

Shortcomings of File Systems (1)

Redundant data and inconsistency

data integrity problems different files with different formats duplicated data in different files inconsistency

Difficulty in accessing data

hard to meet requirements that are not anticipated file systems do not offer convenient data retrieving

Integrity problems

no support for checking and ensuring consistency constraints

Atomicity problems

no support for ensuring atomicity of changes

Concurrent-access problems

read-write, write-write conflicts

5

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS)

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS)
2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS) Shortcomings of File Systems (2) • Security problems not

Shortcomings of File Systems (2)

Security problems

not everybody should be able to access everything

Lack of Isolation between Data Structure and Program Structure

Need to Solve Same Tasks in All Application Programs

Storage management Data management Update service (change service) Retrieval Security and access control

Assumption:

Everything remains stable! Nothing can go wrong!

6

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS)

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Data Independence

 
   

7

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS) Historical Evolution of DBMS (1) 8
Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems
Anwendersoftware (AS)
Historical Evolution of DBMS (1)
8
Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS) Historical Evolution of DBMS (2) 9
Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems
Anwendersoftware (AS)
Historical Evolution of DBMS (2)
9
Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS) Historical Evolution of DBMS (3) 10
Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems
Anwendersoftware (AS)
Historical Evolution of DBMS (3)
10
Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS)

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems

Anwendersoftware (AS)

Chapter 2: Realization of Database Systems Anwendersoftware (AS)
 

Database System Requirements (1)

 

1. Operational Data Control Sharing of data Eliminating redundancies Enforcing of standards for data storage and management

responsibility of database administrator (DBA)

2. System Enforced Integrity Restricting unauthorized access (data protection, data control) Enforcing logical integrity constraints

(= ensure that the data reflects the true state of affairs)

 

Enforcing physical integrity constraints

(= protect against the loss of data from media faiure)